Tractor Det-250 – description and properties

Det-2550: Technical properties

Det-2550-Soviet bulldozer, which was produced in the mid-20th century. The abbreviation that describes this tractor stands for “diesel-electric tractor”. This model is the very first tractor in the USSR with an electromechanical transmission. DET-2550 is an energy-powered tractor.

DET-2550 first saw the light of day on May 1, 1957. Assembly line was organized at Chelyabinsk tractor plant. Traction class of this model is 250 pr. The main purpose of this model is to be used as a bulldozer on large industrial vacuum areas.

Tractor DET-2550: Creation share

DET-2550 tractor: History of creation The DET-2550 tractor is a relaxed technique of the 25th traction class. Production has always been carried out at ChTZ. It was not transferred to other cities. The most important feature of this model is an electromechanical transmission. At the same time, this is both an advantage and disadvantage of this technology. The cooling process is carried out by the exhaust gases.


In addition, some difficulties are associated with lowering the operating temperature. That is why this technology was and is mainly used in the cold regions of the Far North. In regions with such climate the use of DET-25 is ideal. Similar models of the DET-2550 have not been produced before. In fact, it became the ancestor of the tractor industry in the USSR. Later versions of the tractors were the continuators of the model range and analogues: DET-320, T-330.

Technical features of the DET-2550

At the time of its creation, the DET-25 had really outstanding technical characteristics. The reason for this was the creator’s focus on the maximum productivity of this model.

Overall weight parameters

The indicators of the overall weight of the DET-250 bulldozer are quite impressive. The reason for that are some design features. The following is true:

  • Tractor with ripper – 41,3 tons;
  • Tractor without linkage – 27,5 tons.

An essential component of the operating weight of this technique is a special mounted equipment (dozer blade with special hydraulics, which changes the angle of cutting, tilting):

  • Blade width, mm – 4 250;
  • Blade height mm – 1 850;
  • Weight of attached devices, t – 5,2.


Overall dimensions of DET-250:

  • distance from front roller axle to rear roller axle mm – 4,476;
  • distance from rear roller axle to the front part of the blade, mm – 6 549;
  • distance from the front of the dump to the rear of the attachment, mm – 9.440;
  • Height from the bottom of the track to the top of the cab, mm – 3 215 mm;
  • Width, mm – 5,000.
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Engine of the DET-2550 tractor

As the power plant on this machine the V-31m2 engine was used. The two main distinctive features – strength and overall dimensions. Technical characteristics of the B-31M2:

  • Number of strokes, pcs. – 4;
  • Type of cylinder arrangement – V-shaped;
  • Working power at rated rpm, hp. – 323;
  • Working power at rated rpm, kW – 237;
  • Rated rotational speed of crankshaft, mi-n-1,400;
  • Working volume of combustion chamber, l – 38,88.


DET-250 tractor gearbox

The main feature of this tractor is the gearbox. It is electromechanical and has the following main operating parameters:

  • Total number of speeds, 2 (forward/reverse);
  • Traction force, max – 377 kN;
  • Forward speed, km/h – 15,2;
  • Rear travel speed, km/h – 15,2.

Running gear of the DET-250 tractor

The chassis simply does not have any characteristics, except the dimensions of its main units, as well as weight and high pressure on the ground. Its main characteristics:

  • Total number of rollers (on each side), pcs. – 6;
  • The number of track rollers, pcs. – 2;
  • Shoe width, mm – 560/690 (depending on the type of wheels used);
  • Automatic clamping mechanism – hydraulic type;
  • track, mm – 2 450;
  • Base size, mm – 3218.

DET-250 cabin.

The tractor was controlled from a metal cabin. It was equipped with insulation and extensive glazing. This made it convenient both for the driver’s position and for driving forward and backward. A distinctive feature was the location of the driver’s seat on the right side of the cab. The steering was carried out directly with the help of levers. There was no steering wheel. There is a heater in the cabin. But there is no ventilation.


By today’s standards, the cabin is not very comfortable. But by the time when the tractor was designed, it was quite comfortable. There is a seat for a passenger, as well as the ability to adjust the height of the driver’s seat. In summer, the windows could be opened for airing.

DET-250 tractor modification

Tractor DET-250 continued to be produced until 2013 due to its functionality and uniqueness. But due to the age of the development itself, today the model is outdated. The DET-320 tractor is the continuation of this line.

The distinctive features of this model, which was produced from 2002 to 2007, are as follows:

  • A liquid cooling system is used, with the radiator at the front (a fan controlled from the cab is used for additional cooling).
  • The chassis is reinforced:
    • spars mounted on the bogie frame;
    • torsion beams of equal rigidity are used;
    • an upgraded double-glazed window is installed;
    • improved sound and heat insulation;
    • the air conditioner is installed;

    Main characteristics of the DET-320:

    • engine YAMZ – 7511;
    • power, hp. – 350;
    • traction class – 25;
    • maximum operating weight, tons – 46.


    In 2007 the DET-320 tractor was completely removed from production. At the same time, the production of the new model – DET-400 was launched. The main constructive features of this model are as follows:

    • reliability of all electric machines, their service life is increased twice as much compared to the previous models of similar tractors ChMZ;
    • If necessary, the transmission current generator can be used as a generator-diesel power station;
    • Non-contact control system – for gear shifting and driving control not much effort is required;
    • There is an on-board computer equipped with an LCD display.

    This type of modification allows to install the following optionally purchased equipment:

    • starting preheater of ПЖД 30Е type;
    • installation of spurs is possible;
    • special spherical shovel for hard coal.


    In 2012, the DET-400 model was modified. The updated version received the designation DET-400M. The main updates of this equipment were as follows:

    • all drive wheels, as well as guides, rollers and rails are from Caterpillar;
    • Cummins was assembled instead of domestic YAMZ – it is assembled in Great Britain.
    • During the assembly a fundamentally new hydraulic system is installed, different from the old model – it is controlled with a joystick.


    The type of the model in question is universal, they all have the same purpose. They can be used not only as conventional bulldozers, but also as rippers. It is possible to install additional attachments of the following types:

    • hole-drilling machine;
    • crane installation (for tower installation);
    • trencher.

    Each modification has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. Before buying, it is necessary to carefully familiarize yourself with all the subtleties of work.

    Experience of operating the DET-250 tractor. advantages and disadvantages

    The main advantages of the DET-250 today include the following:

    • unpretentiousness to working conditions – the technique has perfectly shown itself in working conditions from +40 to o-40 0 C;
    • Relative ease of repair and availability of spare parts – the tractor has been manufactured for more than a decade, the market is filled with all the necessary parts for repair;
    • unpretentiousness to fuel quality – special diesel fuel must be used only in winter, otherwise it will harden and freeze in the fuel line;
    • Bonneted body – for this reason all units are easily accessible.


    At the same time, the DET-250 has its disadvantages.

    The most significant – the complexity of the device of electromechanical transmission. To understand its design without special training is quite problematic.

    All other malfunctions occurring in the process of operation can be easily eliminated on your own – if you have a repair manual. With proper maintenance and care the DET-250 will not cause any problems to the owner even in the age of several decades.

    Despite the simplicity of design, the tractor has a number of weaknesses, the first thing you should pay attention to when working on the DET-250. The most common malfunctions and methods of their elimination

    Owners who operate the tractor in question for a long time, recommend checking the following components every 10,000 hours of operation:

    • even:
      • working fluids;
      • fuel and lubricants;


      The electromechanical transmission deserves special attention. It is necessary to constantly monitor the contact connections, terminal blocks. After all, if oxidation and deterioration of the contact is possible not only failure, but also a fire. It is quite difficult to extinguish a burning insulation. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent overheating of the contact connections.

      The price of the used DET-250

      The main advantage of the DET-250 tractor is the opportunity to buy it in working condition at a relatively low price. The price is primarily influenced by the condition and year of manufacture, as well as the region of location. Usually, such models of devices have the highest price in those regions where industrial construction and mining is carried out.

      Federal state location region Year of construction Price
      in operation Chelyabinsk 2007 6,6 million rubles.
      on the move, complete with ball blade, ripper Kazan 2009 9,2 million rubles
      in operation Krasnoyarsk 2008 3,1 mln.


      DET-250 is a reliable, powerful machine, which perfectly copes with the solution and other tasks. The tractor is distinguished by its functionality. If necessary, a variety of additional attachments can be installed on it. However, before buying such devices, you should carefully familiarize yourself with the main functions and purchase an instruction manual.

      Technical characteristics of the DET 250 bulldozer

      The DET 250 (diesel-electric tractor 250) is a bulldozer of traction class 25. The Chelyabinsk tractor plant took part in the production of the series. The model was the first representative of the family of special vehicles with electric transmission (the first Soviet power-powered industrial bulldozer). The first samples of the machine appeared in 1957, and the bulldozer was shown on May 1. The model was designed as a tractor with a ripper and bulldozer, and the developers focused on increasing productivity and performance.

      The DET 250 was widely used throughout the country. The series was produced from 1961 to 2013, but until now, neither domestic nor foreign industry produces full-fledged analogues of this bulldozer.

      The model had a large size and was not designed for operation in the city. The main areas of application of the DET 250 were the industries that were in demand for high-performance machines (oil and gas and mining). The bulldozer was regularly used in the construction of hydraulic structures, roads and railroads. The application of the DET 250 was largely determined by the type of attachments installed. Trenching, excavation and drilling equipment could be installed on the rear of the machine.

      Approved modifications:

      • DET-250 – base version;
      • DET-250M – model for operation on frozen and stony soils;
      • DET-250M2 – modernized version of DET-250.
      • DET-250M2B – modification with ripping blade.


      Overall dimensions (basic version without equipment / with shield / with shield and ripper)

      • length – 6620/7370/9440 mm;
      • width – 3180/4250/4250 mm;
      • height – 3215/3215/3680 mm;
      • caterpillar base – 3218 mm.

      The bulldozer’s curb weight is 32,300 kg. With the basic blade, the weight increases to 37 500 kg, with the basic blade and ripper – up to 41 500 kg.

      The DET 250 is equipped as standard with a hemispherical fixed blade. The device has the following parameters:

      • width – 4230 mm;
      • height – 1850 mm;
      • maximum lifting height – 1400 mm;
      • maximum depth – 370 mm;
      • angle of cutting – 55 deg;
      • maximum angle of misalignment – 10 degrees;
      • Extracting prism volume – 10,5 cubic meters;
      • Weight – 5200 kg.

      The main rear equipment is considered a single-tooth ripper with the following parameters:

      • maximum penetration depth – 1185 mm;
      • ripping angle – 45 degrees;
      • Weight – 3500 kg.


      The DET 250 was powered by a V-31M2 four-stroke engine. It had liquid cooling system with exhaust venting, single combustion chamber, and direct fuel injection. The cleaning mechanism was a two-stage air cleaner with two cleaning phases (wet and ejection). Combined lubrication system (cleaning was performed in a centrifuge).

      Parameters of V-31M2 unit:

      • displacement – 38.88 liters;
      • Rated power – 237 (323) kW (hp);
      • Nominal rpm – 1400 rpm;
      • Number of cylinders – 12 (V-shaped arrangement);
      • Cylinder diameter – 150 mm;
      • Torque – 11%.

      Average fuel consumption – 45.3 liters per hour. Bulldozer fuel tank holds up to 700 liters of fuel.

      Device Det 250

      The basis of the bulldozer design is the frame, which consists of a rear axle table and 2 longitudinal members. The elements are connected by welding. Cross members and sheet steel floor are used for additional reinforcement. The inner cavities of the spars are used to supply air to the cooling system.

      The Det 250 chassis is standard and is based on rectangular welds that are rigidly attached to the main frame. The carts are fitted with single torsion pension rollers. The tension of the tether chain is adjusted by a hydraulic mechanism.

      Chassis properties:

      • Number of support rollers (Caterpillar belt) – 6;
      • Number of track rollers (Caterpillar belt) – 4;
      • Number of links (caterpillar belt) – 56;
      • Step of links – 218 mm;
      • Shoe width – 560/690 mm;
      • Width of space – 2450 mm;
      • Specific pressure on the floor – 0.093 MPa.

      The DET 250 has a unique electromechanical transmission that runs on direct current. The bulldozer’s speed and tractive force can be adjusted without moving the external load. The transmission uses a power producer, EDN 196 electric motor, planetary gears, main and final drives. The limit speed of the generator is 2550 rpm, the mains voltage is 220 kW. The generator has an oblique cylindrical multiplier.

      The transmission also contains an on-board planetary gear. The first gearbox speed is used for technological processes, the second – for movement between points. Maximum speed is 15.2 km/h (forward/reverse), operating speed is 1.2 km/h. The maximum tractive force is 377 pr. In DET 250, the transmission is considered the most complex and problematic element.

      The bulldozer is controlled by on-board braking and interlocking friction gears. The drive system uses a hydraulic booster that operates from a distributor with a control lever. Reverse drive is engaged via an electric switch.

      The hydraulic system is based on 2 main pumps. An additional hydraulic system with 1 pump is provided in the design. The maximum pressure in the system is 10 MPa.

      The DET 250 cab is made of sheet steel and is also covered with thermal and noise insulation. In terms of its parameters it corresponds to the standards in force in the 1960s and 1970s. The basic equipment of the cab includes a heater and a fan, with which it is possible to work even in severe frosts. In summer, the fan is used to supply air to the cabin. The driver’s seat is quite comfortable and has several adjustments. Installation of air conditioning (option) is available for the latest versions of the Bulldozer.

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