Processing of the garden of diseases and pests: What, when and how
Many gardeners strive to completely eliminate chemical treatments in their garden. And that makes sense when they have small children, have pets – or if someone in the family suffers from allergies and other serious illnesses. In a few years, there are exit from illness and pest infestation in the orchard (normally insects are activated in hot years and pathogens in cool and moist years), which does not only cause considerable damage but also the health of the garden. And if so, the processing is essential.
In addition, pests and pathogens become more resistant and aggressive – and folk remedies such as dusting with ash or tobacco dust or spraying with extracts from different plants no longer always apply, even though they have worked perfectly for many decades.
The processing helps to receive the harvest of berries and fruits
In industrial gardens, at least two dozen different treatments are carried out per season, usually significantly fewer in private gardens, and many gardeners are not in a hurry to get an injection in the hope that this year will definitely be “going through”, or if they work with more urgent work ( z. B. Landungen), just forget the spray. In addition, preventive treatments begin early, immediately after the snow melt as soon as the pests wake up, and not all summer houses can be entered at this time of year.
To avoid being confused
- Insecticides – against insects,
- Akaricides – against ticks (there are numerous medication that have both insecticides and acaricides),
- Herbicides – literally “against the grass” (but in fact bushes and trees can be exposed to their destructive effect),
- Fungicides – against fungal diseases,
- Rodenticides – against rodents.
In the orchards of the Mittelgasse, the most common pests of the apple winders and apple blossom beetles, numerous types of aphids and lea f-eating caterpillars, gooseberry moth (which also like to damage currants). From the diseases – scab, black cancer, other types of cancer, cytosporosis, cocomycosis, moniliosis, gray column, rust.
Who wants to share the harvest with pests!
This list is by no means complete, and a detailed description of damage, development cycles and control measures is like a reputable book (there are such publications, but it should be considered that the preparations recommended in it can be observed over time and replaced by more modern analogue),), But experienced gardeners are undoubtedly able to recognize problems that occur in good time and take measures. On our website you will find useful articles about the most important pests of the fruit garden:
So use it correctly
When choosing a drug, read the instructions carefully. Usually it is on the back of the packaging (in small font), and it is easier for those with less eyes to find it on the Internet. Even if you regularly use the same preparations in your garden, it makes sense to recall the instructions before each treatment.
Pay attention not only to the trade name, but also to the active ingredient – this has a long and usually difficult to pronounce name “in chemical language”. It is necessary to alternate drugs exactly by active substance so that pests do not develop addiction. Ideally, use different treatments with insecticides from different classes.
Read the directions and ingredients. Crop protection products with different trade names can contain the same active ingredient
The instructions for use always indicate on what types of diseases or pests the drug works optimally. In practice, the spectrum of action of drugs can be wider. As for insecticides, be guided by the largest “prey” declared by the manufacturer: most likely, he is capable of destroying smaller insects.
Conditions for Processing
The effectiveness of the drug is much higher when used in optimal conditions. A cool, cloudy, windless day is best for processing. It must not rain for at least 5 hours before and after spraying, so that the product is not washed away. Many drugs are complex organic compounds and do not work well when the temperature drops to +10C. Preparations of inorganic origin can work at lower temperatures.
Treatment of plants in a leafless state is carried out using more concentrated solutions
The manufacturer may also recommend using different concentrations of the drug to control different diseases or pests, or differ them for treatments at different phenophases.
General rule: the treatment of vegetative plants is carried out at lower concentrations so as not to burn leaves, flowers and fruits, and if the drug can be used to treat plants in a leafless state, then the dosage in this case will be higher.
How to work with drugs – and when to spray the garden
- Contact (acts directly when hitting the “enemy”),
- intestines (works if the “beast” ate it),
- systemic (absorbed into plant tissues, making it temporarily inedible or toxic to pests).
Fungicides are divided into organic and inorganic. The latter includes copper sulfate – a serious drug that should not be used on leaves, flowers and fruits to avoid chemical burns. Other preparations containing copper have proven their worth: it is a powerful poison for fungi, and besides, they act in a wide range of temperatures. Organic fungicides work only at a sufficiently high ambient temperature – usually not below + 10 ° C.
Tip: make a sanitary pruning in time – remove and burn all the dried and diseased branches so that they do not become a breeding ground for infection.
Remember that almost all treatments are prohibited during flowering, since almost all preparations are poisonous to bees, and many are also poisonous to fish. The only treatment that is required during flowering is spraying stone fruit against moniliosis, since the spores of the pathogen enter the plant through the pistil of the flower.
At the time of flowering, processing is stopped. Exception – Spraying stone fruit against moniliosis a
Two to three treatments are usually carried out 1-2 weeks apart, alternating preparations. In the instructions, the processing times are always given in terms of phenophases – there is no year for a year, so giving the exact processing dates is simply unrealistic.
To facilitate the work in most cases, you can prepare a tank mix, that is, mix two or more drugs and carry out processing on the principle of “two in one” or even “several in one”. Therefore, it is possible to combine pest and disease treatment with foliar top dressing. The tank mix should be homogeneous. Stratification and precipitation are not allowed. Some drugs cannot be mixed categorically, there is information about this in the instructions.
Tsvetka blends work very efficiently. However, you need to know what can be mixed and what is impossible. Read the instructions!
- When treating with preparations, use a mask or respirator to protect the face and respiratory organs.
- Do not smoke, do not take food and drink during work, and then – wash your face and arms thoroughly with soap (it is advisable to take a shower) and wash your clothes (by the way, he should close the body as much as possible );
- It is forbidden to use food dishes to work with medicines, and in many cases it is impossible to use metal containers to avoid a chemical reaction.
- Do not let children and pets into the garden during and after processing (the instructions indicate how many days).
What is important to remember
Remember one very important factor – the waiting time specified in the instructions. This is the time when the processed parts of the plants cannot be eaten.
In most cases it is 21 days, but in some funds – 40 or more. It is better not to treat such drugs in the middle of the culture source and remember early, such as: B. Honeysuckle. It ripens in June. During the grinding of the crop, you should not spray the narrow trees so that the funds do not fall on its berries.
Follow the waiting time. Honeysuckle keeps up with the very first berry. For example, the varieties ‘boring’ (left) and ‘Gerda’ (right) already ripen in mid-June
In the agricultural holdin g-nursery you can buy honeysuckle seedlings. Remember that it is worth planting several varieties at once, since this culture requires crossing.
The very first – mid-June – Ripe early honeysuckle (‘Lon g-Fruited’, ‘Gerda’). By the end of the first month of summer, berries of the average ripening varieties, for example, “Velvet”, “Pavlovskaya” and “Lazurit”, remain with.
Athics of average maturation of average maturation: ‘pavlovskaya’ (left), ‘Velvet’ (middle), ‘Lazurit’ (right)
Always remember that diseases and pests are less common in a well established garden. trees and berry bushes.
Spring Garden Processin g-Ste p-b y-Ste p-Plan (6 Mandatory Stages)
Spring treatment of the garden is important in the fight against diseases and pests of plants. Since at this time it is possible to destroy pests in the bud, as well as in the maximum way to prevent the spread of malicious phytopathogens that cause plant diseases.
Most gardeners understand that competent and timely spring processing of the garden is the basis for obtaining a quality crop. In the spring, firstly, the best opportunity was given to destroy the Overwest insect pests and their larvae, without an increase in their population, and secondly, and the original stage, to block the spread of phytopathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, viruses ) the cause numerous plant diseases.
But a single spraying of trees and shrubs with an accidentally handy insecticide or fungicide is not enough. We need a systematic approach that covers the entire spectrum of agrotechnical work.
This material summarizes spring gardening in a STEP-BY-STEP plan and gives recommendations on the selection and use of certain preparations for treating fruit trees and shrubs.
1st stage “Visual inspection and cleaning”
Spring inspection and cleaning of tree trunks
The works of this phase must be carried out before the snow melts:
- inspect the condition of the bark of logs – delamination, damage, the presence of large cracks in which larvae of wintering pests can be located;
- Use a metal bristle brush to clean the peeled bark, clean indentations, crevices and cracked areas of tree trunks.
- do not leave it on the ground and do not throw the cleaned remains into the compost pits, they must be collected and burned.
2nd stage “spring cut”
General principles for pruning fruit trees
Spring processing of the garden includes pruning fruit trees, which are carried out before the start of sap flow. This is especially important for old trees.
The pruning is performed either hygienically (removal of damaged branches and sections, and thinning of the crown) or aesthetically (creation of a crown).
The cutting is done with a quality tool. For these purposes, it is advisable to use a special garden tool – secateurs, hacksaw and brush cutter. When working, be careful not to damage the bark in the places of trimming (torn trimming, biting, etc.).
The cut points should be treated with a garden pitch (paraffin / wax + rosin + mineral / vegetable oil). Garden var can be prepared independently, but it is better to use ready-made products (available in paste or aerosol form). Treatment is not carried out immediately, but after some time you need to let the wound heal a little.
3rd stage “Cleaning of plant residues”
Plant residues (mostly fallen leaves) are harvested in autumn. Since it is the foliage left for the winter that serves as the headquarters for insect pests, their larvae, eggs and fertilized female pests that enter diapause and can withstand frosts down t o-25 … -30 ° C. The plant remains left behind are also an excellent refuge for numerous rodents, which like to feed on the bark of young fruit tree seedlings.
In the spring, all plant debris, cut branches and branches should be completely removed.
4th stage “digging and processing of trunk circles”
Digging and working trunk circles
Next, trunk circles of trees and shrubs are buried. This is a simple and necessary operation that is mainly performed to improve soil aeration.
From phytopathogens, it is desirable to treat the soil of circles close to the trunk with biological preparations (Fitosporin, Gamair, Alirin-B, etc.) in order to disinfect the soil and saturate it with beneficial microorganisms. From wintered insects and their larvae, you can shed a solution of 0.5 kg prepared according to a simple recipe. Urea (urea) and 10 l. Water.
5th stage “white wash”
Spring processing of the garden traditionally consists in whitewashing trees. However, spring cleaning of tree trunks is carried out mainly from the aesthetic side.
Whitewashing is recommended in the fall (October-November) to protect against lichen, the spread of fungal microflora. If in the spring, it is advisable to whitewash no later than February.
Whitewash trees in the garden
A special “garde n-whitewash” is used for the white washing, which has an adhesive base and contains fungicides. Available in powder or pasty form. The “acrylic garden color” has recently been used, which has increased the moistur e-protecting properties that offer protection against rinsing rainfall.
In order to give the composition greater stickiness, you can also add sound, milk, household or green soap, casein glue or PVA adhesive.
An independent way to prepare garden white washer also takes place. It is made from lime, water, sound and copper sulfate. However, it should be remembered that alkaline properties of lime can lead to a crack of the bark that does not improve, but worsen the natural protection of the tree. Therefore, it is better to use reader compositions.
What amount should you apply for pots? Agricultural equipment recommends covering the entire trunk completely. This is the trunk from the root neck to the first skeletal branch of the lower level as well as the lower skeletal bemen for 1/3-1/2 of its lengths.
6. Level “Processing with pesticides of trunks and trees” “
There are five dates of spring spray:
1. Dream before swelling of the kidneys
The processing is carried out when the night air temperatures have been installed about 0 ° C and +3 … +5 ° C during the day. This is at the end of February – early March before the active sapotage is inserted. It is important not to miss the first processing, as there are initially opportunities to destroy insect tests in the bud and secondly to use maximum drug doses.
At that time, minera l-based medication is used. The medication “Drug 30 Plus”, “Preventin”, “Agreline” with a pronounced Ovicid effect are currently popular – they are destroyed by wintering insects and vegetable cocks. The principle of action is based on the fact that the pest is covered in thin oil film. As a result, the insect dies of suffocation. In addition, the mineral oil emulsion chitin-die protective membranes of insects, larvae, eggs, etc.
2. Spraying kidney
Processing at this stage aims at the prevention of diseases caused by fungal infection – cocticos, moniliosis, steam, anthracnosis, various putrefaction, etc.
To do this, use Bordeaux fluid and medication based on copper chloroxide (“Hom”, “Abiga-Pick”, “Oxich”, “Homoxil”, “Dotoluks”, etc.);
Universal insecto acids use the complex of insect tests (flower stomer, melting, subtaber, aphids, sawdust, etc.): chemicals (e.g. Aktara, Aktellik, Fufanonov) or biological products (e.g. EverTimek, KE “,” FitoVusmus, Ke ” ).
In the following table about the use of some medication for the treatment of fruit trees in spring.
Federgarten treatment – recommended preparations for the treatment of fruit trees
3. Spray before flowering
Immediately before flowering, orchards are usually treated with drugs from the caterpillars of the bears “Bitososbacillin”, “Lepidozid”, “Biosesectin”.
Horus (analogous to Horton), scorer, fitolavine are used to prevent scab, leaf rain, stain formation, monilial fire, cocomycosis, etc. The chorus preparation has proven itself among the universal fungicides. It is a systemic fungicide to protect core and stone fruit cultures from a complex of common diseases and grapes against various types of putrefaction.
4. Spray during flower
During the flower, no treatments are carried out, mainly to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide stress.
5. Spray after flowering
The processing takes place immediately after flowering with broadband pesticides, for example: