Spring planting of vegetables – when and how to sow

When to plant seedlings: planting calendar, timing and care

The garden and vegetable garden is not only a good source of fresh, natural and tasty vegetables and fruits, but also a way to relax, distract from everyday affairs and problems.


When and how

Sprouting largely depends on climatic conditions, care, priming. And most importantly, the right seedlings, because the growth and development of most plants begins with it.

When can I sow seeds in seedlings? When can I plant seedlings this year? This article.

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Plants are planted in different ways. In general, all methods can be divided into two large groups:

  • Planting seeds in the open ground. Usually starts in mid-spring, when the ground has thawed enough and night frosts have stopped. In this case, the seeds are immediately planted in the ground in the garden.
  • Planting through sprouts. This method is considered the best, as it eliminates the possibility of death of seedlings from the cold, various climatic influences and insect pests. In this case, the seeds are planted in special boxes or cups in mid-March – early April, and then transplanted into the open ground.

With the help of seedlings, as a rule, plant various types of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, eggplant and other crops.

When is it better to plant seedlings? Since ancient times, gardeners believed that the germination of seeds depends on the phase of the moon. Modern scientists have confirmed this fact: plant growth depends on the ability to attract or repel water molecules depending on the lunar cycle. Three basic rules were thus deduced:

  • Before the new moon, it is recommended to plant plants with above-ground fruits.
  • After the new moon, have underground fruit;
  • Do nothing three days before and after the full moon.

When to plant seedlings in 2021

The lunar calendar for the year can be easily found online. It will help to make a planting schedule for each month, after which you can sow seedlings.

How planting varies from region to region.

Every region’s climate is different. Somewhere there is warm, windless weather, and somewhere, on the contrary, the rain pours non-stop, and the sun comes out very rarely and for a short time. Therefore, the timing of planting is different.

When to plant seedlings in the regions? It all depends on the average air temperature, the duration of periods without frosts and abundant precipitation. For example:

  1. In the Urals and Siberia, the onset of the period without frosts begins in June, and frosts – in October. Therefore, from the end of April to the beginning of May, seedlings begin to be planted, and only after the end of night frosts are transplanted into the open ground.
  2. In the southern regions of the country, the number of days without frosts is several times greater, so you can transplant plants into the open ground from the middle of April, and sprouts – from the beginning of March.

What and when to start planting at home?

It is possible to plant seedlings at home already in March. But here you need to be guided by the time of sowing, which depends on the type of plants (early or not), the conditions in the house and the quality of care. All this can be found on the package that comes with the work.

When planting seedlings, you can be guided by the following table:

Name of crop When to plant the seedlings How many shoots will appear When to transplant
Rascal tomatoes After March 20 After about a week Mid-June
Late tomatoes After March 10 By 5-6 days Mid-June
Sweet pepper After March 10 Within two weeks Mid-June
Eggplant Closer to March 30 Within two weeks Mid-June
Cucumber beginning of May Three to four days later Mid-June
White cabbage End of May or beginning of April After about a week end of May
Cauliflower After April 5th After about a week end of May

The figures are approximate information, which largely depends on the climate of the region. It is therefore possible to plant a week earlier or later.

What plants to sow in seedlings

Climatic conditions in Russia do not allow many types of plants to be planted in the open ground. Abundance or lack of moisture, night frosts, lack of sunlight, pests – all this can negatively affect the seedlings. Therefore, for most types of crops, preference is given to sprouts.

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Vegetable seedlings.

This method has many advantages:

  • The possibility of growing only the desired varieties;
  • The possibility to save money: planting your own seedlings is much cheaper than buying ready-made plants;
  • Minimizing the likelihood of plant diseases due to climatic conditions, frost, pests;
  • Growing organic and natural plants. The gardener chooses his own fertilizers and dressings, so he can be sure that the vegetables do not contain nitrates and other dangerous substances.

In fact, breeding seedlings is not difficult at all. It does not require constant care, just water it and protect it from excessive sunlight, drafts and pets that can drop or crush it.

When sowing

As already mentioned, you can sow seeds, guided by the lunar calendar and the above table, which shows approximate data.

In this case, it is recommended to heed the advice of experienced gardeners:

  1. Do not use expired or low-quality seeds. They should be intact, they should not have plaque and mold on them.
  2. Choose soil depending on the plants. For flowers – one, for vegetables – another.
  3. It is recommended to plant in pot-torps – special containers that collapse in the ground. This is very practical for beginner gardeners who have not yet learned how to transplant seedlings.
  4. Do not rush to transplant seedlings in the field. You should always be guided by weather conditions, otherwise weak plants may die from frost.

Let’s take a closer look at the growing order of each plant.


Today there are many varieties of tomatoes, most of which are hybrids, bred artificially. Each of the species has its own characteristics, including the time of germination of seeds. This period should be indicated on the package.

In general, all varieties can be divided into several groups:

  1. Large varieties, which are planted in seedlings in early March.
  2. Early varieties, which are planted under the film in mid-March. They are especially often grown in greenhouses. This also includes large tomatoes.
  3. Early, low-growing varieties that are planted in late April in late March.


It takes quite a long time – about 30 to 50 days – for the sprouted seeds of cabbage and for transplanting to be ready. You can see the exact number on the package. In general, the recommendations are as follows:

  • Early varieties are planted from early to late March – this depends on the seed germination time listed on the package;
  • Medium varieties – in the second half of March near the end of the month;
  • By the end of April, it is recommended to sow all cabbage, and from the middle of May to transplant to beds in the garden.
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Cucumbers are usually grown in a greenhouse. They are planted at the end of April. They are planted by the middle of May. Before planting, the seeds are kept in a solution of sodium salt of weak concentration (1-3%).

Another option is to keep them in a solution of potassium permanganate. This will save cucumbers from many diseases and prevent the spread of harmful bacteria and pests, which most often appear on young plants.

Soak seeds in potassium solutions


Unlike other types of plants, peppers sprout quite slowly. Sometimes it takes up to 20-30 days to germinate. But you shouldn’t feed, fertilize, or put the seeds in the ground. In fact, you need to wait for the shoot, after which the peppers will grow swept up and catch up with more and more seedlings.

It is best to sow peppers from the middle of February. You can plant until the middle of March.

It is recommended to place each seed in a separate peat pot.

Sow peppers in seedlings


It can take up to 80 days for eggplant seedlings to mature. Only after this period, it is possible to plant seedlings in the open ground. The period is quite long, so seedlings should be sown in advance – at least from the middle of February.

The planting period also depends largely on the variety. It is indicated on the package, there you will also find basic recommendations.


Melon crops are quite fastidious, require special climatic conditions, so in the middle belt of Russia they are grown quite rarely. If a gardener wants to see watermelons in his garden, it is recommended to plant seedlings for them from the beginning of April.

Watermelon in seedlings

How to grow correctly

Growing seedlings does not require any special efforts from the novice gardener. But here’s what you should pay attention to:

  • Water with water: Large amounts of water can lead to rotting of the root system.
  • The earth around the sprouts should be loosened in a timely manner;
  • You need to pay attention to young plants to see if there is a plaque on the leaves, thin mesh or netting, or no holes – all of these are symptoms of disease or pests.
  • Seedlings should get plenty of sunlight.

Diseases and pests on seedlings are extremely rare.

Water too often

growth and ripening period

During the growth period, the plant develops a root system, leaves, and acquires enough nutrients for further development.

You can speed up the ripening process by following the tips below:

  1. Attract young shoots to sunlight.
  2. Cover them with cling film during the cold season.
  3. You can speed up the process of growing tomatoes by plucking the first fruits. This way, the others will become larger and redder faster.
  4. Squeeze the plant.
  5. Feed it.

By following these simple rules, you can get a better harvest in a short time.

When to transplant seedlings into the open ground

To planting in the open ground proceed when:

  • The air temperature during the week is positive;
  • There are no frosts at night, the temperature does not drop below zero;
  • No heavy rainfall;
  • The ground is sufficiently frozen;
  • Seedlings have gained sufficient size and vigor;
  • Plants have no signs of disease or pest infestation.

So, seedlings are a good way to grow a great harvest. The main thing is to start planting in advance, take care of the surrounding conditions, timely watering and care.

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Sowing in the open ground: what vegetables to sow in the spring

The beginning of spring is a popular, though challenging time in every gardener’s life. As soon as the floor thaws and warms up, we all rush to the beds to start the long-awaited planting and sowing season. It’s not easy to schedule time for all the work. Some plants can wait a little while, others need to be sown as soon as possible. And not just for the early harvest, but also for the more tender leaves and fruit that can be harvested longer. Let’s take a closer look at the “pioneers” with which it’s best to start the new gardening season, from peas and lettuces to favorite chopped fruits.


Early spring is for sowing cold-resistant plants

When planning crops and plantings, the main guideline in which vegetable and useful plants should be sown first in the garden should remain their degree of cold tolerance. A simple principle works here: The lower the temperature at which seeds germinate and seedlings develop, the more frost-resistant the plant is and the less heat it likes at the start of the growing season, the earlier it should be sown.

All plants that require sowing at all can be roughly divided into several categories:

  • Vegetables and table greens, plants with a short growing season among the “first greens.”
  • Classic vegetables, from which not only traditional but also early harvests can be harvested;
  • Vegetables with a very long growing season and all “fall” or winter crops.

Specific sowing dates, of course, should be set annually “depending on the weather.” It is better to estimate the floor temperature, which can easily be measured with a simple soil thermometer, rather than the average daily reading. The first harvests can be started as soon as the snow melts, the soil is dry enough for mechanical treatment and warms up to + 3 … + 5 degrees (or more).

In the middle belt early crops are considered from the second decade of April. In the south, you can start sowing in March. But for each region it is worth focusing on the conditions of a particular year.

To all those who did not have time to sow before winter

If something disrupted your plans and you just did not have time to do the winter cleaning of plants, you still have seeds – with them it is worth starting the garden season, and then continue with full plants. Mint, melissa, oregano, lovage, rhubarb, lavender, onions, chervil, fennel, dill, sage and many other plants that are usually sown in late fall can be among the first to be sown in early spring. The main thing is not to forget the need for adequate seed treatment: If any species requires mandatory stratification, it should be started in advance.

For such plants you can not wait for standard conditions and carry out “winter” digging with thawing in February-March. Of course, this is possible only if the bed with already drawn furrows is prepared “in reserve”. Until the full spring comes, the seeds have time to undergo albeit reduced, but stratification.


Spring sowing in the field begins with peas

It has become a habit for many people to start the gardening season with peas. The later they are sown, the longer we have to wait for the harvest. And to enjoy the pods and young peas in early summer, you should hurry up. Hereditary “guards” at 1-2 degrees Celsius, seedlings develop normally at 4-5 degrees and tolerate frosts to o o-6 degrees.

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In new varieties resistant to frost, it is not reduced even in case of frost (and in older varieties – not more than by one third). For early planting, it is worth choosing early and low-growing peas (for example, in 45-55 days Tropar, Alpha, Ambrosia, Early 301, Oscar).

Another distant relative of peas, beans will not refuse to be among the first plants. The plant only needs a temperature of 4-8 degrees for seeds to germinate. Young sprouts are not afraid of return frosts up to 6 degrees.

Spring sowing of root crops for the table and for the stock

Do not imagine early planting without radishes. After all, it is these early frozen vegetables that should be sown as one of the first, and if possible, also in the thaw, with winter seeds. Radishes germinate at floor temperatures of 2 to 4 degrees, seedlings perfectly tolerate short-term frosts of up to 3 degrees, and stronger plants are even more stable. Yes, and radishes grown in cooler temperatures are tastier and gentler, sprouting later. Early plants are early and ultra-early-ripening varieties, such as “18 days”, “French Breakfast”, “Rhodes” and other great ones.

You should not limit your diet to radishes. Beets and daikon will also surprise you with their culinary talents beyond the usual salads. They can be sown already in the middle of April in the middle belt, as seeds germinate warmly at a temperature of 1 to 5 degrees, and seedlings are not afraid of frosts up to 5 degrees. Rutabaga is more frost-resistant, but for active development of seedlings you need to wait for a temperature of 8 to 10 degrees. Its harvests are best harvested within 1 to 2 weeks.

Early plants are preferred to other root crops, without which it is quite difficult to imagine your vegetable garden:

  • Parsnips (the floor should warm up to 2-3 degrees);
  • Carrots (soil temperature 3 to 5 degrees);
  • Root parsley (4 degrees).

Don’t rush beets and celery, plan to sow 1-2 weeks later than carrots. Seeds can be sown in the ground, up to 6-8 degrees, and need a temperature of 15 degrees for root formation. You can start transferring to the floor, warmed to 5-8 degrees, and celery sprouts, which are not afraid of frosts to o o-6 degrees.


Spicy greens and “fancy” cabbage

Leaf parsley, dill, fennel are typical herbs of the earliest sowing. It germinates itself at a temperature of 3-8 degrees, and seedlings are not afraid of frosts d o-9 degrees.

Today cabbage finally gets the recognition it deserves. Curly leaves, the fashion for which Western chefs have brought back, are a complex element for a healthy diet. Cheeky fiber and a unique supply of micronutrients make it a popular side dish for the new millennium. And growing curly kale is easy. It grows practically alone, withstands frosts up to 18 degrees and does not suffer from snow. And from this it becomes only more tender and tasty. Common litter is sown when the soil warms up to at least 4-5 degrees.

Bok choy or bok choy with their delicate taste of petioles is already loved by many. This cabbage is usually fall, but if you sow it early, as soon as the ground appears, you can enjoy a harvest of tender base early in the season.

Not only can sprouts be sown early in the greenhouse, but early varieties of white cabbage can also be planted early. Frosts of t-2 … -Even broccoli is not afraid o f-3 degrees. Beijing cabbage holds a record: it easily withstands a drop of 7 degrees. When planning plantings, it is worth remembering that temperatures of 12 to 18 degrees are ideal for laying large heads and inflorescences, and plants should have time to grow in advance.

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Onions are not afraid of the cold

Warming up to 5 degrees and sowing in barely warmed soil are not afraid of Slughorn, Batun, Schnitt and all other decorative, edible, perennial leaves, not prone to shoots, in which greens grow at 5 degrees of heat.

Harvest bulbs will sprout while looking for a second round afterward. Once the colder-resistant vegetables have been sown, you can safely proceed with sowing black onions. Onions germinate at 5-10 degrees, so a continuation is sufficient for early sowing. Short-term light frosts “Chernushka” are not afraid of, the seedlings tolerate frosts up to 2 degrees.

Early salads and leafy vegetables

Almost all leafy vegetables prefer the earliest possible sowing. Swiss chard is the first candidate for sowing right after the snow melts. It is no coincidence that the seeds of this plant disappear from the shelves among the first in spring. Swiss chard is also good in winter, but if you haven’t had time to sow in the fall, you shouldn’t neglect the collection with new varieties of this system.

Swiss chard germinates at temperatures of 4 to 5 degrees, which spares it from light frosts for a long time. And most importantly, tasty sensitive leaves at low temperatures.

You can “equalize” the timing of sowing for chard and spinach, which does not give good bases in the sun. Spinach already germinates at 2-3 degrees of heat, although its development is slow. But even young sprouts easily tolerate frosts of up to 6 degrees. In early spring, with a warming to 4-6 degrees, you can also sow seeds of sagebrush and rhubarb.

Arugula, including perennials, should be sown first among the lettuces themselves. Crested lettuce grows at floor temperatures of 2 to 3 degrees, arugula-AT 8 to 10 degrees of heat. They tolerate return frosts well and surprise with their delicate taste. And later, they bloom and allow you to enjoy the leaves longer. Thanks to early sowing, much more tender greens can be harvested from mustards (sprout seeds at 1-3 degrees).

Once your favorite spicy lettuces are planted, you can safely make beds of leaf boards of all varieties and colors, frisée and even English. It germinates itself at a temperature of 5-6 degrees, but you need to warm the soil to 10-12 degrees of heat for the emergence of sprouts. Leaf lettuce successfully withstands frosts of up to 6 degrees (seedlings – only up to 3 degrees).


Ultra-early potatoes.

In heat, ultrarun notes that it can be planted in the ground, up to 5-8 degrees Celsius, ideally under agrofoil or film. Return frosts of 1-2 degrees potatoes can withstand, but it is better to protect young plants when cooled with a mound.

When sowing early, it is important to choose early and hardy varieties adapted to the local climate. Fresh seeds and quality seedbed preparation in the fall are the key to success. Just in case, you should always have plant and seedling protection materials on hand, including lightweight materials and a supply of mulch to help protect the young shoots.

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