Soil in the garden – how to prepare it for winter?

How to prepare the soil for winter. How to prepare the soil in autumn: How to fertilise the soil

How to prepare the soil for winter. How to prepare the soil in autumn: How to fertilise the soil

Fall tillage of the soil should be accompanied by the introduction of basic and mineral fertilizers, as well as limestone, phosphorus and potassium. It will be helpful to add sand and clay to the bottom.

This is an ideal organic fertilizer for autumn fertilizing the soil, improving its composition. Especially famous for its properties horse manure. Fertilizer is embedded in the ground, but not too deep. When manure is fresh and falls into deep layers of soil, it does not decompose. If such fertilizer for the winter will be in the upper layers, during the frost it will decompose, and in the spring it will be good food for useful microorganisms. But the best fertilizer is not fresh, but half-decomposed. It will be nearly decomposed by spring. The rate of decomposition of such fertilizer in autumn depends on the humidity, ventilation and temperature in the bed.

How to prepare the soil for winter. How to prepare the soil in Autumn: How to fertilize it

This work is carried out only during the fall tillage and only once every 5-6 years. Lime helps to disperse the soil. In addition, calcium increases its fertility. It is especially important to apply lime to heavy substrates. Thanks to calcium they become friable, the water-air regime improves. Various microorganisms under the influence of limestone increase their activity in assimilation of nitrogen or actively contribute to the decomposition of humus. As a result, plant nutrition improves.

The dosage of alkali for application is different for each plot. It depends on the pH of the soil, its calcium content, on what components it consists of – loam, clay or sand. Currently there is no shortage of alkaline materials – hydrated lime, ground limestone, chalk, dolomite flour, cement dust, myrtle, peat and wood ash, etc.

After liming, it is much easier to handle heavy soil, and if the soil is light, on the contrary, it becomes cohesive and resistant to moisture.

These fertilizers are applied to the soil together with organic matter in autumn. If the soil is heavy, clayey, coarse-grained river sand is added once a year at the rate of 1-1.5 buckets per 1 m2 and peat crumbs in the same amount. If the soil is peaty, it should be “clayey” and “sandy”, for which purpose river sand and crushed dry clay are added to the soil in equal amounts.

There is another way to improve the quality of the soil. After harvesting and loosening, it is necessary to sow the bed with a mixture of siderates pa, mustard and melilot. And after they have grown, they should be mixed into the soil. You can also try to bury the remains of green plants in the garden – nettles, marigolds, calendula. The husks of onions and garlic will also be suitable for this purpose.

Preparing the soil for wintering. Preparing the soil for wintering: what is important to do after the harvest

How to prepare your garden for winter. Preparing the soil for winter: What is important to do after the harvest

In autumn, after the removal of vegetable crops from the beds, it is necessary to carry out a number of measures to prepare the site for the coming winter. With proper treatment, the plants will have optimal conditions for growth next year.

Loosen the soil

Autumn preparation begins with loosening the top layer of soil to a depth of 4 to 6 cm. This procedure is performed by a rake, trowel, or hand cultivator. When loosening the surface there are remains of roots, fallen seeds of weeds, larvae of various harmful insects.

After loosening, the roots of weeds lose their ability to grow and grow again in the spring – they just turn into fertilizer. And the seeds from the surface of the ground are quickly pecked out by birds.

Beautiful soil is better enriched with oxygen and moisture thanks to rain and snow cover. If it is not covered and covered, it does not need to be deforested. Such a place will be completely ready for planting by spring.

Get rid of pests

You can get rid of garden pests by disinfecting the soil with natural and chemical means. The most popular are: Phytosporin-M, Healthy Earth, BTU Floor Extractor. These preparations are used to make solutions for plots, and empty beds are turned into scales.

Phytosporin-M exists in liquid, powder and granular form. The preparation is used everywhere, including for watering the soil.

The rate of consumption is 10 liters of solution per 1 hectare of land. The effect of the drug is immediately readable – it destroys all known garden parasites.

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BTU soil health is a multifunctional product against underground pests. It differs from Fitosporin-M in that it accelerates the decomposition of plant residues, enriches and revitalizes the soil with nitrogen. The preparation suppresses fungal and bacterial diseases, replenishes the lack of vitamins and amino acids.


How to prepare your garden for winter. Preparing the soil for winter: What is important to do after the harvest

In autumn, the soil loses its fertility and is in a dehydrated state. In the next season it needs to restore its nutrient composition. This is precisely the purpose of applying Huus fertilizer.

In order to continue enriching the soil, it is necessary to complete the work in early September by mid-October. Then the rainy season begins.

The most popular mineral fertilizer is superphosphate. It is the best source of phosphorus. The cost does not exceed 100 rubles per 1 kg. To feed the floor, the preparations on the plot are applied at the rate of 30 g per 1 sq. M and dig the soil to a depth of 7-10 cm.

A mixture of 2 tablespoons of nitrophoska and 20 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water will also do. At a price of 100-110 rubles. Per 1 kg, these preparations are an excellent source for nutrient pathways.

Seeding or spunbond sprouts

Spunbond is sown in the fall to maintain the organic mass, which will become a substrate for nourishing the soil and improving its physical indicators. They also promote beneficial soil organisms: bacteria, fungi, worms and insects. After sowing, the surprises should grow and then seal into the soil.

Unlike polyethylene, spunsbond is a breathable and moisturizing material. If the soil uses it as a home in the garden, you can’t do without watering and oxygenation.

Spunsbond can cover an area all year round. In the fall and winter, it protects the ground from freezing, excess moisture and waterlogging. Compared to the review, its disadvantage is that it does not nourish the soil structure and does not improve. But it prevents the emergence of weeds.

Preparing the garden for winter. Autumn preparation of the floor for winter.

After the harvest, it is necessary to immediately put in order the floor in the garden and vegetable garden. Fall maintenance increases fertility, helps control pests, diseases and weeds, and reduces labor costs. So what makes sense to do in the garden in the fall?

Fall tillage to prevent diseases and pests

The beds need to be free of large weeds, dry haulm, fruit, and other debris. It’s best to begin fall tillage at the same time as harvesting or as early as possible. Don’t put it off too long: Pathogenic fungi spores get tired on decaying plant debris, infect the soil, and prepare for a successful winter. This is aided by rain, and in clear weather by fog and night.

It is very often written that during fall work in the dacha, tomato tops and other plant debris and signs of infections should not be composted, but should be burned. However, this is not necessary: in the thickness of the compost there are no suitable conditions for the development of pathogens, mature compost is harmless for garden plants.

Loosening the top layer

Immediately after harvesting crop residues, it is necessary to loosen the beds as early as possible to a depth of 3-4 cm to break up the soil crust.

This should be done before the onset of persistent sagging in the cold. Loosening provokes the germination of weed seeds. The more you have time to dig by fall, the better. After digging in the fall, the seedlings die off, which reduces the number of weeds next season.

Autumn soil recultivation

Does the soil need to be recultivated in the fall? Digging in the fall does not make sense for all soil types. It has no positive effect on sandy, crumbly soils, but is extremely useful on heavy clay soils.

Digging the soil in the fall improves the structure of the clay bed. It forms pores, air pores, into which oxygen penetrates. This is very important for root respiration and plant uptake of nutrients. If there is a lack of oxygen, the nutrients go to a form that is inaccessible to plants and plant productivity declines.

Autumn digging of the soil in the country house reduces the infestation of pests and diseases in the garden. It destroys pests’ passages and nests and gives them access to cool air. The clods that have fallen to the surface freeze better, and this helps to partially disinfect them.

Graben reduces the number of annual weeds. Smaller weeds die off a bit after ditching, making it easier to meet the next season.

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Snow images are used wisely. More snow accumulates on the hilly surface of the beds after the ditch. The water does not run off to the sides when the snow melts, but gets into the pores formed after the ditch, swells and soaks deep into the floor. In the spring, garden vegetables will be able to use the stockpile of biologically active snow formations to grow.

Preparing the garden for winter. Autumn preparations of beds for winter

Take time to complete the trench before using the longer rains: If the soil is wet to a depth of 10 cm or more, you can no longer dig it, as this will crumble the soil and destroy its structure. As a rule of thumb, experienced gardeners try to have time to dig before the beginning of October.

Dig the beds to a depth of about 15-20 cm and turn the flounder over as much as possible so that the weeds are at the bottom. It is not necessary to thoroughly break up the clods and level the bed: snow and water accumulate better on an uneven surface. These are the necessary fall work in the summer house.

Preparing the floor in the fall

Preparing the floor in the fall

Summer is over, and now it’s time to think about the next season, and sensible soil preparation is a good investment in the future harvest.

Optimum soil structure

One of the most important activities is tillage. Tillage methods are hotly debated. Some consider the old-fashioned tank shell system to be correct. Others call it nothing less than a crime against the farmer. They cite the Native Americans who grow corn and potatoes using only a gravel stick and a hoe as an example. To understand what’s what, we need to know what properties the country on our site has and what we want to make of it. Plants are known to have different needs, but most vegetable crops thrive best on light, nutritious soils with good structure (lots of pores to hold water and oxygen, with particles that absorb and retain nutrients), with a light sodic or nearly neutral reaction (pH of 6 to 7). This is ideal, but it is not easy to achieve in practice.

Fertilizing the soil

I think no one will seek to do serious earthwork if the layers meet the parameters just mentioned, and can be limited to light loosening. Unfortunately, our floors are mostly heavy and acidic. The problem is, to put it mildly, applying lime and loosening agents without being familiar with them. Mulch and compost are only beneficial if they are mixed with the soil. The use of mulching material also requires thoughtful consideration. Undecomposed organic material does not provide plants. The layer of mulch should be thick enough (15-20 cm) and serve as actual soil. Even better, if you cover enough structural soil, in which the roots of crops can easily sprout. The same cucumbers easily master a thin layer of filler floor of crop residues and compost and do not let the roots under it.

Recently, much has been written about the use of Graten for fall, “stopper” mulch, in addition to the traditional peat, sawdust and straw, not only weeds, grass clippings, but also sawdust, coal waste, food waste. I personally am not satisfied with it. And not only because each portion of such organic material has to be covered with earth, which is quite tedious (not to overturn the same beds of beds), but also because it is food and wintering ground for mice, snails and other cheeky garden pests. Also, the decomposition of rough stems and roots and pests in the compost pile can be controlled even better.

Living Fertilizer

If green fertilizer is used to improve the soil, it does not need to be applied until late fall. Green and rotting plants should be in the ground as long as it is still warm and decomposition processes are active. Cereals are preferred because they have very few diseases and pests in common with vegetables.

Weeds and pests

Weed control

Our plots vary greatly in the number and species composition of weeds. And we have to decide how to overcome them. Which ones we dig out with a pitchfork, which ones we simply cut down and keep from scattering seeds. And which ones are less after the ditch. Separate talk about areas with lots of rhizomatous perennials, such as: B. creeping cordgrass and gout. In the fight against it, the shovel is a poor helper. During digging, we inevitably cut the rhizome into separate pieces with buds, that is, involuntarily undercut the weeds and achieve the opposite effect to what is expected. Here it is better to use a pitchfork and a rake to take the rhizomes out of the ground and “unite” what can extend a meter. Both gout and mersecca are difficult to eradicate, and the damage from them is considerable. Not only do they suppress crops, but they also offer pests and discharges. Wheat grass is a popular food and bait for wireworms. The white fly, the scourge of greenhouse plants, feeds and breeds on Hirsch. It harms outdoors as well, but it has better breeding conditions in the greenhouse, and since it is numerous, it can not only parasitize but also destroy cucumbers, tomatoes and flowers.

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It would be a good idea to think about our enemies and allies from the wild. If pests are not a big problem due to natural conditions, it is best to limit our interference to a minimum. However, if snails, wireworms, potato beetles, mice, and other shad have taken up residence in our garden to hibernate, it’s a good idea to disturb it with late fall digging. The beetles and larvae that have already lost mobility will come to the surface, freeze to death, and the disturbed mice will leave their lodges in search of a quiet “place of residence.”

To dig in autumn or not to dig?

  • The need to apply lime materials and organic fertilizers with a low degree of decomposition, including green manure;
  • high infestation with resistant weeds;
  • heavy, compacted soils;
  • abundance of wintering pests;
  • need for snow removal;
  • Wet climate with long springs, slow soil warming and ripening.
  • Sloping site;
  • Flooded area;
  • Light, erosion-prone soils.

So, how to properly prepare the beds for winter. How to properly follow the order of preparation

Preparation should begin with clearing the site of the remains of beads, weeds and other plant residues. If they are healthy, put them in a compost pit for decomposition, after which they can be used to improve the quality of the soil. If necessary, chalk or hydrated lime can be added to such fertilizer to normalize the acidity of the soil. If there are signs of disease, it is better to burn it outside the area.

How to prepare beds for winter. How to correctly observe the sequence of preparation

Preparation should begin with clearing the area of the remaining tops.

Pay special attention to weeds. They need to be removed with special care: the root system, creeping stems. The garden should be completely free of them, so that in the spring you will not lose time if they will grow faster than the vegetables on the settled soil.

Now that you have cleared the entire plot of weeds and their residues. It is necessary to enrich the soil with nitrogen fertilizer, potassium and phosphorus – they are suitable for all plants. Since nothing grows on the beds, urea can be applied even in winter, it is not difficult to calculate: 20-25 g per 1 m2; superphosphate fertilizer in the proportion of 18-20 g per 1 m2; potassium chloride in the proportion of 15-20 g per 1 m2. Do not be afraid to apply chlorine, when spring comes, it will not be in the soil anymore. In addition, it is a good idea to apply already decomposed layer of manure in the proportion of 5-6 kg per 1 m2 or leaf humus, 3-4 kg per 1 m2. Ash, wood or soot in the proportion of 250-300 g per 1 m2 will also be useful.

To lighten heavy soil or clay soil in the garden, 1 bucket of river sand, previously mixed with compost, is applied per square meter. This loosens the soil and preserves its fertile properties.

Conversely, if you have sandy soil, in which neither water nor nutrients are retained, you need to mix it with clay, also a bucket per square meter, add compost at the rate of 5-6 kg per 1 m2, humus from leaves 3-4 kg per 1 m2, as well as sawdust, 1 bucket per 1 m2. Be careful with sawdust, as it can oxidize the floor, so when laying make sure the floor is watered and slightly damp.

How to prepare beds for winter. How to correctly observe the sequence of preparation

Be careful with sawdust, as it can oxidize the soil

Soil with an acid index below 6 units should be enriched with chalk or hydrated lime. If the acid-base balance is less than 4.5, it is necessary to use limestone at a rate of 200-250 g per 1 m2. If the indicators are in the range of 4.6-5.5, chalk is added at the rate of 250-300 g per 1 m2.

All the described substances are applied in the autumn during the digging of the garden. First, scatter over the top layer of turf, then dig over the soil to the full bayonet of the shovel and mix all the necessary ingredients with the soil.

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How to prepare vegetable garden beds for winter

Summer is over, the crops are almost harvested, but it’s still too early to rest. September is a time of important worries to prepare for winter and the next season. The work will require time and serious effort, but you can not be lazy, because the preparation of beds in autumn is the key to the future rich harvest. We will tell you how to insulate beds in the garden and in the greenhouse and thereby improve the structure of the soil.

Harvesting in the garden in autumn

Preparations for a bountiful harvest in the garden begin in autumn

Measures to prepare for winter

The importance of fall tillage can not be underestimated, it depends on it, what will be with your crops in the next season. During the year, the soil is depleted, pests and pathogenic bacteria multiply. Experienced gardeners conduct special measures in the first month of fall, which necessarily include:

  • removing tops, plant debris and weeds.
  • Repotting the beds.
  • Treatment against pests and diseases.
  • Fertilizing and restoring soil structure.

Although there is a lot of work to be done, it can be done neatly and slowly compared to spring, when planting dates are tight. In addition, the fertilizer applied over the winter will dissolve and well nourish the soil with useful substances.

site cleanup

Preparation for the winter period begins with a thorough cleaning of the garden of old grass, vegetable tops, weeds and other plant debris. So you will not only clean up, but also cope with rodents that like to hide in “crowded” places.

Harvesting for winter

Weeds are removed from the garden and can be stored in the compost pit

The vegetable compartment can either be burned or it can be made into compost. The second method requires more time – but this way you can get your own hands a good nutritious substrate for fertilizing beds.

Greenbeds for the winter

Organic farming trends have been gaining popularity in recent years. Your followers do not recommend fall recultivation and are limited to applying manure or ash to the plot.

However, fall tillage is a good way to improve soil structure that should not be neglected. Graben can be done in two ways:

  • Off-bottom – with a shovel, flip the bottom so that the top layer is at the bottom. Good for pest control.
  • Unwelded – we don’t turn the soil over to maintain beneficial microflora.

In both cases, you don’t need to break big combs. You will help retain rain and melt water on the building site, fill the soil with moisture and improve the structure.

Harvesting the garden in autumn

To retain moisture, when digging the vegetable garden for the winter, the clump is not disturbed

Important: Autumn digging is necessary for heavy, uncultivated soils. For loose and light soils, a simple loosening is enough, and sandy soil is treated in the spring.

Preparing the soil for winter in the greenhouse

Soil treatment in the fall is aimed at destroying pathogenic microflora and pests, which quickly multiply in the old tops and wilted grass. Disinfection is a tedious process, but it should never be neglected. Otherwise, in the first days of spring the seedlings suffer from diseases and pests.

Pathogens, parasite larvae and fungal spores overwinter at a depth of 7 to 10 cm. Therefore, the best option is to remove this layer of soil with a shovel with a seam and replace it with fresh soil. Do not take the floor out of the garden, as it can also be infested. Prepare the floor with your own hands using organic matter, wood ash, sawdust or sand.

bacteria Shelf life in the ground
Average Maximum
Salmonella typhoid 0.5 12
Cholera vibriones 0.5 4
Pinworms 0.5 2
The causative agent of tularemia 0.5 2.5
Dysentery bacillus 1 2
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3 7

Respectfully! Choose a special place for the ground from the greenhouse. Water the layers with a small amount of lime. After a year, it can be used again in the beds.

Distribute the resulting soil evenly over the area of the beds. Treat it to prevent germs and shape with a solution of potassium humus or copper sulfate. Then cover the beds with organic mulch – soil preparation for winter is complete.

Important! Treatment with copper sulfate can be carried out no more than 1 time in 5 years (the solution increases the acidity of the soil).

In cases where it is impossible to remove the layer of soil for some reason, it is possible to get rid of harmful microorganisms by one of the methods described below.

Fill the beds with boiling water and cover with foil for 24 hours. Remove the film, put the floor. Afterwards, repeat the procedure two more times. Note that after disinfection beds with a solution of biological preparations surrender.

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Chemical compositions, which are left for disinfection, have proven themselves well:

  • A solution of permanent potassium (1 teaspoon per liter of water);
  • copper sulfate solution (1-2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water);
  • formalin solution (200 g per 10 liters of water) at the rate of 10 liters per 1 sq. m;
  • Mowing the ground with bleach (100-200 g/m²), followed by embedding with soil;
  • Special biological preparations – phytocide, phytosporin, etc.

Be aware of the toxicity of some chemicals. Instruction on the floor should be carried out in a gas mask.

Important: A very popular method is burning sulfur bombs. However, it requires special precautions, and is also not suitable for greenhouses and greenhouses with a metal frame, as it promotes corrosion of metal.

Land treatment in autumn before the appearance of pests and diseases: a gentle alternative

Chemical compositions for disinfection are an effective thing in greenhouses and garden plots. But they have a drawback – with the slightest miscalculation in the dosage, they turn into serious problems. In addition, they kill both pathogenic and beneficial microflora.

There are gentle but effective methods of revitalizing and disinfecting the soil in the garden in the fall:

    Irrigation of beds with preparations with effective microorganisms (Baikal, Shiny).

Fertilizing the garden in autumn: the choice of fertilizer

Experienced dacha owners and gardeners have to fertilize the over-cultivated garden in the fall. This is an effective way to increase the fertility of the soil, restoring the balance of nutrients that have been used up during the season and have not frozen over the winter.

Mineral and organic fertilizers are applied from September to October. Nitrogen should be abandoned, as it stimulates the growth of plants that die at the first frost.

The use of fertilizers during the bunting provides better penetration of useful components into the root system of seedlings, which greatly increases their endurance and productivity. Fertilizers are sprinkled on the surface of the cultivated surface and lift the bottom, plowing it evenly to a depth of about 15 cm.

The choice of fall fertilizer and its amount depends on the crops you will grow. For example, composted organic material has a positive effect on seedlings and seeds of vegetable crops. All types of compost and humus are suitable. For each linear meter – 1-2 buckets.


Compost is rich in trace elements – phosphorus, potassium, etc. It is used to enrich the soil and increase yields.

For the pumpkin family, it is recommended to use only fresh organic products. Per 1 m² – 1 bucket of humus and 1 bucket of litter.

Choose summer-autumn mineral fertilizers and mono-fertilizers. They contain salts of phosphorus and potassium (potassium magnesia, simple and double superphosphate, potassium salt, etc.). The amount of mineral fertilizer is calculated depending on the manufacturer.

How to cultivate the soil in the countryside in autumn to improve its structure

Choose a solution depending on the type of soil. Heavy floors do not absorb moisture and they have to be loosened frequently. You can improve the structure by adding washed river sand – 1-2 kg per 1 m².

The problem with sandy clay is low moisture absorption. It can be increased by specifically fertilizing with compost, decomposted sawdust or leaf humus.

Lime hydrate or saplings help to neutralize the acidity of the soil. Their use increases the looseness of the soil, its air permeability and moisture permeability. When acidity is high, the amount of ash applied is high. This has an adverse effect on the soil, so it is better to use lime. Löschkalk consumption is calculated on the basis of soil chemistry.

Soil acid

Add hydrated lime to the soil to lower the acidity

The pH of the soil is checked with lacquered muslin paper. To accurately determine the pH value, take samples from different locations and depths.

Siderators are also a proven method of remediation. They are recommended for preparing tall beds for winter. Siders can be used to loosen heavy soil, decontaminate pathogenic diseases, and increase fertility.

You should not use gel or polystyrene balls or foam glass as a foamcoat to structure the ground. With little chemical resistance, they can react with fertilizers and insecticides. Pellets are even more dangerous to birds. Once covered with large amounts of beads, they die.


Prepare the garden for winter correctly, and next season the soil will surely thank you with an abundant, delicious harvest!

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