Rules of vine protection for the winter in Siberia

Properly covering grapes for the winter in Siberia

Protection of grapes for the winter in Siberia

Despite the fact that the culture is heat-loving, they are grown by many gardeners in the expanses of Siberia. You should know that grapes are very sensitive to the manifestation of cold, and at temperatures below zero, the top suffers first of all. Of course, there are varieties whose characteristic feature is a high degree of resistance to frost. However, growing in Siberia, where the climate is not particularly pleasing, requires the most careful attitude to the plant.

Winter and grapes

Protection of the vine under the film with straw as an insulator

Insulated cover allows grapes to survive the cold winter.

As a rule, frost-resistant varieties can withstand quite low temperatures – from twenty to thirty degrees below zero, while the Amur grape is able to easily pass with a minus sign at forty-four degrees.

It should be noted that for young seedlings, even a slight drop to five degrees below zero.

Late spring frosts for already flowering buds are extremely dangerous.

Temperature changes.

The basal stem of the grape and the three thick branches growing from it

Stems and root of grapes do not tolerate frosts and temperature changes.

Temperature fluctuations are just as dangerous. When a sudden thaw begins in winter, grapes are sensitive and begin to wake up. A sudden transition to low temperatures can provoke the death of the plant. It is noteworthy that the root system is most susceptible to frosts, even at the accepted temperature – twenty degrees below zero.

This also applies to the most constant varieties for colds:

  • Tukai;
  • Solovyova-58;
  • Russian; ;
  • Muscat red; .

If the decision is made to grow grapes in Siberia, it is necessary to prepare all precautions.

Wintering grapes in Siberia

Autumn pruning with a sharp pruning shear, preparing for winter ripening

Grapes are cut under protection.

Regardless of which variety is grown, the time to prepare grapes for winter remains universal. This measure depends only on the weather and climatic conditions.

Preparations should begin in September – in the first half, so that by the end of September or early October, the plantings are already covered. Before the event, it is necessary to make preparations that will allow the vines and hardships.

To do this, a temporary shelter is arranged, but before this, some conditions must be met:

  • Re-mulch;
  • Collecting the shoots in a bundle;
  • Direct sheltering;
  • Sanitation.

Protection of grapes.

Pruning is carried out according to all the rules – different methods are used according to the needs of a particular variety.

Bundling grapevine branches for pruning at ground level

After pruning and sanitation, branches are collected in bundles.

  1. In the trench, multiple mulching should be carried out. This is necessary in order to protect the plant as much as possible from the germination of weeds, pests invasion. In addition, the compression of the mulch layer serves as additional protection for the roots.
  2. In addition, bushes are disinfected in the presence of pests.
  3. The remaining shoots after pruning are collected in bunches, which are carefully placed at the bottom of the grooves, along which the culture is covered with polyethylene film or special fibers.
  4. Temporary covering allows the culture to survive the first frosts, harden and accumulate the necessary sugars. The adaptation period usually lasts a month and a half.

The choice of material and rules of protection

To date, the horticultural market offers a wide range of covering material for various crops.

There is a method of mulching for winter sheltering. Peat, sawdust, pine needles, dry larch are used for this. In some cases, grain husks are used for mulch. Soil is considered an effective additional means.

In Siberia, wooden boards in the form of a shield, cardboard – canvases are used. Often you can see a line of spruce on the plantings, zinzen of reeds. However, a greater number of gardeners use as a covering material regaza, purchased in specialized stores. It can also be a film or roofing material. It is worth noting that in order for the vine not to wilt, it is necessary to properly prepare the bushes.

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Grapes protected with polyethylene for winter in Siberia

It is possible to cover like this!

The procedure is carried out by two technologies.

Covering dry

The first technology is called “dry covering”, which reduces the possibility of bowing buds, in a cocoon similar microclimate is natural for grapes. This technology involves harvesting the vines in bunches, then the bunches are tied up.

    Roofing material, film or other special fiber is placed on the bottom of the trench, tied and mounted listed and collected in bunches of vines.

Bunch of grape branches on a throw of roofing material and pruned arch wires

Any material with waterproofing properties can be used as a bedding for the branches.

Grape branches on the ground and a mister-shaped bracket mount

Fastening the stems with a wire brace.

Wooden shields 50x150 cm over a bed of grapes, dry winter home

Wooden shields installed near the house are nailed at the top.

Roofing material protection on a wooden frame for vines in the cold north

To prevent the structure from getting wet, a roofing membrane or film is laid on top of it.

Traditional hide-and-seek

The second technology involves a more traditional approach. The essence of the technology is to protect the grapes from the cold with soil and snow. Many gardeners believe that this method will save more plantings, even if there are immature shoots.

    Culture stems are placed in a trench, then the earth is poured on the stems, the layer of earth should be at least thirty centimeters.

Grapes are bent to the ground and covered with a thick layer of soil.

Backfill the stems with soil from the aisles.

Autumn spraying of vines with iron sulfate solution before protection for winter

Treating the vines with lime or iron sulfate reduces the risk of grape rot and mildew.

Roofing materials on a bed of laid grapes, winter cover-up in the traditional way

Lay the roofing material with overlaps.

Ruberoid covered with earth, vine protection with waterproofing material

Cover the edges of the material with earth.

Open the bunches after wintering

On no account should the bushes be opened abruptly. This happens when the temperature gradually stabilizes, the snow melts.

Winter protection for grapes during snow melt and opening the end side for ventilation

When the snow melts, the shelter begins to ventilate.

  1. First remove the snow-holding structures – at the beginning of warming. As soon as the snow has completely melted and the temperature regime stabilizes, the waterproofing is removed.
  2. It is quite possible to release the vineyard not earlier than the second half of April – the main means are removed, the vines are released, the sleeves are lifted to the surface of the trench.
  3. Immediately after the release of the vine should be hung on a trellis, so that it ventilates and dries out. And it is impossible to tie it yet – only to hang it on the lower tier.
  4. After final drying, untie the stems and put them in a groove. Do not tie yet – night frosts are possible, in which case the plant should be covered immediately.
  5. During this period, special attention is important, as the culture is actively waking up, and frosts can destroy the developing horns.
  6. All protective structures are completely removed when the weather has stabilized, the danger of late frosts has disappeared.
  7. It is necessary to be very careful to tie the branches to the bars, so as not to damage the development of rosettes. In addition, release the bushes are engaged in the evening or in cloudy weather.

Do not allow direct sunlight to damage the weakened because of the long “dry” period of the plant.

How to cover grapes for the winter?

Covering grapes for the winter is an important activity. It affects the growth and development of the bush in the next season. To preserve grapes in the cold winter, it is necessary to know some functions and rules of covering. When insulating, it is important to consider the varieties and characteristics of the climate, the age of the bush, the timing and rules of preparation.

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Covering grapes

When should grapes be covered?

Grapes can freeze at temperatures below 5 ° C, so all work is carried out by this time. When the root system moves, the entire bush dies. If the above-ground part is frozen, grapes can be restored.

There are varieties that can withstand frosts up to 28°C, but even at e-20°C they may freeze. If lower temperatures are predicted, at least to 4 … -5 ° C – frost-resistant grapes should be insulated.

Why it is important to strictly observe the terms of protection of grapes for the winter:

  • If you insulate early, there is a risk of pruning, mold, condensation, from which the culture dies.
  • If you are late with the insulation, the roots change.

Measures to protect the bush are carried out only in dry weather – there should be no traces of high humidity on the floor and plants.

The main condition – the vine is subjected to hardening, that is, it is given the opportunity to endure the first frosts in the open. This rule applies exclusively to adult crops.

The choice of timing with regard to geographical location

The timing of isolation depends on the regionality of the culture’s growth:

  • Moscow region and Leningrad region. The average daily air temperature should not be more than e-2 ° C, so that the working process should be carried out after November 20 and before December 10. Preparation should begin in late September.
  • The Urals and Western Siberia. Preparatory activities are carried out from late August to early September. Covering is carried out from October to early November.
  • Central strip of Russia. Vines are covered in 20-30 days after the leaves open, i.e. in the middle of November.
  • Ukraine. These are relatively warm regions, in which the conditions of insulation of grapes carry over into winter, especially with the late beginning of Indian summer. The optimal time is November, in the south of Ukraine – December.

Preparation of grapes for protection

An important factor is the preparatory measures to protect grapes for the winter period. In northern areas, there are no natural leaves to lay before the first frosts. Therefore, remove leaves from the grape bush and remove weed vegetation from the bedding circle.

Pruning grapes in autumn

Processing conditions

Pruning and other grape production activities for overwintering are done after the leaves have fallen. It is important that the night temperature has a constant value of 0 to o-2 ° C.

Feeding .

Fertilizers are used 2-3 weeks before the appearance of moisture. So that grapes can normally overgrow and get a rich harvest in the spring, it is necessary to produce nutrients, but it is forbidden to fertilize with nitrogen in the fall.

For the autumn feeding of the grape bush, you can use the following composition:

  1. Take up to 15 g of potassium and 20 g of phosphorus per 10 liters of water.
  2. Add about 12-15 drops of pharmacy iodine to the solution.
  3. Add powdered boric acid (5 g) to the mixture.

Treatment against diseases

To avoid the spread of pests, the bush and the surrounding area are sprayed with copper sulfate (100 g of the substance per 9-10 liters of water). Against diseases, the following compounds are used:

  • From fungal and infectious diseases. Take 35-40 g of table salt, 15-20 g of soda, 7-10 drops of iodine per 9-10 liters of water.
  • Against mold and oidium. A pink solution of manganese or colloidal sulfur (10 g powder per 9-10 liters of water) is used.
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If you do not want to use such products, buy ready-made preparations – Topaz, Ridomil or Fondazol. Be sure to follow the instructions for use that are listed on the products.

Other measures

What else needs to be done if the grape bush is prepared for covering:

  1. 3 days before heating, conduct a moisture charge, as absolutely dry soil freezes. To do this, dig a few holes than drainage holes. Water at the rate of 20 liters of water per 1 year of the plant’s life.
  2. Leave the branches brown. To do this, remove the shoots from the trellis and distribute them on the floor. This will open the access of light to all branches.
  3. Prune the bushes – remove diseased and damaged elements, thin shoots and tops (vertically growing thick branches from the old sleeve). Leave greenhouses to 8 shoots that have had time to harden and grow 4 buds. Shorten last year’s shoots so that up to 12-15 eyes remain.

How to cover grapes for the winter?

There are many ways to insulate grapes, but there is a basic rule: the root system is covered more. It is the roots that are most often exposed to frost.


This is the fastest and most cost-effective method. The main condition is loose soil and its light moisture. You can add sawdust for warmth.

How to properly divide grapes before wintering – step by step instructions:

  1. Clear an area of 1 m around the bush.
  2. Using a garden block, construct a mound of 13-15 cm in height around the trunk.
  3. Treat the area with a weak solution of manganese.
  4. Arrange herbs to discourage mice.

When snow appears, spread it on the mound. If the grapes grow in the northern width, the height of the hill is at least 25 cm, the radius 30-40 cm.

An experienced gardener will explain in the following video about mounds of grapes:

partial sheltering

This method is suitable for regions with warm winters. It involves the use of soil and improvised materials – straw, fabric, sacking linen, foil, agrofiber, hay, etc.

The process of partial heating of grapes:

  1. Cover the bottom of the bush with a layer of soil (as with Hilling).
  2. Tie the branches of the plant together with a binder in a bundle.
  3. Place a covering material or straw on the floor.
  4. Spread out the grapes, pressing them down with planks or car tires.
  5. Cover with foil, for example.

Full cover.

Such insulation makes sense in case of severe frosts. Step-by-step instructions for full placement:

  1. Remove the branches from the trellis, bundle them together and tie them with rope.
  2. Dig a flat ditch so that it takes up half the height of the tied vines. Put sawdust (straw, hay, etc.) in it.
  3. Wrap the branches with geotextile.

Straw or reeds

An environmentally friendly and breathable way to insulate vines for the winter. First of all, you need to prepare a reed, piston or straw from crops. Before this, the material is thoroughly dried under sunlight.

How to insulate a grape bush with straw or reeds:

  1. Gather the vines into a bundle.
  2. Spread the straw on the ground and press the grapes against it.
  3. Cover with at least 20 cm of straw.
  4. After a few weeks, add the same amount of masking material.
  5. Secure the construction with ropes, plastic clips or cover it with netting so that the straw doesn’t fly away in the wind.

You can also learn more about protecting grapes from the following video:

Using snow

This method is effective in Siberia and in regions where there is a lot of winter precipitation for a long time. An important factor is that the grapes must be able to withstand temperatures up to 10 °C.

The process of creating a snow hut:

  1. Tie the vines into a bundle.
  2. Place pieces of plywood or boards on the surface of the ground.
  3. Place the vines on top and secure with wire/staples.
  4. Cover with snow. The layer should be at least 40-50 cm.
  5. Tamp thoroughly.

In winter, add snow and compact it. The higher the layer, the warmer the plant.

Covering with slate

Slate is used as an improvised material (if it is not available, it is replaced by boards, roofing material, etc.). To build a trench shelter:

  1. Dig a trench along the branches that are placed inside. The depth is up to 30 cm.
  2. In very harsh climates, insulate the trench with boards on the sides and bottom.
  3. Tie twine around the vines and wrap them in bamboo (agrofoil, etc.).
  4. Place the grapes in the trench and cover them with slate so that they overhang the sides by 15 cm.
  5. Cover with soil to anchor the structure.

Covering with slate

Using Spunbond

Spunbond is the technical name for a number of shelters. For example, agrofiber, erlide, fiberglass, etc. The material is opaque, characterized by moisture conductivity on one side only. It is considered breathable, so the plant under it breathes.

Proper ventilation keeps grapes dry and warm at the same time. Therefore, no condensation is formed, so the branches do not rot.

Spunbond is used in all climatic conditions. Gardeners recommend combining the material with natural raw materials – straw, hay. You can cover grapes with this material directly on trellises bent to the ground:

  1. Tie the branches and bend them to the ground, covering them with leaves or straw.
  2. Secure with staples.
  3. Cover with spunbond.
  4. Reinforce the structure (cover with earth).

Helpful recommendations for covering grapes can be found in the video:

Protecting against spruce branches

Among all types of spruce branches, spruce is considered the best for insulating plants for the winter, but you can use pine and fir.

A scheme for protecting grape bushes is very simple to follow:

  1. Spread spruce branches on the ground.
  2. Place the grapes tied up on top.
  3. Cover with spruce branches to a height of 35-40 cm.

Using sawdust

The main condition is the dryness of the materials. The procedure includes the following steps:

  • Lay plastic sheets on the ground.
  • On top, lay the vines.
  • Fill them abundantly with sawdust to a height of 30-40 cm.
  • Put a slate, boards or other hard material on top to keep moisture out.


For winter insulation of grapes, the leaves are collected during the season, thoroughly dried and stored in canvas bags. Leaves affected by pests or diseases should not be used.

  1. Dig a trench 18-22 cm deep.
  2. Put the branches of grapes in it.
  3. Cover it with 15 cm high leaves.

Cover the top with agrofoam, metal mesh or put wooden boards. Otherwise, the wind will blow the leaves away.

Basic rules for insulating grapes

Regardless of the chosen method of protecting grapes for the winter, adhere to these rules:

  • Do not put the branches of the grapes on the bare soil without improvised materials;
  • If the floor is left exposed and the location is blown by the wind, it is imperative that airflow barriers be installed.

Shades of Traubenheim depending on the region

The characteristic of climatic conditions obliges to take into account such rules for the protection of grapes:

  • Moscow region. It is advisable to use the trench method of protection. The material is dry (leaves, sawdust, chipboard). Film can not be used.
  • Leningrad region. Because of the high humidity, grapes are laid on the surface of the ground (no ditch). Due to the stagnation of melt water in the spring, the vineyard is equipped with a drainage system from the fall. For insulation of the bush, preference should be given to spruce and agrovolok.
  • Cuban. Against a warm climate, Cuban grapes in rare cases – only insulation – only the one that grows in the lowlands. It is enough to use partially.
  • Volga. Here the climate is sharply continental – with little snow, severe frosts in winter and hot summers. Therefore, the shelter must be full and powerful.
  • Central strip of Russia. The region is famous for the abundance of snow. The best option is to insulate grapes with snowdrops and spruce branches.
  • Black Earth. Very often on winter days the sun shines and heats the air to plus temperatures. For this reason, you can not use non-woven materials that are not ventilated, otherwise condensation will form. The best raw materials are agrofiber, spruce, leaves, etc.

Rules of protection of grapes in other countries:

  • Ukraine. In the southern part of Ukraine, grapes are not isolated. In other regions of the country, it is enough to protect with leaves, spruce and chipboard and press the branches to the floor.
  • Belarus. In a country with high humidity, trench structures are not used, grapes are laid on the floor or wrapped with lattices. The optimal material is spruce.

Peculiarities of protection of young grapes for winter

Before insulating young grapes, no pruning is done, but only the top is cut to prick out the wood. This is the main difference between projected events and adult grapes. Watering is discontinued in August.

Features of isolation of young grapes:

  1. Remove leaves when they remain.
  2. Dig a level trench.
  3. Transplant into a ring of vines.
  4. Reinforce the grapes in the trench.
  5. Cover with straw (you can use other material).
  6. Cover with boards or slate.

Cover the plant before the first frost, since the vine of a young bush is still tender and frosty.

You can watch a video about covering young grapes:

What types of grapes do not need protection?

There are certain grape varieties that can withstand low temperatures:

  • Isabella, Marusya and Saperavi. Frost tolerance is 28°C.
  • Marusya. Withstands up to 42 °C.
  • Kishmish, Swenson red and Spartan. Tolerant to temperatures slightly to-34 ° C.
  • Barsoom. Not afraid of the cold d o-27 ° C.
  • Early Golden and Vatra. Tolerant to o-30 °C.
  • Catawba and Vandal-color. Overwintering at temperatures up to 35°C.

With exact observance of the technology of covering grapes at home for winter, the plant will “thank” with a great harvest and large fruits. It is important to consider not only regional climatic conditions, but also the weather.

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