White fly: all about the pest
White fly is an annoying and mysterious insect that causes serious damage to indoor, garden and greenhouse plants. Its white wings are usually visible to the naked eye, but the pest is under the leaf, and therefore goes unnoticed.
Description of the white fly, its reproduction
The white fly is one of the tiny sucking parasites. It looks like a cream-colored moth with a small 1-2 mm body covered with a transparent waxy plaque that resembles flour. The female lays grayish eggs on the underside of leaves, which are attached to small stems. Under favorable conditions, the female lays 300 eggs per season, 10-20 eggs at a time.
The hatching greenish larvae have an elongated shape, a sensor, and three pairs of legs. Having found a cheap place to feed, they attach and lose their motility, resembling whitish scales. Most often they choose young leaves, but when large numbers are placed on other parts of the plant. Their sugary excretions are dangerous in that they are a breeding ground for sooty fungi, which clog the leaf columns and prevent the passage of sunlight. It is the larvae that do most of the damage. They gradually increase in size and go through several fungal stages. In the last stage, the white coating with which the larva is covered hardens. It is ready to turn into a butterfly.
The development cycle is 3-5 weeks.
In a plant infested with whitefly, the leaves wither and the buds become deformed. Breeds on fuchsias, jumpers, begonias, converts and pelargoniums (pelargonium), but can affect other species as well. In greenhouses, it settles on cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers.
Species of whitefly
There are more than 100 species of this parasite, known in many regions. The most harmful are:
- Tobacco fly. An all-eater, it even eats grasses. Distinguished by the tilt of the butterfly’s wings.
- Greenhouse or greenhouse. Fertile, resistant to poor conditions. The body of the adult is yellow.
- Citrus. The butterfly has a symbol similar to the letter “y.”
- Silkworm. The larvae are black with a white border. Often found in citrus.
- Cola. Other plant beads develop in its absence.
- Surroundings. Settles on cotton and melon crops. Has a gray body and black stripes on the wings.
- Strawberry. Prefers berry plants (strawberries, raspberries, etc.).
- Giant. The largest butterfly up to 5 mm in size. Dwells on roses, tomatoes, trees, and ornamental shrubs.
- Honeysuckle. Front wings are flattened. Dwells on grapes.
- Iris. Also prefers gladiolus. Transitions to other flowers if none are available.
- Ash. The caterpillar has a small border on its body, with droplets of wax on the ends. Damages trees and shrubs.
- Bark beetle. The larva is black with a waxy crown on its head. Lives in oak forests and chestnut groves.
Causes of whitefly damage
How the pest got on the plant is quite difficult to determine. It can be brought in by a clothed person along with purchased seedlings through an open window, etc. If the conditions in the room are favorable, it immediately begins to multiply. It needs heat and high humidity, which is especially characteristic of greenhouses and nurseries.
Active reproduction of the parasite begins in the second half of summer, when hot weather sets in. Mostly dense plantings where air movement is hindered are suitable for it. The high reproduction rate of this pest requires regular inspection so as not to miss its appearance and to start treatment in time.
Means and methods of whitefly control
Squirrelflies harm plants and carry dangerous viruses: curlew, jaundice, chlorosis. Methods of control are based on creating conditions that prevent its active reproduction. The effect will be higher if you use a comprehensive approach to treatment and consider the following recommendations:
- In the open ground: biological and chemical preparations are best. Control the toxicity.
- Indoors: biological and folk remedies for humans.
Mechanical removal of white plaque
This method is applicable if there are very few plants. As you understand:
- Coating the leaves with glue, which attracts the appearance of adults. Fly tape is sometimes used instead.
- Collecting mosquitoes by hand is a time-consuming process, which is perfectly acceptable.
- Rubbing and spraying with a soapy solution.
The following companies make them: Feromon, Argus, Bona Forte, etc. Traps are yellow leaves made of paper or basinac, which are covered with a special glue. It is colorless and odorless and non-toxic. Pests fly on the color and stick. Many kinds of flying vermin are caught.
You can do it yourself. Take a square sheet of paper, wood or composite material, paint it bright yellow and apply castor, oil jelly or a mixture of rosin and honey. Place with the help of specialists over the plants:
- 1 pc. per 0.1 sotka;
- Indoors – on each window.
Aqueous solutions are shown, with which the plants are sprayed or wiped.
purpose of use
Biological preparations and chemicals
The combined use of these preparations helps to get rid of pests completely or significantly reduce their number. The following effective preparations are used:
- Neonicotinoids: Actara, Confidant. Contact-acid action with a variety of activity. Act quickly and for a long time. Affects many species of insects. Spread throughout plant, but do not accumulate in fruits. Medium toxic to humans and animals, but poisonous to pollinating insects.
- Pyrethroids: Decis, Bio- or Gol d-Funke, Caesar. Act on adults and larvae. Acts by contact and ingestion. Cannot be washed off by rain. Broad spectrum of action.
- Phosphorus: Fufapon, Actellic. Safe for people and animals. Odorless. Quickly neutralize.
- Old proven carbophos. Long lasting, very effective. Treated with protection products. Cannot be used more than twice in a season.
- Dichlofos. Characterized by not high price. New modifications do not have a strong odor. Toxic, so it is best used only if other means do not help.
- Insecto-acid (newer biological preparations): Vermitex, Fiteverm. Control of pests, regardless of their location. Causes paralysis. Plants tolerate it well. The crop can be harvested in 2 days after treatment.
To enhance the effect, dishwashing liquid or laundry soap is added, which allows the preparations to adhere better to the leaves. It is necessary to follow the available instructions strictly in order not to harm yourself and others.
Mr. Dachnik advises: Preventive measures to protect against whiteflies at home and outdoors
To prevent a whitefly attack, you need to take preventive measures. In the garden and vegetable garden:
White flies in the garden. Causes of appearance and methods of control
Every gardener is familiar with small white insects that parasitize on plants in the garden. This is a whitefly. It likes to settle on indoor plants and in greenhouses. This is facilitated by high humidity and frequent watering. In the open ground is rare, but outbreaks occur when breaching the conditions of plant cultivation. It occurs most often on vegetable crops, such as tomatoes, cabbage, strawberries, and peppers. A seemingly harmless insect can turn into a real disaster for plants and their hosts.
Gardeners do not immediately recognize the threat, because whiteflies are very similar to aphids. They feed on the sap of the plant, which leads to the weakening and reduction of the plant’s immunity. And this, in turn, leads to the death of seedlings. Preventive measures, as well as the timely detection of the pest can help.
Signs of whitefly in the garden
The novice gardener may confuse the whitefly with aphids, but if you look closely, you can see a significant difference. The whitefly is slightly larger and has pronounced wings. If you shake the plant, a cloud of tiny mosquitoes rises.
The female hides her clutch under a leaf and looks like a cluster of white dots. The peculiarity of whitefly is that it is prone to rapid reproduction. If this process is not stopped in time, soon the entire plot will wither under its onslaught. Throughout its life, the insect secretes a sweet consistency that covers the leaf, causing the formation of dark spots. Thanks to its wings, the pest quickly spreads to neighboring plants. In apartment conditions, it is not even possible to move the plants to the next room, as the whitefly flies in search of new food.
The larvae develop gradually. At the end of their development, they turn into pupae. Pupae are bright yellow cocoons, from which adults later hatch.
The photo shows a white fly.
The photo shows an accumulation of midges on the back side of a leaf.
Causes of appearance
The most favorable conditions for the reproduction of insects are high humidity and warm air. Therefore, the greenhouse, where it is always moist and warm, is under threat. Outbreaks occur in hot summers with frequent rains. Small mosquitoes cannot withstand a sudden cold snap. Temperatures below 10 C already create problems for them. But the eggs are naturally adapted to maintain the species and calmly tolerate the cold in the ground.
The appearance of whiteflies in the greenhouse is guaranteed by the following factors:
- dense planting;
- violation of ventilation and temperature regime;
- Lack of preventive measures to control pests;
- Lack of regular use of fertilizers that strengthen the immunity of plants;
- Spraying of plants in the greenhouse.
The annoying and dangerous pests are fought in different ways. For some people are acceptable only folk remedies that have no chemicals and are safe for humans, and someone sees no other way out as a quick extermination of mosquitoes with insecticides and chemicals.
The peculiarity of treatment with poison is regular repetition of the procedure until the complete destruction of whiteflies. The fact is that the poison acts only on larvae and adults, and there are no eggs. Therefore, repeated spraying is carried out to kill the larvae that have hatched before their ability to reproduce.
Remember that toxic substances accumulate in the vegetables and eating them can be dangerous. Therefore, you should adhere to the proportions specified by the manufacturer, which are described in the instructions that come with the insecticides.
Choose the safest preparations for treatment and adhere to the instructions when diluting the solution
“Admiral.” This is a low-toxic preparation used to kill insect pests. It is available as a concentrated emulsion. It is used in diluted form at the rate of 0.2 l/ha. Consumption of the working fluid “Admiral” is 1000 l/ha. The treatment is carried out once.
“Aktara”. Treatment with this drug helps to get rid of whiteflies for up to 1 month. The treatment is repeated three times after 7 days. Vegetables can be eaten only 60 days after the last application of “Actara”. 1 sachet with 4 g diluted in 5 liters of water. This is enough for a large area of u200bu200bt greenhouse. For eradication, spraying and watering is carried out under the root.
“Applause. It can be used both in greenhouses and in the open ground. Japanese insecticide allows to get rid of one insect in 1 month. It is diluted in 0.5 kg per 1 ha. Treatment of 1 hectare requires 1500 liters of water.
“Familiar. Sufficiently effective drug, so one treatment is enough. In an hour the mosquitoes begin to die.
“Golden spark.” These are tablets that are easily dissolved in water. It is also available in the form of ampoules, powder and sticks. A solution of 2 ml per 10 liters of water is prepared and plants are sprayed. 1-2 treatments of “Spark of Gold” are enough.
“Tanrek”. Very effective and low-impact substance that practically does not accumulate in fruits. To spray vegetables and indoor plants, you need to take 5 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water, for trees and shrubs 3 ml. When working with tankrek, safety precautions must be observed, so it is mandatory to wear respirators or face masks.
“Fytoverm. Diluted 4-8 ml per 1 liter of water, depending on what to spray and from which pest. The treatment is carried out several times to destroy all adults and those that hatched after treatment.
“Fufanon. Low-toxic drug is diluted at the rate of 10ml per 10 liters of water. First, the solution is added to a small amount of water, and then poured into the rest. The working solution of “Fufanon” is prepared 3 liters per 10 sq. m.
Mechanical methods of control
Gardeners, trying to protect their crops from whiteflies, set traps. They look different. Non-resistant glue is applied to cardboard or plastic. The glue mixture can be made yourself by taking honey, castor oil, petroleum jelly and rosemary. The smell of honey attracts the vermin and they stick to the surface of the trap. Sticky tape for flies can also help.
Another effective method is the device of fumzators from mosquitoes and flies. The disadvantage of this method is that it is impossible for people and animals to work in the greenhouse while the founder is working. The treatment is carried out after 7 days to destroy the larvae that have hatched from the egg.
Nets are also another way to protect plants from insects. Install special phyto nets that keep the adult from reaching the plant. No additional chemicals are used and the vegetables remain environmentally friendly.
Sulfur smoke bomb is designed to “fence” the room. The checker is used to kill not only the white fly, but also other parasitic insects. Smoke not only destroys pests in the garden, but also scares away newcomers. Dichlorvos also works, which can be sprayed on plants. With the help of dichlorvos, not only the white fly is destroyed, but also other pests.
Gardeners and gardeners on their small plots prefer to cope with the invasion of the parasite by folk methods. The advantage of these methods is the absolute environmental friendliness of fruits.
- Rubbing with water can be called an effective method. But this method is only suitable for indoor plants and a small number of seedlings. A sponge is taken, moistened with water and it wipes the leaves. The method is tedious, but you know for sure that you have removed all the larvae.
- A composition of water and laundry soap is made at a ratio of 1 part soap to 6 parts water. Water the soil, but not too much, so as not to damage the roots and the plant. Repeat after a week.
- Garlic tincture is made from 2 large garlic cloves and 1 liter of hot water. Allow to infuse overnight and then you can spray.
- Tincture of shabar is prepared in an amount of 90 g of leaves per 1 liter of water. Allow to infuse for 2 days and then spray the plants. Repeat 3 times a week.
- Tobacco solution. Experienced gardeners recommend using “Prima” cigarettes. Pour the tobacco from them into a glass and pour water. Allow to infuse for 5 days, strain and spray. Repeat the procedure until the mosquito has completely disappeared.
- Tincture of dandelin is prepared from 40 g of leaves and 40 g of roots, which are crushed and poured with water. Allow to infuse for 4 days, strain and treat the plants.
- Ammonia alcohol is diluted at the rate of 35 ml per 1 bucket of water. Treat with ammonia every 3 days.
- Birkenther is included in tar tincture. Dilute 5 ml per 10 liters of water.
- Vinegar solution is made as follows: 5 tablespoons are taken per 10 liters of water. Vinegar essence.
Encarsia in the fight against the white fly
This is a parasitoid wasp, which is bred specifically to control the white fly. The little insect feeds on mosquitoes so it doesn’t have to resort to using chemicals. It eats up to 100 whitefly larvae in stages 3 and 4 (puparium) in its lifetime.
Thus, there are no varieties that are resistant to the white fly. If only varieties with high immunity. Therefore, when buying seeds, you should choose those that are highly resistant to the insect.
Resistant tomato varieties include: “Fluffy Pink F1”, “Fluffy Red F1” and “Algol F1”.
Video review on whitefly control at home
Reviews of gardeners on methods of controlling white flies in the vegetable garden
What I did not only to save the strawberries and potatoes. I tried almost all folk remedies, because I didn’t want to do without poison. The effect is short-lived, apparently, larvae or eggs remain. It helped to defeat smoke bombs and mosquito coils. Mountains under the plants in the morning.
Advantages: economical option.
Disadvantages: short-lived effect.
I spread sticky traps between cabbage, strawberries and strawberries and stick them. The effectiveness is low, but in my small area it helps control the extent of the problem and defeat the mosquitoes.