How to treat grapes with copper sulfate?
Every plant can be attacked by harmful bacteria or insects. Grapes are no exception in this matter. In order not to use aggressive chemicals, copper sulfate is recommended for control and prevention.
But in this matter, everything is not as simple as it may seem at first glance. The fact is that for maximum effectiveness of the measure, it is recommended to observe a large number of subtleties and nuances.
Description and purpose
In order to get a healthy vine, grapes are shown a regular seasonal treatment with copper sulfate. This method is one of the most common, since it does not require much financial investment, and the attacks of fungus and other diseases are well prevented and do not allow any effect on the insects.
If the vineyard is located in an area where poor clay soils prevail, spraying is essential to maintain the immunity as well as the vitality of the plant.
It is noteworthy that even cuttings, which are intended for later cultivation, feel much better when pre-planted in a 4% solution of this substance.
Bordeaux liquid can restore the lack of copper, which is so important for the normal development of grapes. But this is not all the benefits of this substance. The positive aspects of such a treatment are as follows.
- It is very easy to spray grapes.
- Sulfuric copper is a substance that belongs to the category of water-soluble. In this regard, problems with making a solution arise for gardeners as well.
- The preparation is active only against insects and harmful microorganisms. It does not penetrate into fruits, so it poses no danger in the form of poisoning.
In addition, treatment with copper sulfate is extremely necessary for grapes, because it can perform several different functions simultaneously.
- Feeding. The substance makes up for the lack of important elements, and therefore stimulates the immune system of the plant.
- Restoration. A solution of copper sulfate is used very often when it is necessary to eliminate diseases with a fungal sign of origin.
- Copper sulfate is often used as a prophylactic, which is directed against the occurrence of all types of diseases.
- Improvement of soil fertility indicators. Treatment or irrigation of the soil with such a solution really has a positive effect on its qualitative properties.
- Grape clusters become more stable when treated with this liquid.
The use of copper sulfate in the garden began several centuries ago and is still relevant today, as the solution really has a strong effectiveness.
Preparation of the solution
The most important step in this activity is the proper preparation of the working solution. The fact is that the success of the entire event directly depends on the quality of this procedure. There are also several important features here. So, to obtain an aqueous suspension, a high concentration of the main active ingredient is required. For 1 liter of water, 50 g of the substance is added. Such a solution has a very strong effect, so it is often used in order to renew old vines.
If spring prophylaxis is planned, the minimum concentration is enough: 1 g of the substance per 1 L of liquid. If it is necessary to prevent the development of fungal infection, it is better to dilute a 3% solution. Deviating from the dosage is not recommended, as in this case you can damage the plant. If everything is very clear with the proportions, then you should pay attention to another feature of this process. The fact is that it is very important to use glassware for preparing the solution. It does not have to be oxidized. Iron and even plastic can react with the active substance.
To quickly prepare a solution, it is advisable to use warm water, as it dissolves the crystals much better.
An important point! In contact with air, the solution quickly loses its properties. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare it a few minutes before its intended use.
How to use?
Depending on the intended use, it is possible to treat the vineyard in spring, summer and even autumn. Copper sulfate is best seen when it is applied in the form of small drops. For this purpose, it is recommended to use special sprayers. For small vineyards, manual devices are acceptable. On an industrial scale, sprayers with a large tank volume are most often used.
A particularly important indicator of treatment is the thoroughness of spraying. Thus, if it is necessary to eliminate fungal infections, it is recommended to spray at least 1.5 liters of ready solution on each large grape disc. At the same time, 3 to 5 liters should be sprayed on the entire bush. If the substance is used as a top dressing, then experts strongly recommend providing soil isolation before treatment. It should be covered with polyethylene, which performs a protective function. Of course, after treatment, the film should be removed.
It is important to adhere to the sequence of actions:
- The treatment should begin with the upper parts of the bush and gradually move to the lower levels.
- It is recommended to treat the trunk and supports in the last place.
- The nozzle of the sprayer should be directed upwards, the device itself should be at a distance of about 20 cm from the plant.
In this case, spraying will be most effective.
Spring treatment should be done as early as possible. The best option is the period when buds have not yet appeared on the vine. After they appear, the treatment is already dangerous, because the future crop is at risk. It is advisable to carry out this action when the average daily air temperature is set at +5 degrees Celsius. In this matter, you should also be guided by regional peculiarities. In southern regions, treatment is recommended as early as the last days of February. For the middle zone, the first ten-day period of March is especially important. In Siberia and the Urals it is better to plan the procedure for the first days of April.
Spring treatment should be carried out taking into account the following rules.
- It is necessary to remove the existing covering material from the vine.
- The branches should be lifted by repairing to the existing trellis.
- The vine should then be dried in the sun for 2-3 days. This will prepare the system for further restoration after winter.
- Next, a 1% solution should be prepared and used immediately.
If for some reason the early treatment did not help, it can be completed just before flowering. A basic top dressing should also be done in the spring.
In summer, when the weather is usually hot, treatment is not recommended because of low efficiency and high risk of burns. On the other hand, it is during this period that the greatest number of diseases spread. In summer, treatment should be carried out in the evening, in calm and cloudless weather. The concentration in this case should not be particularly high.
Autumn treatment with copper sulfate is the most relevant and effective. In particular, old vines after winter shelter need enhanced protection from fungi and other dangerous infections. Such treatment should be carried out after the vineyard has completely shed its leaves. Much depends on the region. In the southern regions, the autumn period falls at the beginning or even the middle of November. In the middle belt of Russia, treatment should be carried out in October.
Before treatment, it is also recommended to make preparations: if necessary, carefully inspect the vines for diseased and dry branches. False leaves should be removed from grape bushes, since they can be a breeding ground for harmful microorganisms. Burnt stems should be carefully tied into bundles, and then treated with a solution that has a concentration of 5%. Since the foliage has fallen off, it is not forbidden to use a high concentration.
Before sending cuttings to storage, it is also recommended to spray them with the solution. This level of prevention is especially important because young seedlings do not yet have a particularly good immune system. They are susceptible to attacks from fungi and other infections, so without treatment, they may simply die.
It is very important not to harm the plant with your actions. In this regard, it is necessary to follow certain rules of treatment. They are as follows.
- In the absence of a sprayer, it is allowed to apply the solution with a special crown of small sticks. But in doing so, it is necessary to ensure that the drops are not particularly large, as from such grape leaves can get quite serious burns.
- It is also not recommended to carry out the treatment in particularly hot weather. The fact is that the substance evaporates rather quickly, not having time to achieve the desired effect. In addition, in this case, the occurrence of burns is not excluded.
- Before treatment, make sure that no precipitation is expected in the next few hours, as in this case, the rain will simply wash away all the substance.
Copper sulfate is particularly toxic to humans and other living organisms. Because of this, it is important to consider the dosage and pay attention to your own safety during treatment.
- During preparation of the solution, as well as during the subsequent treatment it is recommended to use personal protective equipment: rubber shoes, headgear, gloves, goggles, respirator. In addition, you can wear a polyethylene raincoat over your clothes.
- It is strictly prohibited to spray copper sulfate in windy weather.
- It is better to spray in the morning or evening hours.
- Copper sulfate contains sulfuric acid, so in contact with the skin this substance can cause burns. To avoid this even in light contact with the skin, it is recommended to wash the area immediately under running water with soap and water, as well as to conduct additional antiseptic treatment.
- If after treatment the solution has been washed away by rain, the re-treatment can be carried out not earlier than in a month.
If all the rules, precautions and nuances are observed, treatment with copper sulfate is only beneficial for the vineyard.
Copper sulfate – simple and effective means of preventive vineyard treatment
Grape bushes, like other inhabitants of gardens and orchards, need competent care. The arsenal of the chemical industry has hundreds of preparations that improve plant growth and prevent disease. But to keep vines healthy, you can get by with one available remedy: copper sulfate.
Can I spray grapes with copper sulfate?
Before using any product, it is necessary to make sure that it is safe for the plant. Therefore, first of all, let’s consider what copper sulfate is and how it affects the grapevine.
Do not confuse copper and iron sulfate! They contain a different basic trace element.
On the left are crystals of iron sulfate, which helps fight lichen and moss, and on the right is copper, which protects grapes from powdery mildew and Oidium.
Table: Comparative properties of copper and iron sulfate
|Chemical formula and composition||CuSO4 – Copper, sulfur||FeSO4 – Iron, sulfur|
|Appearance||Blue powder, opaque||Blue-green granules, slightly transparent|
|purpose of use||Protection and nutrition, saturation of plants with copper ions. Effective against fungal diseases: powdery mildew, oidium, all kinds of rots||Protection against fungal diseases, soil disinfection, nutrition, saturation of plants with iron ions. Additional use: for fighting lichen and moss|
|application method||Aqueous solution in combination with quicklime – Bordeaux liquid – or aqueous solution of the pure substance||Aqueous pure solution|
Copper sulfate contains sulfuric acid, which destroys steam, rot, stains on bushes and copper, plant nutrition similar to iron, magnesium, chromium and other trace elements. Therefore, copper sulfate treatment is important for the development of the grape bush. However, do not forget that an excess of nutrition is just as dangerous as a lack. In addition, sulfuric copper burns young shoots and leaves, which leads to their death. When using any means, a sensible approach is important – this is the key to success.
When grapes are treated with copper sulfate
In horticulture and viticulture, treatment with copper sulfate is carried out to fight diseases and as a fertilizer. Depending on the chosen purpose, the timing of spraying is determined and the dosage of the drug is selected.
Copper sulfate, as well as other mineral fertilizers for poor sandy soils and peat, is not suitable for fertilizing grapes, not on Black Earth. Copper is involved in photosynthesis and increases resistance to fungal diseases. Disease damage to grapevines is the result of improper nutrition, including copper deficiency. A sign that the plant is deficient in this trace element is the poor development of young shoots and the white coloring of the ends of the leaves. For fertilization, which is carried out on the leaves before flowering, the following dosage is used: 2-5 g of copper vitriol per 10 liters of water.
The lack of copper in grapes is evidenced by white crumbling of the ends of leaves, usually on peat and sandy floors.
Do not allow an excess of copper in the ground: in this case, the growth of the vine bush is inhibited. If it rained after copper sulfate treatment, repeated spraying can be carried out not earlier than in a month.
Treatment against fungi
Sulfuric acid copper is effective as a fungicide: prevention:
- brown spots,
- White spots,
Due to the fact that copper has an acidic reaction when dissolved, the drug stops the development of mycosis.
So that the protective film adheres to the vine after spraying and adheres to the solution to be added. These can be:
- Liquid laundry soap,
- Laundry detergent,
- Non-greasy milk.
A bucket of 100 g of the substance is sufficient. As a result, the preparation remains on the plant, it is not washed away by sudden rain.
Since the resulting coating does not penetrate deep into the branches, special preparations should be used for therapeutic purposes: Ridomil Gold, Strobi, Cabrio Top or similar preparations.
Before planting, a solution of copper sulfate in a concentration of 1 to 3% is used. Such treatment prevents infection with fungal diseases.
Before preventing infection with fungal diseases, soak grape cummings in a 1-3% solution of copper sulfate.
What is the best time to treat a vineyard?
The data for spraying grapes with copper sulfate depends on what the treatment is for. There are three treatment seasons:
- Autumn – primary for killing bacteria and fungi;
- Fed – additionally for disinfection and disease prevention;
- Summer – auxiliary to suppress pest activity.
Based on this, it can be determined that treatment with copper sulfate of grapevine is preferable in autumn, but the importance of spring and the possibility of summer procedures cannot be excluded. Let us consider them in more detail.
Treatment of grapes with copper sulfate in the fall
The procedure is carried out on the string of harvesting and the complete fall of leaves. Depending on the region, this can be both the beginning and the end of November. The main thing is that the bush has already been prepared for winter. In this case, it is no longer afraid to put preparations on the falling leaves. The main thing is to completely water the vineyard and protect the plant from infections. Before treatment, the vine is tied in a bundle along the trellis.
When treating grapes with a solution of copper sulfate in the fall, the vine should be tied in bundles
Before the procedure, damaged branches and fallen leaves should be removed and burned. This prevents re-infestation by pathogens.
The treatment is carried out in the following order:
- 100 g of copper vitriol is dissolved in 1 L of warm water in a glass container. Stainless steel or enameled utensils are not suitable – the drug can react and destroy metal and enamel.
- Stir thoroughly, bring the solution to 10 liters and pour into a spraying container. If it is full, it is better to use a filter, as particles of copper sulfate may remain undissolved.
- They spray the grapes and try to get the solution on the entire vine.
Video: Grapevine Autumn Copper Sulfate Treatment
Treatment of grapes with copper sulfate in spring
In order not to burn the sensitive greens, the procedure should be carried out before the buds open. You can start the treatment only if the temperature stably holds at least +5 ° C. This is an important disease, as copper contributes to the accelerated cooling of plants, which is devastating for buds, young leaves with probable spring frosts.
The procedure is as follows:
- The vines are freed from their winter shelter and lifted above the ground, on which a drying grid is placed.
- After 1-2 days, a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 100 g per 10 liters of water is made in the same way as in the autumn treatment.
- The vine is treated on all sides.
Video: Grapevine treatment with copper sulfate in spring
Grapevine treatment with copper sulfate in summer
Summer treatment is carried out in extreme cases: To avoid using strong medicines when the first signs of the disease are detected. For spraying, weak solutions should be 0.5%, and for lotions on lichen and oidium – 3%.
Copper sulfate dosage for various preparations
Since an excess of copper is dangerous to plants, strictly defined doses are used for different purposes:
- 0.5% – 50 g per 10 L of water for emergency treatment on green leaves;
- 1% – 100 g per 10 liters of water for spring treatment;
- 3% – 30 g per 1 liter of water for steam control;
- 5% – 50 g per liter of water – treatment in case of old powerful bushes.
For vineyards treatment in Bordeaux fluid is more applicable (combination of copper sulfate with lime in the ratio 1: 1). In this case, the concentration of copper sulfate can be increased up to 10%. In order to ensure that the mixture remains on the branches, you need to add to the solution at the rate of 50 g per liter (or grate them and dissolve in water). Treat until the branches are completely wet. Approximate consumption will be:
- Approximately 1.5-2 liters per sleeve (so-called perennial branch) at medium size,
- 3.5-4 liters per large, well-developed bush.
Video: Rules for preparing Bordeaux liquid
Order of preparation of the solution:
- Prepare a glass mixing container.
- In 5 liters of warm water, add copper sulfate powder and dissolve completely:
- 100 g to prepare a 1% solution;
- 300 g to make a 3% solution.
- First, dilute hydrated lime in a liter of warm water, and then bring the volume of the solution to 5 liters:
- 100-150 g to make a 1% solution;
- 300-400 grams to make a 3% solution.
- Add soap or other glue to the milk of lime.
- Mix the two solutions: pour the dissolved vitriol into the milk of lime.
- Stir gently to avoid foaming and splashing.
- The resulting mixture should be strained through a filter. Use immediately, do not store the mixture.
Safety rules for working with copper sulfate
When treating the vine with Bordeaux liquid, safety precautions must be observed
In order to benefit the vine and not to harm your health, the following rules should be observed when preparing and using a solution of copper vitriol or bordeaux liquid:
- Protect your skin from contact with the prepared preparation – wear closed clothing, shoes, and a mask;
- do not add any other ingredients to the solution than copper sulfate, lime, and soap;
- spray the vineyard in the evening or early morning – this way the drops stay on the branches longer and do not evaporate under the sun;
- Carry out manipulations in dry, windless weather. In case of rain, the manipulation is not carried out, and the wind prevents an even application of the drug on the vine.
- Spray not only the bush, but also the base to which it is tied, as it can be a carrier of pathogens and fungal spores.
If you need to do a summer treatment, it should be done no later than one month before your intended harvest. Copper sulfate contains a salt of sulfuric acid, which is poisonous if ingested.
Since the lime slurry settles to the bottom of the tray, the solution must be stirred during spraying, otherwise the bush will first get water and then the highly concentrated drug.
Care must be taken to ensure that the entire surface of the vine is watered, and excessive watering of the soil under the bush should not be allowed. You can simply cover the bottom with foil, but it is better to use fine directional sprayers – a hand pump or electric devices.
The order of work (regardless of treatment time) is as follows:
- First the upper part of the bush is treated.
- Then the middle layer is sprayed.
- The next step is to apply the product to the sleeves and trunk.
- At the end, the carrier is watered.
The nozzle of the device should be held at a distance of about 10-20 cm from the branch and direct the jet along the vine along the vine.
A hand sprayer is convenient for a few vines, and an electric sprayer for a large vineyard.
Copper sulfate is an effective preparation for mineral nutrition and fungal disease prevention. However, when treating the vineyard, you should not neglect the rules, then your plants will respond to care with an excellent harvest!