Preparation for the winter of the vineyard in the Moscow region. How to cover grapes for the winter in the Moscow region
Preparation for the winter of the vineyard in the Moscow region. How to cover grapes for the winter in the Moscow region
Snowy winters in the Moscow region are the work of local gardeners. Deep snow cover provides grapes with a comfortable wintering, but only for covering, which build hosts and come up with materials. Three types of protection are popular among vineyards:
- Suspended earth.
- Underground protection.
- Full protection, which ensures the preservation of the root system.
Near Moscow gardeners use the most reliable – complete.
- Earth and snow. They prepare a ditch according to the size of the grape rays, lined with spruce branches (to heat and from mice) the vine. On top, the soil is gently tossed in. The fallen snow will complete the good deed. It is only necessary that the layer of snow is significant, at least 30 centimeters. You may need to think about snow retention for this, or collect snow from the plot yourself and transfer it to the grapes.
- wooden boards. Shoots are laid on boards, and shields are placed on top. Such a “house” from the inside can be additionally insulated with roofing material. The method is good for small garden schemes. If there are many grapes, there will be difficulties with the wood.
- Agrovolok. It is easy to lay it, but it will require additional insulation with a spruce branch, and in thawing it will have to be removed so as not to propagate the plant.
- Homemade means: slate, burlap, polyethylene, etc. It is used to cover the trench with shoots. The earth is thrown on top.
It is recommended: to withdraw the earth to isolate the bushes from the plantings, so as not to expose the roots. In the suburbs, it is better to make a cover in three layers: 15 cm of garden soil, 15 cm – organic, 25 cm – loose. Autumn recultivation of the soil under the plantation ensures easy absorption of moisture and reduces the probability of frosting of the grapes. If the winter is not snowy, a large cover is not required. But collect snow for grapes additionally from the plot.
How to cover grapes for the winter in the Moscow region. Cover grapes for the winter in the Moscow region
Cover grapes for the winter in the Moscow region
Sometimes dacha owners with schemes in the Moscow suburbs do not plant grapes. They explain this by the harsh climatic conditions for a heat-loving plant and the complexity of covering. But in fact, it’s not all that difficult. Growing grapes in the Moscow region is quite real and affordable. Let’s reflect on the important points.
A very important stage. The gardener faces the following tasks:
- Competently choose a grape variety. Each crop has varieties that are ideal for a particular region. So, for the Moscow region, it is necessary to choose grape varieties, which will calmly tolerate a drop in temperature. For example, “Laura”, “Vostorg”, “Kuban” or “Kodryanka” are considered to be resistant to cold.
- Choose a place for the vineyard and planting. The plant does not like areas that are strongly blown by the wind. In a quiet place and strong protection is not necessary.
- Decide on the depth of planting grapes in the suburbs. Planting should be deep enough. Of course, it is unreal to bury a seedling under the freezing soil, but it is better to live with the maximum allowable mark.
- Do not forget to feed the grapes in the fall with potassium fertilizer. In addition to nutrition, serve the function of heating.
- Pay attention in advance to the possibility of protecting the vine. Winters in the Moscow region are covered with snow, which makes it much easier for the gardener to do fall plowing work. And the snow cover saves the grapes before frosts. Before planting grapes on a plot, however, you need to think about materials and design.
How to cover grapes for the winter is a very good way. Order of protection for grapes.
The main purpose of winter protection is to insulate the rootstock. If the vine freezes, the plant can still be revived, but freezing the roots will lead to the death of the entire bush. Therefore, the root should be covered regardless of the method of protection with a floor layer and a layer of mulch at least 5 cm on top.
Methods of identifying the vine
Before the vine can be covered for the winter, the vine must remove the support and lie on the floor. In regions with mild and snowy winters without the risk of breakage, you can put the branch on the floor, in other cases it is worth using one of the options:
- Digging out. The method is suitable for grapes grown in regions with hard or snow-covered winters and in areas not sheltered from the wind. It is optimal to dip the vines with soil. Near the bush you need to dig a furrow 30 cm deep and place the bound vine there. For additional frost protection, the shoots can be wrapped with linen sacking.
- Laying. The laying method is recommended if the soil can thaw in winter due to thaws, and if you mulch it with materials prone to dampness. Vines should be laid on a layer of boards, tree trunks, spruce branches, and tree branches.
Types of protection
Vines on the floor should be placed under an insulating cover. There are two principles of vine protection:
- Wet. Vines are covered with mulch of straw, spruce branches, chaff. The method is relevant when a lot of snow falls in the winter or significant temperature differences. It is usually used in the regions of the middle zone.
- Dry. Grapes are covered with tablets or waterproof materials, and a layer of mulch is placed on top. In this case, the grapes are protected from severe frosts and winds. This method is used in northern regions, where there is no risk of thawing in winter.
Protection of young grapes
The protection of annual bushes and seedlings requires a special technology:
- One-year grapes are low, so the vines should not be removed from the supports. It is necessary to install a framework in the form of a cone around the bush. Its function can be performed by tied or hammered into the ground operations.
- The frame should be covered with agrotechnics or other materials. If the covering is not airtight, leave a gap for ventilation.
- The space between the cover and the bush should be filled with loose mulch of leaves, straw, or spruce shingles.
Given the small growth of seedlings, they can be placed under one shelter made on the same principle. In this case, the frame should take the form of a greenhouse, which strengthens the bow of wire over the plants.
If the gardener accompanies the fall of snow too late installation of the shelter, and the arrival of the Frost, there is a chance that the system is slightly affected. In this case, it is necessary to cover the bush with a half-meter layer of snow.
If the temperature drops severely and the snow falls on wet soil, the vine should be raised above the floor, putting a spruce or planks under it and wrapping it with agrotechnics. A layer of snow should be outlined on top.
In the event of a thaw, the bushes should be covered according to the original plan. If the snow will last until spring, the grapes can safely winter under its protection.
Therefore, prepare grapes for winter in the middle belt. How to cover grapes for the winter? 5 options for preparing for wintering.
A sudden cold snap has a devastating effect on a crop such as grapes. The plant is heat-loving and needs to be protected. I’ve had to deal with fewer crops in the new season. But over time, I have learned how to do my grapes in the fall in a timely manner and have found that only a series of measures can keep the system going.
Why cover grapes?
The purpose of this procedure is to ensure that the grapes are protected from the harsh winter: frost and wind. But the cause of the death of the plant can be even the wrong material for protection. Therefore, I recommend following my advice from this article.
I will start with myself:
– After protection, it is undesirable for the bush to touch the ground.
– During the dip, its root system should not be damaged.
– Especially young seedlings need protection – provide them.
Time of protection: This question cannot be answered unequivocally. I usually guarantee it as a grapevine: the higher the crop, the less resistant to frost. The older the bush, the more adaptable to frost. A young bush requires more attention.
I can say this – if you are sure that the vine is strong, it will be finished with a sharp cold snap. But it will be better if the plants are already covered. I cover grapes after pruning at temperatures no lower than e-12 ° C only from October 10 to 12. At lower temperatures, the vine can die.
What needs to be done before protection?
– Remove all bunches;
– Create gaps for the grapes (Note: Leave 3 vines that are fruiting, left and right, cut off the part that will grow, all unnecessary shoots).
– Water the grapes (up to 20 buckets of water per bush).
How to cover grapes: popular methods
There are 2 methods of protection: wet and dry. 1 implies the construction of special devices (this includes full and half-over, mounds), which have been used for many years. 2 method – the use of improvised means (e.g. straw, spruce, snow drifts, etc.).
Possibilities for covering grapes in the fall
1. Height: The method is excellent for young grape bushes of those varieties that are resistant to frost. But the temperature should not withstand more than e-15 ° C. I do not prune the bush in autumn, but connect the vines in a pile.
I bend it to the ground, put it on a wire and fill the trunk (to form a layer of earth).
The earth from the corridors I remove. I cover the grapes so that the head of the bush and the lower part of the trunk are completely covered.
2. Full cover animals: I remove the branches of the grapes from the trellis. It is very important to remove all leaves and all kinds of formations that are of no use, and trim the branches. After these steps, I only gather the slope into a bundle and press it to the ground.
3. Semi-covering: This method is good for regions with mild winters. It is a protection of the lower part of the bush with earth. The upper part is covered with a film or hay, cloth – whatever you like best. The thickness of such a “robe” on top should not exceed 50 ml.
4. Snow placement: In areas where it snows a lot, this method as insulation is quite easy to use. No other animal shelter is required. The point is this: just hide the vine in the snow (it should not be more than 50 cm). But beforehand, it is better to wrap the trunk with a covering material or cover it with humus for 20 cm.
But the vines should be placed on the prepared boards, and the plants should be fixed with metal clamps. Wind can cause blowing snow, so it should be regularly scattered and compacted.
Preparing Isabella grapes for winter. How to prepare young bushes for winter
Young grape bushes are cared for more thoroughly and aimed at the timely maturation of the vine. Because of active growth, the bush may not have time to mature in time for the onset of cold weather.
Tunnel method of protecting grapes for the winter
Preparing vines for winter for young bushes includes:
- Reduce the intensity of irrigation, which will slow active growth and start the processes of preparing the vine for winter.
- Prune the tops of young shoots by 7-10 cm, which will also slow the active growth of the greens.
Important: Young bushes do not need to fertilize in the fall, as this can provoke the active growth of shoots. Grapes do not have time to prepare for sleep and disappear.
Otherwise, the preparation of young bunches for wintering is the same as for adult bushes:
- Pruning. Fourteen days after the leaves have fallen, grapes can safely be pruned. Remove all weak, damaged branches. Shoots that have not grown to 10 buds are also pruned. Good branches should be trimmed to a height of 10-12 buds. Ideally, two to three healthy branches should be left.
- Treatment. Sick and healthy bushes go into winter with the vine treated against fungus and pests. Suitable for treatment is iron sulfate and copper.
- Protection. For young bushes, it is optimal to use the tunnel method of winter sheltering or covering with soil. With the tunnel method, the vine is pressed to the ground along the entire length of the vineyard, wrapped in material (agrofiber, burlap, foil), which is covered with soil at the edges. For the second method of protection, you must dig a trench along the vineyard 20-30 cm deep, put the young vines there, and fill it in. The top layer of soil over the vine should be at least 30 cm.
Attention! Despite the complexity, covering with soil is considered the most reliable method of winter protection.
Covering grapes for the winter with foliage. How to prepare grapes
Preparing the vineyard for winter is a multi-step process that includes a whole set of measures. None of the items on the list can be ignored:
- After removing the last of the grapes, you should begin beautifying the vineyard. Even if there are no obvious powdery mildew spots, grapes are not affected by oidium or gray rot, preventive treatment against fungal diseases is necessary. Depending on the condition of the vineyard, a treatment or prophylactic is chosen.
- As long as the leaves do not fall off, the vine should be fertilized with potassium, phosphorus and micronutrients. Most fungal disease prevention products are compatible with liquid foliar preparations. Such mixtures even increase the effect of each other.
- On no account should you apply humus, compost or chemical nitrogen fertilizers under the root. The task of the gardener is to prepare the vineyard for hibernation. Nitrogen fertilization provokes growth processes, which on the eve of wintering only harm the plant itself.
- Before the vineyard is winterized, the vineyard should be watered. This is the only case in which an excess of water can not disturb the mature bush – without such watering you can do without it only in rainy autumn. Moisturized soil freezes less, protecting the roots from freezing.
- Before covering for the winter, carry out the covering of varieties of grapes. It is undesirable to hurry with cutting: the vineyard must mature – the outflow of nutrient juices is noticeable in the fruits and sleeves. As practice shows, even in the southern regions the leaves of grapes are subject to frosts. This is a signal to prune the vines for the winter.
Pruning grapes for the winter
Pruning and covering grapes for winter are basic steps in preparing vines for frost. Provided the autumn has been dry, it is also necessary to carefully provide the grapes with water in October.
To strengthen the root system, grapes are given two weeks to rest after the leaves fall. During this time, nutrients from the stem are released to the root. After two weeks, the vine is pruned.
Some varieties of grapes, such as the Amur grape, are kept up to o-40 degrees. In general, ornamental grapes do not tolerate temperatures over e-20 degrees. Therefore, the vine is isolated with the onset of the first frosts. To do this, the branches are carefully removed from the support and placed on the ground.
To protect grape branches from moisture, they are covered with spruce branches, fallen leaves or straw and covered with earth. If you do not have any of the above at hand, you can simply bury the vine with a centimeter layer of earth. Such burying of grapes for the winter protects the vine from frosts.
After the snow has fallen, grapes have additional protection: the snow cover protects the roots and vines from freezing, and thus from the death of the entire plant.
After the snow melts and the establishment of plus temperatures, it is necessary to carefully release the system from the spontaneous ceiling. Spread the branches on the support and tie them up.
Taking care of grapes for wintering in the suburbs
Grapes are considered a heat-loving plant. However, there are cold-resistant varieties that feel fine in climates like those of the Moscow region. If old frost-resistant vines can survive the winter without careful protection, the young shoots need it.
Why cover grapes in the Moscow region?
The harsh climate is not the only reason that makes owners of dachas near Moscow to cover both heat-loving and winter grapes. It has been observed that properly covered vines develop faster than those that winter uncovered.
Winegrowers begin to cover grapes after the harvest and shed their leaves – in the second decade of October or when the air temperature at night drops to a mark u-2 ° C. C.
Regards! According to experts, at this temperature, the development of the system is suspended.
Covering too early can provoke a fungal infection or cause diaper rash. If the gardener starts too late, the vine freezes.
How to prepare a vineyard for protection
Before gardeners cover grapes on the eve of winter, they conduct preliminary preparation of plants. In the Moscow region, they are carried out as follows:
- In the fall, they feed the plants with potassium fertilizers.
- Seedlings from the protection are thrown out of the ground so that they are as deep as possible (this is the only way to protect the greenhouse from frost);
- One-year vines are cut and let the shoots with 3-4 eyes, and if the grape is 2 years old, after pruning leave two shoots;
- After pruning, the vine is removed from the trellis, bent and attached to the wooden cumin with metal staples.
- Make sure that the vines cover the grapes so that the shoots do not come into contact with the floor.
- It is necessary to provide a protected vineyard with a secure exterior snow cover.
Moisture from the ground can cause mold. Building wooden supports is the best way to avoid unwanted contact between the plants and the floor. Materials that can accumulate condensation, such as B. polyethylene or leaves, should not be used as flooring.
Experienced veterinarians believe that old vines should not be removed from the trellis. At the base they are wrapped in several layers of agrofibre. To prevent the shelter from falling apart, the construction is fastened with binding threads, and clamps made of bricks or earth are attached along the edges.
Important! So that the old grapes could safely spend time without covering, at the end of the season it should be treated with preparations containing iron sulfate.
How to cover grapes for the winter in the Moscow region
If we talk about methods of covering, the owners of vineyards use three methods:
- Solid covering. The most thorough and reliable method, practiced by almost all gardeners who have a dacha in the Moscow region. Plants are cut, ducked, fixed on wooden bars and covered completely.
- Partial covering. Only the ground part of the plant is covered. Hay or spinning fleece (agrofiber) is used as a starting material.
- Covering. Plants sprout and erect 25-cm mounds around themselves.
Types of covering materials.
In most cases, cover material is used:
- Earth. This is one of the simplest and oldest types of placement.
- Lapnik. This type of covering material is good because it can be easily removed in the spring, and in the winter it protects the vines by absorbing moisture.
- Ruberoid. Provides grapes before death in frosty but little snowy winters or in the case of a sharp drop in temperature after prolonged precipitation.
- Agrarfather. Ideal cover in mild winter conditions.
Winter protection of grapes in Moscow suburbs begins in the second decade of October.
Earth sheltering is the best option for the Moscow suburbs
Gardeners who create earthen undercovers, always tie grape vines and cover them with a layer of soil 5-10 cm thick after placing the plants on prepared wooden beds.
Important! Preparation for winter begins with the protection of the root system. The room next to the stem is filled with a thin layer of soil, which is taken from the base of the vine at a distance of one meter.
Some breeders find it necessary to insulate the vines before covering them with soil – they wrap them in linen sacking.
Sometimes the soil is supplemented with vertical wooden shields 2.5 to 3 cm wide, so that the vines stand in a “house”, on which a layer of roofing material is placed. During thawing, the roofing felt is replaced with polyethylene, and the base of the top layer is fixed with improvised means – stones, gravel, earth, etc.
After the first snowfall, gardeners make sure that the cover is under a thick layer of snow. If necessary, snow is brought from other parts of the garden and cover the covered grapes so that the cover is covered with a layer of at least 60 centimeters.
Branches of needle fir as a cover
Owners of gardens near Moscow often use branches of conifers as a covering material. Conifers protect the plant from mice, but in the case of warming, which is replaced by a typical winter drop in temperature, you can not protect grapes from frostbite.
Ruberoid and similar materials
Verroir precipitation is protected for greenhouses used for greenhouses or foils, but does not provide proper air exchange. If a gardener wants to build a “house” for grapes from these materials, he will need some concave or straight metal posts.
Metal structures are used to hold the cilia of the vine in a certain position. A layer of roofing material or film is placed on top of the metal structures. The disadvantage of this method is that the cover must be opened regularly, if it turns out that the winter is low-snow or warm.
Important! Experienced breeders have found that the temperature in the shelter, the top layer of which was a white polyethylene film, one and a half degrees higher than under the black polyethylene floor.
Gardeners who kept agrofoil to protect the vines should know that the covering made of this material allows moisture to pass through, which is formed from the melted snow.
Description of the procedure for beginners
Step-by-step process of protecting grapes in the Moscow region for those who are just starting to grow crops:
- After September 10, pruning of annual (leave an eyelash with 3-4 eyes) and two-year-old (leave two eyelashes) vines begins.
- Construction of the shelter can begin after October 10 or after the first light frosts (-2 ° C).
- The base of the stem is covered with soil, which is removed one meter from the central part of the plant.
- Old vines are tied vines and placed on wooden decking, with iron structures (concave metal rods) or improvised means.
- To prevent the plants from touching the floor, they are propped up with wooden stanchions.
- To protect them from the wind, install wooden shields or build barriers of earthen embankments.
- Vines are covered from above in one of the following ways: a) cover them with a layer of soil 5-10 cm wide; b) cover them with branches of coniferous trees; c) cover them with roofing material or polyethylene; d) make a cover of agrovolok.
- In winter (if snow has fallen), it is necessary to ensure that the shelter is under a 60-centimeter layer of snow.
End of wintering: when to remove protection
If the year was cold, the winter protection is removed on the last day of April. Grape growers near Moscow fully open the vines when the floor begins to absorb moisture. As a rule, this period is at the end of April – beginning of May.
When night frosts suddenly begin, grapes are covered with agrofiber.
Important: If the cover is removed before the sap starts to flow, the open buds will not stop, as long as the night temperature does not drop below 3 °C. If the sap movement has already begun, the buds should be kept at least e-1 °C.
After removing protection grapes should be fertilized to protect the future harvest from raids of garden pests (10 tablespoons of salt and 5 tablespoons of baking powder are diluted in 10 liters of water).
Gardeners near Moscow prefer to plant on their plots such varieties as Kodryanka, Kuban, Laura or Vostorg. Even when planting frost-resistant varieties, it is necessary to know how and what to cover grapes in the Moscow region, and take into account that the place under the vineyard must be protected from draughts.