How to propagate grapes: techniques available to every dacha owner
In order to plant grapes on the plot, the easiest way is to buy a seedling, provided your shortage is not observed these days. But where do seedlings come from in the market, how and from what do they grow? After all, it is very easy to breed a seedling of grapes and at home.
The main ways of propagation of grapes
Like almost all shrubs, grapes can be propagated both by seeds and vegetatively. Seed propagation is not used at home, as it is much more difficult to propagate by cuttings or grafts. In addition, it is difficult to predict in advance which varieties will grow from seed, so vegetative propagation is mainly used in breeding.
In most cases, practicing grape growers use seedlings from cuttings. Somewhat less commonly, propagation by various types of rootstocks, that is, with tendril load, as well as grafting onto adult grape bushes of another, frost- and disease-resistant variety, is used. In the case of vegetative propagation, the new plant is superior in all properties to the bush from which the cuttings, a long piece of vine or even a single bud for grafting were taken.
Propagation of grapes by cuttings: a method accessible to the beginner
The most commonly used method of grape propagation is the preparation of sentenced cuttings and their roots. It is so simple that it can be recommended to novice gardeners. Simple does not mean “by yourself”; you have to work hard and hard. To begin with, you need to bring somewhere or buy cuttings of the variety you like and start this interesting process.
Flower stalks are usually harvested during the fall pull or a little earlier – if the leaves have already stopped being green, that is, the vegetation is coming to an end, and the shoots, as far as possible, have matured and hidden. Leave the preparation of cuttings in the spring is not possible: it is unknown what will happen with the weather in the winter, how successfully the bushes will survive.
Sending cuttings, do not forget to sign.
The best quality cuttings are obtained from the middle part of the vine: the top usually does not grow completely, and in the lower part there are only a few strong buds. Fully ripe vine breaks with some bending, but does not break. Curtocks are cut “from one edge”, i.e., with 5-6 eyes, although in the spring they need half as many. It is better if the diameter is at least 5 mm, and the shoot from which it is cut will be at least one and a half meters long in summer.
In most cases, cuttings are required only at the end of winter, and until then they need to be properly preserved. You can store them in the refrigerator if you have the space, but it is more convenient to keep them in the basement. The best temperature is about +1 Celsius. Before sending them to the basement, cuttings are soaked in a 1% solution of iron sulfate and for a day in clean water. Stored in plastic bags and leave only the top outside. In the winter, check the integrity and if necessary rinse or just shake out of the recognized form. In the case of drying, they are worried.
Plant cuttings directly into the open ground
In the warmest regions, you can plant clumped cuttings directly into the garden. Sometimes they are planted immediately after the fall works, only slightly covered with dry leaves or spruce twigs. If you plant the cuttings in good soil, with the beginning of the spring heat, they will grow a little and start to grow. To do this, cuttings with 3-4 buds are almost completely buried in the ground in autumn, so that only a bud was above the ground. But until spring, this bud is covered with earth. To preserve heat and moisture, the resulting mound is often covered with polyethylene film, and in the spring, a hole is made for the growth of a young shoot. When it gets warmer and the stem begins to throw out and grow leaves, the film is removed and the mound is replanted.
In the garden, awns are planted more often in the spring. In central areas, the probability of such propagation is low, and in March, when the ground warms up to 10-12 ° C, cuttings are planted the same way as in the fall. After serious preparation. First, cuttings taken from the basement are disinfected, then both ends are cut and soaked in clean water for several days.
Then the scythe is made just under the bud at the bottom, and the top is cut 2-3 cm just above the upper bud. They are placed in a glass, watered to a height of 4-5 cm and kept in a warm place until the roots stick together. Water is regularly changed and topped up, so that the level remains constant. When the water temperature is 25 to 30 ° C and the tops of the cuttings appear on the surface of the water below 5 to 7 degrees, white corms are left in slings for three weeks.
The roots are not allowed to grow, and if the weather permits, cuttings with a base of roots are planted deep in the garden. With this option, it makes no sense to make the cuttings short: you can plant 6 buds, the roots will be stronger. When planting obliquely, two buds remain above the ground in the spring. Water well and keep it moist. If frosts are still possible, cover with lightweight materials.
In the garden, it is better to plant cuttings with small roots.
At first, the cuttings grow roots, but the leaves blossom almost immediately. And if you start very warm weather, prostrate (one or two, no more, even if they appear), they will quickly grow. In the fall, good seedlings grow from cuttings. If the cuttings were immediately planted in good soil and a previously dug planting hole, you can leave the plant here. But usually it is transplanted to a permanent place and prepare a hole in advance.
Growing a Stecklingen seedling at home
As a rule, grapes from cuttings begin to propagate at home, especially in the climatic conditions of the middle zone. Do it in a variety of substrates and very often instead of garden soil use wet sawdust. In general, there are many ways to breed Stecklingen seedlings, and everyone chooses the most, in his opinion, appropriate. Work begins in February. The pieces are unpacked, disinfected, washed, and checked to see if they have a good winter.
The bark on the slings is slightly abolished. If it is alive and can give life to a new plant, green tissue remains under the bark. A different color guarantees no success: the cuttings have not overwintered.
Cuttings are cut from good cuttings: this is the traditional name for cuttings with three buds. We will not introduce unnecessary terms, they will stay with the cuttings, especially since good buds need to blossom two. If you leave more than three buds, you will have to use whole buckets, in home conditions it is not necessary.
As already mentioned, an upper and lower incision is made: lower oblique, upper straight, and cuttings are placed in a water bath (snow bath is best) for 2-3 days. Well-soaked cuttings can in principle be planted immediately in prepared containers with substrate. Most likely, you will all grow there. But for reliability, it is often done differently:
Around the bottom bud attach several flat longitudinal scratches.
The scratches can be made with any sharp tool.
Roots appear at the water/air boundary
More convenient than pots – one and a half-liter plastic bottles with a cut, narrowed top. Only in the ground you need to make a few holes to remove excess water and lay a drainage of small pebbles or coarse sand. The best soil is a mixture of river sand and good garden soil (1: 1), but some amateurs get along with sawdust, only they must first be poured with boiling water. The continuation is as follows:
- The substrate is poured into the bottles so that the stem with roots protrudes a bud above the container.
- Carefully pour the substrate, without breaking the very delicate roots. With three buds, the middle one remains at the floor/air boundary. If there are two, the top should be about 1 cm above the surface.
- If the leaves have not yet opened, cover the plants with plastic bags.
- Place the containers on a lighted windowsill at room temperature.
- Water periodically, but in moderation: watering is more harmful than temporary overwatering of the soil.
- After a few days, when the leaves begin to grow, put a jug of water on their height and gradually bring the cuttings without the bag.
- If the window is directed to the north, lighting is added after the development of leaves: order over the grape luminescent or phytolamp.
- A month later, cuttings are fed according to the instructions with preparations “Novofert” or “Azofoska”.
- Feeding is carried out closer to summer, for which the future seedlings are carried out on the balcony. From the middle of May, they can already be fully placed on the balcony.
Do not worry if the shoots will not be long: the main thing is that the roots are strong.
It is worth noting that the first part of the described work is not mandatory. Many amateurs plant cuttings in a container with substrate and without roots and already multiply there. On the one hand, this option is easier, on the other hand – more difficult: it is necessary to monitor more strictly the humidity, light and temperature regime. In addition, there are varieties of grapes that poorly form roots, and such a number will not pass for them.
Video: Germination of cuttings in sawdust
Propagation of grapes with green cuttings
Propagation of seedlings from green cuttings is possible for most shrubs, it also applies to grapes. On the one hand, it is an easier procedure: it is carried out in the summer and it does not need to start at home with banks, and there is no need to store cuttings in the basement in the winter. On the other hand, propagation of seedlings from green cuttings is possible only if there is a good greenhouse, in which it is necessary to maintain a high and constant humidity for a long time. Therefore, such multiplication is more suitable for industrial tree nurseries, which have special devices for creating an artificial fog in a limited space. The algorithm of actions is as follows:
- Prepare a bed in the greenhouse. A layer of clean sand with a thickness of 4-6 cm is poured on the well fertilized soil.
- Above the bed set the fogger with a sprayer for intermittent supply of finely atomized water.
- In early summer, during flowering, cuttings are cut from young green shoots in the morning. The best cuttings are with two nodes (it is still difficult to call them buds) from the central part of the shoot.
- Cuttings are placed in containers with water. If immediate planting is not possible, store in a cool place.
- With a sharp razor, make straight cuts above and below the nodes.
- The lower leaf is cut off completely, the upper one in half. The cuttings are again soaked in water for some time.
The cuttings should have two internodes, but only one leaf.
So, the essence of this technique is that the planted cuttings are constantly in conditions of high humidity (about 80% and up to 100% in heat) and air temperature of 20-30°C. Then, after a month and a half, good roots appear and shoots up to 30 cm in length grow, after which the cuttings are hardened and then transplanted into a school. Obviously, the propagation of grapes with green cuttings in normal suburban conditions is extremely difficult, but enthusiasts try, and some succeed.
Video: germination of green cuttings in home conditions
Propagation of grapes by drooping vines
Many shrubs are propagated by cuttings, that is, by dropping branches (shoots) in one way or another. This option is also possible with grapes, and if successful, several new seedlings of grapes can be obtained in one summer in this way. In this way, one usually tries to propagate hard-to-root varieties. Since the future seedlings actually feed on the roots of the mother bush, they will develop well and form their own powerful root system.
Throwing out the woody shoots
This usually occurs in early spring, before the beginning of the growing season. Well-positioned, powerful last year’s shoots are selected. In the right place, dig a fairly deep, up to half a meter, ditch extending from the bush to the place where the vine will be buried. Of course, it should not be deep directly on the bush, so as not to damage the roots. In the ditch at the very bottom pour well fertilized soil with humus and superphosphate and lay the offshoot. It should be carefully bent so as not to break, and can be attached to the bottom of the trench with a bent thick wire or simply pressed with a heavy stone.
It is not difficult to propagate the vine, but it must be done carefully so as not to break it.
Where the new bush will stand, the vine is carefully bent, taken out and tied to the stake. All eyes from the mother bush to the place of this bend are removed. Many specialists tighten it with a wire at the very beginning of the shoot, near the mother bush, so that next year it will be easier to separate the new plant. The ditch is gradually filled with soil and well watered. Usually, within a year, good roots grow in the buried place, and the next spring the new plant is separated from the mother plant.
Planting green shoots
In summer, in June or July, you can bury the vigorously growing green shoots of the current year. Do it in a similar way by bringing the top shoot with two to three leaves to the surface. If the shoot is very long, it can be buried in a “sine wave” and brought to the surface several times. All parts that remain underground should be secured to the bottom of the trench with dowels.
If you do not let the soil dry out in the summer, by the next spring in well-rooted varieties in this way you can even get some new bushes.
Carrying out “Chinese” stratification
Chinese shifts are those that are carried out by laying a hidden shoot completely on the floor. This is done with poorly rooted varieties. In early spring, a long shoot, which is at the very base of the bush, is selected. It is buried along its entire length in a ditch no more than 20 cm deep. Also in fertilized soil, also to the bottom of the ditch. But the trench is not filled completely: the layer of soil over the vine first make no more than 5 cm. And only when new shoots appear from the buds, and their growth is gradually pressed into the bottom of the ditch. All this time the vine is kept moist.
Usually new shoots grow from each dug up baby; in the fall, the vine is carefully dug up and cut into several new plants. To do this, it is necessary to sacrifice part of the harvest and reduce the load on the mother bush. It is necessary to break out not only additional bunches in the summer, but also all the stems and some of the young shoots.
Video: Planting a green vine in the ground
Propagating grapes by grafting
Like most fruit trees, grapes can be grafted. Conducting grafting is no more difficult than, for example, with apple trees, but not all varieties are compatible, and in any case, success is not guaranteed. Therefore, before the operation, it is advisable to study the literature, according to which mature bushes can be grafted with one or another variety. If you have not found such information, then it remains only to experiment.
Grafting grapes is as common as grafting fruit trees
For grapes, all known methods of grafting are used (cleavage, copulation, hedge, etc.), but the number of options is even greater. These include grafting with last year’s cuttings, and cutting from the current year’s shoots. And for breeding, and on the last year’s shoot, and on the current year’s shoot. Therefore, the terminology applies accordingly: “black on black”, “black on green”, etc. There is even a table – winter grafting.
So, for example, grafting “black on black” is carried out in spring, when active vegetation has not yet begun. Cuttings are cut in autumn and stored in the cold in the form of a cone. For such grafting, the buds of cuttings should be slightly swollen. It is carried out by copulation method. Select cuttings suitable in thickness to the shoot of the rootstock, soak, make oblique cuts on the cuttings and the rootstock, connect and tie the seed place. When new shoots grow on cuttings up to 25-30 cm, they are pinned.
When grafting with “Black in green” preparation of the previous year, cuttings are grafted with awakened buds on young strong green shoots of the current year. Such grafting is usually carried out by “split grafting” method. Throughout the growing season, as long as there is a possibility to get hidden cuttings, which are prepared in the basement in autumn.
Also grafting is possible in the trunk of an old bush, when digging the top layer of soil in early spring. Cuttings are grafted under the ground, usually by the method of “breaking in”. This is done at a depth of about 15 cm. The cuttings are completely buried in the ground.
Video: grafting grapes into the trunk
Grafting, that is, grafting by a bud, is carried out on a green vine in June or July. In addition to fruit trees, it is possible to graft the buds into the shoot behind the bark, making various cuts: T-shaped, longitudinal, in the gap, etc. The place of grafting is very well packed with film, and after a month or two, the bud will well break through.
A detailed description of methods of grafting grapes is beyond the scope of this article, but it is quite accessible. After every gardener with only minimal skills of working with trees and shrubs, reduced and trained, Grapes can be grafted.
Grape is a liana, but in fact it is very similar to many fruit plums, and it has the same propagation techniques as currants. The goal of getting a new seedling can be achieved in a certain way: germination of cuttings, rootstock, grafting. Performing all these operations to some extent is accessible even to the beginner, and if at first it is frightening, you just need to try.
Multiplication of grapes
The easiest way is to breed wild or maiden grapes. It can be planted directly in the ground, it is unpretentious and cold-resistant. Decoratively, there is usually a thick shoot, it is bred and transplanted in steps. With cultural table and technical varieties of grapes, the situation is much more complicated, but even here you can choose the best way.
You can propagate grapes:
- By grafting;
Seedlings are recommended to buy from a nursery or mail order. However, if grapes are already growing on the plot, you can try to get your own from chubunks.
Propagation of grapes with cuttings
Chubunks are better to prepare in the fall, with regular pruning of the vine, it is important to have time before the first frosts. Shortened light brown shoots with a diameter of 0.6-0.8 cm and a length of 0.7-1 m are suitable for propagation. They should be removed from a bush that is at least three years old.
During harvesting, they are directed according to the following rules:
- Disinfecting and inflating the secondary unit;
- Chubs are cut from the middle part of the shoots;
- The optimal length of the cuttings is 50-70 cm;
- Each cuttings should have three to five eyes;
- Cut at an angle of about 45°;
- Antennae and leaves are removed;
- Cuttings are dipped for half a minute in a 3% solution of copper sulfate for disinfection (if there is no sulfate, you can use a solution of permanent potassium).
- Then they are tied together with the name of the variety and the date of harvest in a bundle and glue.
Some grape growers still practice shaping chubkas in water to infuse them with moisture.
The material is then kept in a ventilated room with a temperature between 0 and 8°C, and an air humidity of around 65%. It can be a basement or ground floor. The bundle is placed in boxes with sand at least 20 cm from the floor. Seeds are regularly inspected and lazy or moldy specimens are discarded.
In southern regions, a trench method can be used to preserve the pods. A ditch 25-50 cm deep is dug on site, the floor is covered with a film. Chubby grapes are placed in rows and covered with the free edges of the film. A layer of earth is filled on top and the ditch is covered with planks.
If the harvested cuttings are few, they can be stored at home in the refrigerator, wrapped in polyethylene film with a perforated cut for vegetables. Twice a month, testing and drying will be possible.
The most common practice is to store the cuttings in a grapevine ditch.
Cuttings are rooted in February – March. First they are taken out of the cellar or refrigerator and well inspected. There should be no change in the color of the bark, the presence of sites. Then the cuttings are carefully cut off and check whether they have dried out.
Start rooting according to the following scheme:
- The cuttings are soaked for two days.
- Then they are kept in a solution of rhizome or heteroauxin to stimulate root growth.
- The top cut is covered with paraffin to avoid awakening of the buds.
- About 3 cm of filtered water is poured into a 1-liter glass.
- The cuttings are placed. Sap will be released from the bottom cut of the cuttings for some time, so they will need to be washed and changed.
- The jars are placed on a window sill, the air temperature should be + 10 ° C … + 15 ° C and water should be about + 23 ° C.
- When the roots appear several millimeters long, the pods can be transplanted into containers with a soil mixture of fertile soil, river sand, humus. To create a greenhouse effect, they are covered with a cut plastic bottle.
In spring, the true leaves should be closer to the middle, then the bunches can be planted in the open ground. Provided that the air has already warmed up to a temperature of + 19 ° C. Before transplanting, the soil in the container with the grapes is well moistened. The seedling is taken out, immersed in a clay boltushka with roots, slightly dried and planted in a prepared hole for permanent growth.
Rooting of the corms takes 2-4 weeks, depending on the grape variety.
Propagation by layer
Layering is referred to as sulfur shoots that have put down roots. This option is well suited for growing grapes of difficult-to-root varieties.
Layer propagation can be done in a variety of ways:
- green layers under the ground;
- perennial stratification;
- short shoots;
- bush hills;
- air stratification;
- Chinese method.
Avoiding grapes is the simplest and most commonly used method
Green layer method
To propagate grapes by green layer on a healthy, well-fruited bush, one or two lower shoots are selected, the stems are removed, and the shoots are tied to a trellis. When they reach a length of two meters by the end of July, the shoots are placed in a ditch dug under the bush. The depth and width should be about 0.5 m, and the bottom with a slight slope towards the mother cavity. The trench is filled with decompost or compost mixed with soil. Before placing the shoots in this trench, remove the tendrils and leaves on them, leaving some at the end slightly above the soil surface. The seedlings are then covered with soil, lightly tinted, and watered. In addition, their upper ends are tied to pins with 3-4 leaves facing the surface. In the fall, the rooted stratification is separated from the mother bush. Such distribution of bunches in summer allows you to get strong and tall bushes that retain all the signs of diversity.