What are the pests and diseases of grapes?
Growing a vineyard is a matter that requires knowledge and skills. There are various diseases and pests of grapes at different stages of growth and development, starting from the seedling in which the seedling is planted and ending with the fruit processes. More often than not, their appearance is due to improper care of the crop.
Classification of diseases
Depending on the causes that cause diseases of grapes, they are divided into types:
According to the description, the lesion of bacterial diseases occurs at every stage of growth and development of the plant. Chemical, physical, mechanical and biological methods are used to control bacterial diseases in grapes, depending on how the vineyard is affected.
Plants with exposed parts of the grapevine are susceptible to this disease. An air bubble forms under the bark, which eventually enlarges and ruptures the bark. Development peaks in the fall or winter.
Prevention of bacterial cancer lies in reliable protection of seedlings and adult bushes from frost and mechanical damage.
Bacterial cancer in the neglected stage cannot be treated. In the initial stages, plants are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, which increase the regenerative functions of plants.
In addition, bacterial cancer is treated with a solution made from wood ash: 400 g of the substance is spent on 10 liters of water.
Bacteriosis (Pierce’s disease).
This disease, caused by bacteria, affects all parts of the plant. Infection often occurs throughout the bush. Signs of this infection are clearly visible on the fruit. The berries become covered with brown spots and begin to rot and dry out. The causative agent enters the vines through wounds. The peak of development occurs during the regrowth period of bushes.
Prevention consists in quality pruning and protection from mechanical damage by frost.
Grapes are affected by a large number of fungal diseases.
Mildew (irregular mildew).
This is the most common disease caused by fungal infection. Not only the shoots and leaves are affected, but also the fruit. Signs of infection are glaucous circles on the surface of the leaves. Over time, a white powdery plate appears on their underside. Then necrosis develops: the leaves turn yellow, turn reddish brown, wither, and die.
The powdery mildew spreads quickly, spreading to the inflorescences and ovaries. Such a disease is treated with fungicides: Borodos Mix (1%), Coprosa (0.4%) and Polychoma.
Other chemical preparations have also proven themselves in the fight against this disease:
Oidium (true mold).
Oidium is a particularly dangerous fungal disease that affects all parts of the plant, including the fruit. Bushes die if heavily infested. A sign is the appearance of a white plaque on the surface. Then leaves and shoots are covered with black dots that merge and cover the entire plant. Bushes affected by Oidium drop flower buds.
The disease develops in times of extreme heat and drought. This disease of grapes is treated with preparations containing colloidal or ground sulfur.
Topsin, bileton, fundazole or benlite are used to control the lesions.
This disease of grapes is characterized by lesions on leaves, shoots, leafy stems, and bunches. Fruits and brush are infected by the anthracnose fungus and die. In most cases, plants are susceptible to anthracnose before and during flowering. Brown spots appear on the fruit of infected grapes.
The disease spreads to the brush during high humidity: frequent rains in summer.
All affected parts are removed and burned to avoid spreading the disease. The affected plant is treated with a Bordeaux mixture at a concentration of 3%.
Also in the fight against anthracnose, the preparations “Switch”, “Teldor”, “Arzurid”, “Polych”, Copper and Polycarbacin have proven themselves well.
Fomopsis (black spot).
This disease is characterized by affecting both young and adult grapes. Signs of grapevine lesions appear on the first 7 nodes of annual shoots. Young leaves are covered with brown spots, then the spots merge. Leaf plate is marked by a white border.
Berries from affected bushes turn dark purple in color, their taste becomes unpleasant, putrid. Mature vines are covered with a whitish plaque that sprouts deep into the wood. Black spot causes the sleeves to wipe out.
Fighting is aimed at optimizing scavenging and destroying damaged parts. Prevention is to treat plants with antifungal drugs: Bordos liquid, Euparen, Ephal or Mikal.
At the moment.
This disease appears in the summer and affects all varieties resistant to the mild form. This fungal infection is found in August on weakened and old bushes. The leaves first become covered with an olive bloom, then shrivel up and wither. The berries show themselves at the slightest touch.
Measures to control the disease are to remove all infected and withered leaves. Subsequent treatment is carried out by treating bushes with Bordeaux liquid.
This disease is dangerous for both adult and young plants. Initially, bushes with weak immunity are infected. The disease develops in conditions of high humidity and high temperature.
In terms of external signs, this disease resembles oidium. In this case, leaves, shoots and berries on bushes are affected. First, necrotic spots appear, then all parts of the plant are covered with mold.
Control measures are the same as for anthracnose. Spraying with Trichodermin also helps.
The disease appears in the second period of vegetation, so preventive methods of plant protection are carried out in spring. Bushes are treated with liquid or systemic Bordeaux fungicides, which include Ridomil. In addition, during the formation of ovaries, the infected vineyard is treated with the drug “Skor”, “Rapid Gold”, “Quadris”, “Cabrio-Top” or “Colfu Super”.
A dangerous fungal infection that affects shrubs year-round. The fungus settles on annual green shoots and leaves. First these parts of the plants are covered with brown spots, then a gray coating. At the slightest touch, the plaque crumbles like white dust.
In the later stage, the gray rot spreads to the buds, which remain massively smothered or underdeveloped. Gray rot also affects the fruits. They become covered with a gray plaque, wither, and die.
The disease spreads in conditions of high humidity and heat. To treat and prevent the plant, use the drug “Micfle” or “Volpan”. Treatment is carried out in early spring, during ovary formation, and after harvesting.
Some grape growers use folk remedies for this fungus. The gray column is removed with baking soda. Soda solution is used to irrigate the crown of grape bushes during the vegetation period and during the stage of ovary formation.
Rubella affects both white and red varieties of grapes. In white varieties, leaves are first covered with whitish spots, then they become dry around the edges and have yellow borders. In red varieties, infested leaves have light warty color and yellow-green border. Leaves die off and fall off en masse. Infestation by rubella occurs in summer in conditions of high humidity and strong evaporation.
Protection of the vineyard from this sore consists in optimization of care and seasonal treatment of bushes with complex preparations – fungicides.
To prevent the spread of the disease, bushes are regularly fed with organic and mineral fertilizers. Potassium nitrate goes deep into the roots.
Chemical treatments are recognized as the most effective method of controlling rubella. A complex treatment with Bordeaux mixture (1%) and polycarbocide solution (0.4%) is carried out. Systemic fungicides are also used – “Artceride”, “TopSin”, “Seide”, “Strobi” or “Ridomil”.
Viral infection causes great damage to the health of bushes, and also negatively affects the fruiting, quantity and quality of the crop.
This is an infectious shoot degeneration. Deformed vines contain a large number of stems, double knots. Leaves have a dissected shape, contain yellow spots. Chlorosis caused by iron deficiency has the same signs.
Leaves covered with yellowing gradually die off, withering, regulated, the crowning of berries begins.
The causative agent of the disease is a nematode parasite, so preventive measures are aimed at disinfecting the soil with fungicides. In addition, healthy planting material is used to prevent the development of the disease, and sick plants are removed from the site in a timely manner. Planting seedlings is carried out in sterile soil, which also prevents the spread of infection and infection of bushes.
Signs of this disease are manifested in the form of depressed furrows on the roots, trunk or sleeves. It often appears at grafting sites. Grapes affected by the boles retain their height and eventually die.
Preventive measures are aimed at the timely removal of diseased bushes and compliance with all agronomic rules of cultivation.
Clear signs of this disease are the appearance of light yellow stripes along the main leaf veins. The disease appears during the growing season in late spring or early summer.
On bushes affected by live mosaic, mass crowning of flower buds, survival and crowning of berries is observed.
The control of this disease is as follows:
- Shrubs that may have viral parasites on them from the location;
- Treat the soil for the main vector, the nematode, with fungicides;
- Introduce Immunophytopit or Novosil, Immunophytopit or Novosil.
The causative agent of this infection parasitizes in the tissues of the system and clogs the vessels. The peak of development and manifestation of the sore occurs in mid-summer. The leaf plastic curls and turns red, while the veins retain their green color. Older leaves are affected first, then the infection spreads to younger leaves.
Infected bushes become stunted, the growth of vines and bunches decreases, and the crop is delayed in ripening. In mottled varieties, the color of the leaves turns light green.
Preventive measures are soil treatment with fungicides, removal of diseased specimens from the plot.
For the treatment of diseases, biological preparations that increase the immunity of plants are used – Novosil or Immunocytophyt.
As with fruit trees, grapes have many pests. They affect the leaves, shoots, roots and fruits of the plant. The most dangerous of these are:
- Mole crickets;
The mite parasitizes both young and old trees. There are different species of grapevine.
The microscopic insects colonize in the spring and summer during drought and heat waves. The parasites suck the sap from the leaves, causing the foliage to turn brown.
To prevent this, the vineyard is inspected regularly and damaged areas are removed in a timely manner. The best method of control is to spray the aerial part with Neoron, Fufanon, or Acaricide Actlik. Three treatments at 10-day intervals are required to completely eliminate the parasite.
This parasite spreads at a galloping pace. The leafminer caterpillars eat everything in their path: leaves, buds, ovaries, and fruits. All affected parts begin to rot. The bunches have an unpleasant appearance.
To prevent the invasion of the parasite on site, it is worth getting rid of the remains of vegetables in a timely manner. If insects are detected, a comprehensive treatment of the vineyard with insecticides is carried out, followed by spraying again after 10 days. If caterpillars appear, organic preparations are used.
Traveling caterpillars cause serious damage to grape leaves. The black, oblong-shaped insects feed on the juice of the leaves. The vineyard should be regularly inspected for their presence.
A double treatment with Carbophos or BI-58 helps against thrips. Other chemicals have also proven good: Actara and Fitoverm.
A sucking parasite that settles on a plant and forms a fluffy mealy plaque. The insects affect annual shoots, bunches, and leaves. Damaged areas quickly dry out.
It is possible to fight these insects by spraying bushes with insecticides (“Actellic”, “Actara”, “Fufanon”) before the beginning of the vegetation period and after the appearance of 1-2 pairs of leaves on the shoots.
This parasite significantly reduces the yield and taste of grapes. The larvae, tiny moth caterpillars, gnaw through leaf laminae and suck the sap from them. Affected leaves wither, dry out, and fall off.
In the fall, plant debris is removed to prevent deep digging of the site. If insects are detected in the spring, an insecticide treatment is carried out.
Pests and diseases of grapes cause great damage to the entire vineyard. To prevent them, optimize plant care, ensure regular watering, feeding, and periodically inspect for them. By following these simple rules, you won’t have to use any chemicals to save your gardens.
Grape pests and grape pest control
Grapes are a serious problem for gardeners. They damage all parts of bushes. With serious damage, the insects weaken the plant, due to which various infections develop, leading to the death of the culture. To save the crop, you need to know which parasites pose the greatest threat, how to prevent their appearance or destroy them.
Quarantine zones are created with high prevalence because it can destroy hectares of plantings. It has a second name, grape leaf louse, because it resembles this insect.
All biological forms of phylloxera pose a threat to culture: larvae (vagrants), nymphs, winged and non-lethal adults.
Detecting the grape moth on a tree with the naked eye is problematic.
The translucent yellow-lemon or greenish insect is 1-2.5 mm in size.
There are 2 varieties:
- The larvae pierce the leaf plate of the vine and suck the sap. Because of the special secretion contained in the parasites’ saliva, the greens become deformed and galls (hats and tubercles) appear, surrounded by hairs. Vagrants live in these formations, turn into adults, produce shoots, and die. New larvae infest neighboring leaves. This species of phylloxera survives the winter on boles and in perennial sleeves in the egg stage.
- Root – affects the underground system. It weakens fungal, viral and bacterial infections. The diseased roots stop developing, and the tree eventually dies.
Insects are difficult to destroy, but still possible. Combating them involves:
- Ornamental plants, top roots.
- Treatment before planting: Bi-58, Karbofos, Fufanon. Seedlings are placed in a solution of drugs, then 24 hours incubated in polyethylene bags.
- Treatment with Fastacl, Actellic (2 times during the vegetation period). The first manipulation is carried out when buds open at the level of 2-3 leaves. The procedure is repeated in July.
The treatment is carried out according to the scheme described in the drug leaflet.
The pest enters by wind, water, animals and birds, through garden tools, with infected seedlings.
There are different species of mites that affect fruit trees, and their description:
- The grape spider mite is a yellow-grass-colored insect, 0.4 to 0.6 mm in size. It actively develops at temperatures above +15°, which does not fall for several days. After a week it begins to destroy greenery. It is almost impossible to notice spider mites. Damage of bushes can be determined by whitish canary-like plaque and lightened spots on greens. Plates wither, the plant dies.
- The stem borer is 0.2 mm. Crested patches, covered with snow fluff, form on greens. They become brown, scanty. This leads to delayed development of bunches, greens, arrows, tendrils. Soon the grapes die. Itching appears on seedlings and neighboring bushes.
- The grape leaf is no more than 0.15 mm. In the winter time of the year nourishes the buds, which leads to their damage. Weakened and curved shoots appear on them, which is often mistaken for the consequences of frost. Because of the lesion, the leaves curl and deform, giving the impression that they are cut with a blade.
What you can treat, the most effective options:
- Before the buds swell – 5% solution of cranberry strictly according to the annotation.
- When symptoms appear, spray the leaves with BI-58, Actellic, Neoron, Granmayt. Repeat the treatment two or three times with an interval of 1.5-2 weeks.
- The entire growing season is sprayed with 2% solution of Fozalon and Karate.
For prophylaxis, weeds are pulled out in autumn and plant residues and plant material of diseased plants are burned.
Grapes surprise 3 varieties of this insect:
The grape moth is a medium-sized moth with a wingspan of 2-3 cm, dark brown in color with a copper tint, with 2 depressed, almost black stripes. Crypts change color from green to brown. They begin an important activity during the swelling of the buds, feeding first and then moving on to the remaining parts. The natural enemy is extreme heat.
The plaque brooch is 12-15 mm long. The wings are light lemon with a dark brown trapezoidal stripe. Caterpillars have black head, body changes shade of pale grass to purple-red. They eat the ovaries and flowers and then move on to the fruit. Moths of this variety can destroy up to 80% of the crop during the summer.
Wings are reddish-brown, with a mottled pattern. Wings reach a length of 1-1.3 cm. Caterpillars are soft, voracious, moving around all parts of bushes. They can be recognized by sticky cobwebs.
It is possible to treat grapes against these pests:
- Tokutionm. Trees are treated 4 times during the growing season. Emulsion for spraying is diluted in the share of 0.6-2 l/ha. This drug is also dangerous for beneficial insects (ladybugs, OS, etc.).
- Zimbush. It is available in concentrations of 10% and 25%. Prescribed rates are 0.7-0.9 l/ha (10%) and 0.26-0.4 l/ha (25%). Used three times a season.
- Eco Mix. Working rate: 1.5-2 l/ha. It is used five times during the season, the last time 40-45 days before berry ripening.
During flowering, the preparations cannot be applied.
This is an overnight feast from the woodworm tree. The large dark gray or brown moths have a wingspan of 6.5 to 9 cm. They have black numerous dots and lines. Crips survive the winter in perennial shoots. In spring, they penetrate deep into the wood and damage it. In these places, the bark dies off, and sap leaks out of the holes with the excrement of the pests. In May, the insects are pushed outward; the butterfly years begin in early June. Female can carry up to 800 eggs. The clutches are pink-red with a definite odor.
The following measures should be taken to prevent insect infestation:
- Treating bark damage with horticultural varnish;
- Coating the boles with a mixture of clay with casein glue (200 g per bucket), carbophos (90 g per 10 liters);
- White washing with emulsion protection of trunks or water base before wintering;
- The rights are inherited by breeders.
If the pest does appear on trees, medicinal preparations help to cope with it:
- Bitoxybacillin (60 g per 10 liters of water);
- Lepidoside (25 g per bucket);
- PhytoMusm (20 ml per 10 liters).
To help kill insects, you can attract natural feathered enemies to the garden.
This is a large brown beetle with marbled shade overlays up to 7-8 cm long. The larvae burrow deep into the ground for the winter.
After warming and gathering snow, they rise and eat the rhizome. They are distinguished by their white body and black head and strongly developed needles. Just 2 individuals in a season can destroy an entire bush with an annual role.
To reduce the beetle population, they must be harvested by hand. The following products have proven themselves as business products: Grom-2, Bavaria, Diazinon.
If the grapes look and white fluff appeared on them, it is an attack of powdery mildew beetle. The damage causes the leaves and classes to lose their appearance.
If it appears, the old bark should be cleaned and burned off. If the pest is abundant, the following preparations help: Actara, Actellic, Spark Goldenara, Confident. Treatment should be started at the beginning of May, when working females lay eggs.
Fight the ants, which are the dealers of this pest. For example, pour boiling water on the ants.
To summarize, I would like to add that grapes can also be affected by white flies and zycad, but less often than the above pests. Biological preparations “Akar”, “Akarin” and “Iskra” help to cope with them.
Snails or snails can appear in high humidity. Mechanical collection and sodium salt powder helps.
It is also worth mentioning OSAs and birds, which are helpers, pollinators when grapes bloom and when fruits appear by pests. To control OSAs, traps are used to keep birds from coming to the bunches, which use a net.
All pests in large numbers can destroy a large amount of crops. Therefore, prevention, timely detection and extermination of pests is very important.