T-180 bulldozer – description and properties

Technical characteristics of the bulldozer T 180

The T 180 is a caterpillar bulldozer of the 15 traction class. Production of this series was made by Bryansk automobile plant. The model for the model was the popular T 140, which after deep modernization is a completely new machine that surpasses its predecessor in almost all aspects. In 1965, the developers introduced the T 180, and a year later appeared the bulldozer with hydraulic instrumentation and shield control system. It is noteworthy that this model was the first Soviet tractor of traction class 15. Thanks to this technique quickly spread throughout the USSR.

The caterpillar T 180 was originally designed for industrial work and used in the mining and gas sector, forestry and on construction sites. Later it was used in road construction and even in agriculture (deep plowing of wasteland and new areas, work on isolation of original land). Despite its considerable weight, the model had an excellent cross-country ability. The technique was perfectly adapted to local working conditions (harsh climate, poor fuel).

In addition to the basic version, Bryansk plant produced modifications for use in the north (T 180C) and quarry versions with a reinforced frame and increased ground clearance (T 180KS). Series production ended in 1987, but some models continued to be produced until 1992 under the signed contracts.

The T 180 is significantly inferior to the T 180, but the model has not completely lost its relevance. The bulldozer is still used in various areas.


Overall dimensions (without additional equipment):

  • Length – 5420 mm;
  • width – 2720 mm;
  • Cab height – 2820 mm;
  • Track base – 3220 mm;
  • Minimum Venderadius – 2040 mm;
  • Distance – 550 mm.

The bulldozer has a designed mass of 14950 kg. The model belongs to traction class 15, in which the traction decreases with increasing speed. At about 3 km/h it is 13820 kgf, at 12 km/h only 2620 kgf.


The T 180 bulldozer was equipped with the D-180 engine, which was specifically designed to run on diesel fuel. As a model for this unit, the D-108 engine (Shchelyabinsk) was selected. The design of the unit was based on a block with 6 cylinders, which had a vertical arrangement. Combustion of the combustible mixture occurred in the pre-chamber. The cooling system was based on a closed cooler, which circulated liquid (frost protection or water). All versions of the T 180 were equipped with a D-180 engine, a four-stroke model without a compressor and with a non-separate combustion chamber. The engine was started by a P-23 electric motor. A two-stage decompressor (decompression in 3 or 6 cylinders) was used to facilitate starting at sub-zero temperatures. It is noteworthy that this device for a long time was considered the flagship.

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Parameters of the engine D-180:

  • Working volume – 20.28 liters;
  • Rated power – 128.8 (175) kW (PS);
  • Rated speed of the crankshaft – 1100 rpm;
  • Compression Ratio – 14;
  • Cylinder diameter – 145 mm;
  • Specific fuel consumption – 238 (175) g/kWh (g/hp);
  • Tank capacity – 325 liters.

Device T 180

The crawler planer T 180 has a welded body at its core consisting of a carrier, 4 carriers, a cross arm and a front arm. A special rigid mechanism and brackets are used to mount attachments. The machine has a standard layout with a front-mounted engine and a tail cabin.

The chassis is based on elastic torsion suspension with a compensator, due to which a quiet ride is achieved regardless of the type of work and driving speed. The tracked tractor (main element of the chassis) is enclosed in a chain with finger joint with the head wheel. The 6 wheels are connected in pairs to the double-armed balancers. The upper rollers are attached to the supports, which are welded to the chassis longitudinal wires.

Chassis parameters:

  • Space width – 2040 mm;
  • Number of chain members – 41;
  • Width of the base track – 580 mm;
  • Rack height – 75 mm;
  • Specific floor pressure (hard / soft) – 0.05 / 0.03 MPa.

The T 180 is equipped with a manual 5-speed 4-speed transmission. It has 5 forward gears and 2 reverse gears. The main gear is a bowwheel, and the end gears are 1-speed gears with front bikes. The dry clutch contains a pneumatic servomechanism (the clutch pedal is on the right side).

The bulldozer turns by separating the track from the power train to which it must turn. This function is taken over by a single-stage planetary gear mounted behind the bulldozer’s wheel. It concentrates the torque on the axle drives and provides a smooth adjustment of the chain speed in relation to each other, which allows them to change the direction of movement. The maximum speed of the equipment reaches 12 km/h.

The braking system consists of double-sided band brakes with FG 12B, which work in an oil bath. The brake pedal is located on the left side, after pressing the control levers take the rear position via rotary mechanisms. A mechanical lock serves as a parking brake, which leaves the brake pedal depressed and allows you to keep your foot on the pedal.

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The power supply voltage of the bulldozer is 12 V. Electrical equipment consists of 6MT-90MS battery, electromagnetic regulator, G-304 generator, starter and FG 12B headlights, which can be used at night.

The cabin of T 180 can accommodate 3 people and is equipped with 2 doors. Sound and heat insulation is sewn into the body of the cabin, which partially blocks the negative effects from the outside. The cabin is equipped with a fan with filter, which delivers air inside, purified from microparticles and dust. Powerful heating allows to work even in severe frost. The comfortable seats are equipped with armrests, and the elastic backrests can be adjusted depending on the angle of inclination. There is a ceiling light in the upper part of the cab. In terms of comfort, the Bulldozer is significantly inferior to its modern analogues.

The price of the T 180

Release on the market bulldozer T 180 ended in the early 1990s. At present, individual batches of these devices are offered for sale. The cost of used versions in working condition is in the range from 110 to 350 thousand rubles.

T 180 crawler bulldozer

The T 180 is a crawler tractor. The model has a rich history, the first copies of the technique were produced almost half a century ago. Production of the equipment was engaged in the Bryansk automobile plant, which introduced its products at the end of the 1950s. The tractor T 140, which underwent deep modernization, was used as a prototype. Thus, a fundamentally new product appeared.

Series production of the model began in 1965. The T 180 became the first domestic bulldozer, representing the 15 traction class. The technique proved to be very popular, and soon the Bryansk plant began production of various modifications of the T 180.

The model had to work with special attachments and exclusion devices, which greatly expanded its functionality. In 1970-1980s the bulldozer was actively used in various areas of the mining and gas industry, on construction sites, in agriculture and road construction. The main area of u200bu200b activity was working with soils of different categories (digging, moving, loading).

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The T 180 was ideally suited for operation in Russia. The model confidently worked in severe frosts and was unpretentious to the fuel. Special modifications could work on wet and sticky ground.

The T 180 has become the pride of the Bryansk plant. Production of the bulldozer ended in the nineties, but until now, some modifications continue to work successfully in different areas.


Modifications and features

The T 180 bulldozer was in great demand and had many modifications. The most successful versions (in addition to the basic):

  1. T 180G – model with a hydraulic mechanism to adjust the position and power. The design of the modification differed by a standard variation with a sloping front of the engine cowling. On the side there were covers for installing hydraulic cylinders. With a fairing, the model became 830 kg heavier;
  2. The T 180c was a northern version with extra insulation. It was equipped with a special hood, heater working from the cooling system, improved insulation and double glazing.
  3. The T 180ks was a quarry version with an improved frame with increased thickness. The clearance of the model is increased by 50 mm, it has additional insulation.
  4. D 804PG – front loader on the T 180 base;
  5. D 804m – pipelayer on the base of the T 180.

The T 180 was considered one of the most successful bulldozers of the Soviet era. The model was notable for its simple design and accessibility of elements. Repair of equipment could easily be done on site. In terms of comfort, it was far from ideal, but the operator was comfortable to perform its functions.

The T 180 was not without its drawbacks. The main drawback was the engine crankshaft, which regularly failed. The pneumatic system required careful maintenance, and when the condensate freezes, the bulldozer stopped working (such a problem often occurred in severe frosts).

Technical Specifications


  • Length – 5420 mm;
  • width – 2740 mm;
  • height – 2825 mm;
  • Track base – 3220 mm;
  • Ground clearance – 550 mm;
  • track width – 580 mm;
  • floor height – 75 mm;
  • Minimum turning radius – 2040 mm.

Estimated weight of the equipment is 14950 kg. Specific pressure on the floor – 0,05 MPa. The truck has a speed up to 12 km/h. Traction has an inverse dependence on speed. The highest grade has 2620 kgf at a speed of 3 km/h – 13820 kgf.

Design and operation features

The T 180 bulldozer has a simple design. The main elements are mounted on a welded frame made of box-shaped parts. There is also a rigid trailing mechanism and 4 brackets for mounting of attachments. The model layout has a front engine and rear cab and gearbox. The welded body includes transverse and front beaks and a support element.

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The undercarriage is a tracked suspension and is limited by the carrier and drive unit. The resilient pivoting suspension is supplemented by balancers. This provides a smooth ride at high speeds. The rod suspension can lock the front bottom bracket.

The drive unit is based on a caterpillar drive and is designed as a 580 mm wide chain. Each chain consists of 41 links. The 6 wheels are connected in pairs by double-armed balancers. The top rollers are mounted on supports that are welded to the bulldozer’s longitudinal supports. The track is tensioned by means of a screw arm.

The T 180 is equipped with a mechanical 4-speed transmission with high reliability. The gearbox has 5 forward and 2 reverse gears, making the bulldozer very maneuverable in spite of its large size. Turning is achieved by determining the lane where the turn is to be made with the transmission. This action is carried out by a single-stage planetary gear made of stepped wheels mounted behind the main bevel wheel. It provides a smooth adjustment of the speed of the track compared with the other track, due to which the direction of movement is changed. The tapered main gear is a tapered wheel, the end of which drives one stage with the front wheels. The dry clutch is supplemented by a pneumatic servomechanism. The clutch pedal position is correct (as with most bulldozers of the time).

The model is equipped with dual band brakes operating in an oil bath. The brake pedal is on the left and moves the steering levers to the rear position when the pedal is depressed. The parking brake is represented by a mechanical lock that holds the pedal (allows you to not leave your foot on the pedal all the time).

The electric system of the bulldozer is single-adapter and has a voltage of 12 V. It consists of a G-304 current generator, 6MT-90MS battery, starter and electromagnetic controller. Due to the powerful headlights FG 12B, the T 180 works effectively even in poor lighting conditions.

The bulldozer is equipped with a large steel cab with 2 doors. The cabin equipment can accommodate 3 people, but it is not very spacious. The conditions inside can be called “Spartan”, because the operator has to work with minimal comfort. The cabin has sound and heat insulation, sewn into the metal housing. It partially blocks the influence of negative factors. There is also a filter-fan inside the cab, which delivers air purified of fine dust particles into the cab. The heater allows you to not freeze in the cold season. A lamp is suspended in the cabin for lighting. The seats are equipped with an armrest and are quite comfortable. The elastic backrests can be adjusted depending on the angle of inclination.

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In terms of maintenance, the T 180 will not cause much trouble. The equipment is not a benchmark of reliability, but is characterized by the simplest design. You can repair it yourself, and spare parts are sold at very low prices. The individual solutions used in the bulldozer make maintenance much easier. The filler neck is shown on the outside, making it easy to fill. The tank itself is located in the driver’s cab. The oil tank is arranged similarly, but located outside.

engine .

The T 180 is equipped with a D-180 four-stroke power unit set to run on diesel fuel. The engine has the following features:

  • closed liquid cooling system (radiator with antifreeze or water circuit);
  • mixing in the pre-chamber;
  • starting from starter P-23;
  • vertical arrangement of cylinders;
  • no compressor;
  • indivisible combustion chamber.

The D-180 power unit remained the flagship for a long time and was developed on the basis of the Chelyabinsk D-108 power unit. A two-stage decompressor (decompression by cylinders) was proposed to facilitate starting at sub-zero temperatures. Launch control was installed in the cockpit.

Characteristics of the D-180 engine:

  • Working volume – 20.28 liters;
  • Nominal rpm – 1100 rpm;
  • Nominal power – 132 (175) kW (hp);
  • Number of cylinders – 6;
  • bore – 140 mm.

Specific fuel consumption for the T 180 model is 238 (175) g/kWh (g/hp). The tank capacity is 325 liters.

The new T 180 bulldozer is not currently for sale – the production of the model has been discontinued long ago. There are many used versions. A travel bulldozer can be bought for 50-280 thousand rubles. At the same time, most machines are offered with defects.

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