Yenisei 1200 1nm harvester – description and features

Yenisey 1200 1nm combine harvester

Combine Yenisei 1200 is a multifunctional, unpretentious and modern machines which are characterized by high maintainability and simplicity of construction. The machine is equipped with a powerful diesel engine and reliable transmission which has proven itself in everyday life.

The Yenisei 1200 family includes many models, which differ in the properties hidden in the name. There are the following names:

  • The letter M is an upgraded version;
  • Letter H – modification for non-black-earth regions of the country;
  • Letter P – tracked model, usually used in the rice fields;
  • Letter z – type of drum tooth;
  • Letter SH – PIN version of the drum;
  • Number 1 – number of threshing drums.

The Yenissei 1200 1NM is a popular intake cutterbar with a modernized design. Against the background of other representatives of the family it differs in its technical properties. Currently, the modification is considered the most common throughout the territory east of the Urals.


The Yenisei 1200 family has a rich history. The combine harvester was developed, taking into account the experience of the “Niva” series, which at the time was the most common in the country. Designers of the Krasnogorsk plant and the State Agricultural Institute in Novosibirsk worked on the development of the new product. The first rehearsals were tested directly in the field, and their parameters were compared not only with domestic competitors (the “Niva” family), but also with foreign analogs. As a result, the third class harvester with high threshing power even in high humidity was developed. The working conditions of the operator in the novelty became more comfortable. The first models of the family appeared in 1981 and their characteristics exceeded all analogs available at that time. Initially, the equipment was produced exclusively at Krasnogorsk plant, then the geography of production expanded.

The popularity of the Yenisei 1200 series had a simple explanation. Machines of the family had a simple and durable design with a high level of service, spare parts for them were very cheap and repairs could be carried out on the spot. In addition, the engines of the harvesters worked fine on poor-quality Russian fuel. Over 34 years, several dozens of harvester modifications appeared, and the basic Soviet harvester was transformed into a European level machine.

The Jenissei 1200 1hm is a powerful machine for harvesting fields with high and medium yields. During operation, grain goes into the hopper and straw is collected in the loader and thrown on the field. This model is suitable for harvesting oilseeds, pulses, grain, corn and grass seed.

Technical characteristics


  • Length – 10490 mm;
  • Width – 5340 mm;
  • Height – 3950 mm;
  • Minimum Venderadius – 7800 mm.

Functional Features:

  • Throughput – 6 kg/s;
  • Capacity per hour of working time – 9-10 tons;
  • The volume of the hopper – 4.5 cubic meters;
  • Diameter of the head of the package – up to 6000 mm;
  • The width of the reception opening – 2750 mm;
  • Straw shaking area – 4.4 sq.m;
  • Cleaning area – 3.6 sq.m;
  • Cutting height – 50-180 mm;
  • Number of drums – 1.

The maximum transport speed of the combine is 20 km / h, the maximum operating speed – 8 km / h.

Weight of Yenisei 1200 1nm without attachments is 9750 kg.


The power unit of the combine is located on the roof of the threshing center just behind the bunker. The engine is mounted on the main frame with shock absorbers. Yenisei 1200 1nm is equipped with 2 types of inline engines:

1. 4-stroke diesel compressor series D-442 (Altai Motor Plant). Characteristics:

  • Working volume – 6.3 liters;
  • Rated power – 140 or 170 hp;
  • Number of cylinders – 4;
  • Average fuel consumption – 50 l/h;
  • Fuel tank capacity – 450 liters.
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Yamz 236dk2

2. 4-stroke suction gregat yamz 236dk2 (Motorsenwerk Jaroslawl). The engine is more modern and surpasses the products of the Altai plant in power and efficiency. The engine is equipped with a liquid cooling system with forced circulation, which is driven by a pump. A belt is used as a drive which transmits the rotation from the crankshaft wheel to the pump’s belt drive.

  • The working volume is 11 liters;
  • Nominal power – 185 hp;
  • Number of cylinders – 4;
  • Average fuel consumption – 30 l/h;
  • Fuel tank capacity – 300 liters.

The engines work in a similar way. The power is transmitted to the crankshaft and then to the thresher on one side and to the chassis, water pump, hydraulic pump, blower and diesel generator on the other side.

Design and service functions

Among the main components of the model Yenisei 1200 1nm should be highlighted:

  • A front harvester, which provides a semi-automatic connection between the conveying center and the body and copies the surface topography in the transverse and longitudinal direction;
  • 2 main fans with air power divider;
  • 2-stand disc cleaner with enlarged separation surface and pressurized loading;
  • Subsequent device from drum-type device.

The Jenissei 1200 1hm is equipped with a threshing drum, which makes it more versatile and more compact. Thanks to this feature, the technique can be used on fields with a small area and irregular shapes.

The undercarriage of the Yenisei 1200 is a robust design with a reinforced front axle, which can be carried on wheels or crawler tracks. The main elements are mounted on it. The Yenisei 1200 1nation is available only on wheels. If the customer wishes, the equipment is equipped with 16.0-20 tires with increased cross-country ability or 28LR-26 tires.

Two types of reducers are used for Yenisei 1200 series: mechanically and hydraulically driven. The mechanical reducer is installed on the drive axle and has a classic design with a clutch and planetary gears. Its operation is based on the interaction of gears. The clutch is located on the input shaft and is permanently engaged. Obligatory elements of the mechanical transmission are the locking mechanism and the first wave brakes. As a rule, cheaper versions are equipped with this type of transmission.

The hydrostatic transmission, which is produced abroad, is usually used for the Yenisei 1200 1HM model. It uses a hydraulic motor, a two-stage reduction gear and gears. This version of the transmission is more reliable and efficient.

The Yenisei 1200 1nm hydraulic system can be used to control lowering and lifting of units, operation of drums, camber and motorized plummet movement and some other units. Reviews of this element are exceptionally positive, the camber is virtually docked with it. In the model Yenisei 1200 1HM, the hydraulic system is also used to control the speed of the machinery. The presence of a suction and hydraulic cylinder ensures smooth movement of the machine. The steering of the machine is very comfortable. At the same time, you can use the design features to turn the steering wheel with the power steering pump and the unused engine.

The combine is equipped with disc brakes of split type. The brakes are controlled by pedals.

The electrical system of the Yenisei 1200 1HM harvester is made in the form of a classic wired network with a voltage of 12 V. “Minus” is connected to the body. The system provides the operation of headlights, windshield wipers and lighting, which is installed on the cab. In addition, power is supplied to the signaling devices and the dashboard.

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Yenisei 1200 1nm is equipped with a large amount of mounting hardware. The combination kit comes with the following devices:

  • Ear cutter transition;
  • The slicer in the form of a drum with knives and palette. Its operation is carried out by means of a belt transmission. For chopping straw into crumbs the mill is used;
  • An articulated whorl, which is hydraulically compressed;
  • Extractor, which forms rollers of previously laid straw.

At the same time, the harvester can work with one of the straw processing units.

The technology is ideal for use in Russia.

The advantages of Yenisei 1200 1nm:

  1. Inexpensive. The domestic product is much cheaper than European and American counterparts.
  2. sufficient productivity;
  3. reliable engine with a simple design;
  4. University and a large series of fasteners;
  5. high maintainability;
  6. ability to work on any surface, including rough terrain.

Disadvantages of Yenisei 1200 1nm:

  1. Low reliability. Combine breakdowns are quite frequent, but experienced operators cope with them quickly due to the simple design of the devices.
  2. low productivity;
  3. low efficiency when working in regions with a humid climate.

It is quite problematic to buy a new harvester Yenisei 1200 1nm. There are quite a lot of models, and the price varies markedly depending on the condition. The model of 2007-2009 costs 0.9-1.2 million rubles, versions of 1989-1992 – 160-250 thousand rubles.

Combine “Yenisei 1200”: technical properties

Combine Yenisei 1200: technical characteristics

Those who grew up in rural areas remember: the most common harvester in the USSR was the SK-5 “Niva” of the Rostov plant “Russelmash”. True, that was in the European part of the country. “On the other side” of the “Uralberg” the most mass grain harvester agricultural machine should be the combine “Yenisey-1200”.

It has been produced since 1981 and, considering the experience of the “Niva”, was developed and was not only inferior, but in many ways superior to its important “classmates”.

Krasnoyarsk plant produced 16535 Yenisei for the 1986 record! Many of them are still working in the fields today.

The history of “Yenisey-1200” combine harvester

Yenisey-1200 and its system today

No wonder: Yenisei-1200 is equipped with extremely unpretentious and surprisingly reliable diesel engines, which easily work on low fuel; and the whole structure of the combine is characterized by simplicity, durability and a high degree of maintainability. At the same time, spare parts are advantageously different, and repairs can be carried out directly on site, without resorting to the services of service specialists. That’s why these harvesters, both those produced in the 2000’s and even those produced in the 1980’s, still have a long and “full of achievements” working life.

The modifications of Yenise ya-1200 and its more compact “brother” – with the letter “950” and trademark “Ruslan” – in our years will still be produced in limited numbers. But not in Krasnoyarsk, but on the facilities of the Cheboksary Promtractor.

Yenisei-1200 and its factory today

Krasnoyarsk MPZ suffered the fate of many glorious enterprises of the Soviet era, which by the will of fate ended up in places attractive for construction and sale of large residential complexes. In 2013, the enterprise was closed, and its 20-hectare site was sold for a major real estate development project.

Descendants of Kommunar, Stalinets and Sibiryak

It’s worth mentioning that Krasnoyarskselmash, the leading company of the industry, was the first in the Soviet Union to start manufacturing a self-propelled combine with a separate cab for the driver. It was the famous SKD-5 Sibiryak, which was produced from 1969 to 1981.

Generally, the history of this glorious company began in October 1941, when the production facilities and technical equipment of agricultural machinery were evacuated to Krasnoyarsk from the city of Zaporozhye. This was planned along with the machines of agricultural engineering named after Alexei Ukhtomsky, which were brought here from the town of Lyubertsy, the basis of the future KZK.

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During the Great Patriotic War Krasnogorsk mechanical plant produced mortars, ammunition for them and artillery bullets of various calibers. However, on April 13, 1944 the first combine “Krasnoyarsk commander” came out of the working gate, and by the day of victory on May 9, 1945 there were already produced 350 such towing agricultural machines.

The beginning of own dynasty of “Siberian bogatyr” was laid in 1947 by the plant with the production of the first in the Union self-propelled harvester S-4 “Stalinets”. It was a significant progress: this agricultural machine did not need a tractor and was operated by one man, not five.

Modifications of “Stalinets”-SK-3 (1959) and SK-4 (1965) were transitional models on the way to the first “best seller” of the industry – “Sibiryak” harvester, which contained all the achievements of this harvester production. Below, and it was the first time in the Soviet Union, the second drum threshing system, which allowed to increase the productivity of the combine by 48 percent.

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Combine SKD-5 “Sibiryak

The tracked twin-drum modification of the “Sibiryak” was invented and successfully introduced to work in conditions of high humidity in rice plantations. These innovative solutions were also developed in Yenisey.

A solid team of scientists from the state agricultural institute in Novosibirsk (now Agrarian University, NSAU) worked on the creation of “Yenisey-1200” together with the design office of Krasnogorsk plant. Prototypes of the new model were tested not in the quiet of offices, but on the fields of pilot farms “Tulinskoye” and “Elitnoye”.

Of course, “Yenisei-1200” was created not only with a glance to the products of Rostov colleagues (combine harvesters “Niva”), but also to the best foreign examples of agricultural machinery at that time. The result of painstaking work was the creation of a fundamentally new harvester third class, which significantly reduces grain loss, and threshing can be effectively carried out even in high humidity or with stacks of grain – regardless of capricious weather.

Compared with “Sibiryak”, the working conditions of the combine harvester have improved greatly: a much more comfortable cabin, better visibility and a fundamentally new location of levers and pedals made it easier to control the combine and reduced fatigue of the harvester.

Technical characteristics of the “Yenisei-1200” combine harvester

The “1200” in the model designation indicates the width of the threshing chamber in mm. Accordingly, the “Yenisey-950 Ruslan” model of 2003 was a more compact modification of the all-union bestseller, designed for use on small farms at the fields with difficult topography.

Technical characteristics of the Yenisey-1200 combine

The main technical characteristics of “Yenisey-1200” combine are as follows:

Overall and dimensions

  • Overall dimensions: (length-width-high), in mm: 10500-3800-7500;
  • Curb weight: 9700 kg;
  • Grain tank capacity: 4500 l;
  • Capacity: 9000 kg per hour;
  • Diameter of each drum – 550 cm, rotational speed – 1250 rpm;
  • Cutterbar handle: 5 to 7 m, height of cutting head: 5 to 18 cm;
  • Discharge auger capacity – 17 kg per second;
  • Straw walker: four keys, length of keys – 2820 mm.

Engine of the combine harvester “Yenisey-1200

There are three types of diesel engines installed on the combines of this brand: “D-442/50”, D-442/57-I and YAMZ-236/DK-2. These are in-line four-stroke and four-cylinder diesels with an extensive working tool. Their power rating is respectively: 145; 170; 185 hp.

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Tank capacity – 300 liters. More modern YMZ engine is not only more powerful, but also more economical than its predecessors, and has a larger torque capacity.

Yenisei engine is located right behind the grain hopper, on the threshing floor. The engine is mounted on the main frame with a special shock-absorbing system. Water radiator is equipped with additional cooling system. The driving force is transmitted to the threshing mechanism on one side of the crankshaft and to the hydraulic pump, chassis, fan, water pump and diesel generator on the other side.

Characteristics of transmission, gearbox, controller

“Yenisei-1200” is equipped with hydraulic power steering. In addition, all the main units of this agricultural machine are effectively controlled by hydraulics.

The hydrostatic drive of transmission provides ease and accuracy of control, a smooth, soft ride and the best maneuverability among the “classmates”.

Low-pressure tires of the Yenisei increase the contact area of the wheel with the ground, improve traction force of the combine and reduce fuel consumption. Hydraulic cylinders and metering pumps ensure smooth operation.

The design features of the running combine are such that the steering wheel is easy to turn even when the engine and the hydraulic pump are idle (this feature is noticed by all those who have experience of working on “Yenisei”).

As for the transmission, the Yenisei has both hydraulic and mechanical variators. Depending on this, the driving axle of the combine also changes.

Yenisei combine: overview of the workplace

As mentioned above, when working on this model, not the last task that the designers solved was to equip an ideal, modern workplace of the combine operator. Firstly, the cab itself became much larger; along with a soft and ergonomic combine operator’s seat, an additional folding seat for the steering wheel was added.

The task of increasing the comfort of this workplace and increasing visibility was solved by the following design features of the cab:

  • The ceiling and side walls of the cab are finished with muffler material. The ceiling is softer, the side walls have reliable seals and windows.
  • The cab is equipped with a ventilation system with a continuous supply of filtered clean air. If desired, it is easy to attach a self-made cooling radiator to this system, which is well known in the combine environment and is widely used by folk craftsmen both on “Niva” and “Yenisei”.
  • The steering column is equipped with the possibility to adjust its angle of inclination.
  • It is possible to install the factory cab heater/cooler.

Grain harvester Yenisei-1200

The main active unit for the crops mowing and windrowing, as well as in any combine harvester, in “Yenisei” is the reaper. When developing this main harvester unit the designers of this combine tried to solve the problem of easy copying of all the irregularities of the landscape on the road, excluding the objectives of reducing losses and eliminating the risk of brain fracture.

The Yenisei uses a wide-cut Mist-10 roller. Reaper’s reel is eccentric, 5-lobed, 2x sectional. Drive in the right support zone is from the gearbox, through chain circuits and wedge variator. Lifting/lowering of coders is carried out by four hydraulic cylinders working synchronously.

During the direct work in the field, the combine is supported on the ground by two supporting wheels, which in combination with the spring-type balancer mechanism ensures a quality copying of the field relief.

Combine harvesters of “Yenisey” modification.

Model “Yenisey-1200” became a “classic” – versatile and highly productive, designed for large areas and in any weather with a fighting two-drum thresher.

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But farming has changed a lot. Small farms have been replaced by huge collective farms; the fleet of agricultural equipment has significantly decreased, the workload has increased. Since the release of the first series of combined “Yenisey” in the early 80’s, based on the results of their operation in different conditions, the following changes in agricultural data were developed and produced:

  • Yenisey-1200/1, as well as “1M” (modernized), “1nm” (for non-black earth region)-a compact model with a 5-meter combine, a single combine dresser and an autonomous selection device.

Combine Yenisey-1200-1nm

  • “Yenisey-r”, as well as “RM” modification on caterpillar-track, for harvesting rice, soya and other legumes, sunflower, grain crops in swampy ground or marshy places. threshing drums – pinned, not beaten and not; Solo – safe – increased activity.

Combine Yenisey-1200-RM

  • “Yenisei-n” – modification, created especially for non-black earth zone, with wheels from T-150K tractor on the driving axle and on the steering axle with wheels with extended tires.

Combine Yenisey-1200-N

  • Yenisei-950/960 is the latest modification of the Yenisei combinations, which best meets modern realities: compact and economical.


As the results of 2000-2003 research of scientists of Novosibirsk State Agrarian University in the farms of the region showed the greatest economic effect in harvesting with an average of 20-30 centners per hectare (which corresponds to 80 percent of the fields with grain crops in Russia) it was achieved on the combination “Yenisey-1200” and “Yenisey-950 “Ruslan”.

Explanatory experience on the combine “Yenisey-1200”: advantages and disadvantages

The use of these combinations made it possible to harvest grain cleanly and with minimal losses. At the same time it turned out that the use of Yenisey-1200 on small areas, small fields is inefficient: this model was created for large farms and requires large runs.

Opinions about “Yenisey-1200” harvester “from the first hands”, that is from the owners of farms and combines, are as follows. Everything is relative. Imported combined “John Dir”, “Claas”, “Case”, “Sampo”, etc., of course, are preferable to “Yenisei” in all respects. Apart from the main thing – economic efficiency, they do not meet the modern Russian realities (high price and long payback period; complicated design with low maintenance and the need to go to dealers for each repair; high cost of spare parts, etc.)).

The comparison with the “NIVA” is also quite ambiguous. Bakers note that the “Yenisei-1200” is generally more modern, productive and comfortable than the “NIVA”. Moreover, the Yenisei equipped with YAMZ engines has shown its best side. True, the fuel consumption of Yenisei is higher than that of their Rostov counterparts: as they say, one has to pay for the pleasure. Another, even more serious problem is the difficulties with original spare parts. The Rostselmash factory has a well-developed dealer network in the Russian regions, and all the necessary spare parts can be purchased quickly and inexpensively. The liquid Krasnoyarsk company has nothing of the kind. The saving grace is that most of the Niva parts can be adapted to Yenisei as well.

Experience of Yenisey-1200 combine harvester operation

Buying a used combine harvester “Yenisei”: peculiarities of selection

You can find many ads on the Internet about the sale of used harvesters “Yenisei-1200”. The price of the machines ranges from 150 000 roubles for a overhauled combine harvester from the end of the 80th to 1-1,2 mln roubles for a relatively “fresh” models, produced in the middle of the 20s. Such offers are often accompanied by the sale of additional attachments and spare parts for this agricultural region. The final price depends on the technical condition, equipment and the presence or absence of documents for a particular harvester.

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