Red grapes and their functions
Red grapes are grown in all countries that practice wine making. There are technical and table varieties with early and late maturity dates. Red grapes are inferior to white and black varieties in terms of prevalence, but this does not affect the taste and quality of berries.
Red grapes and their functions
Description and composition
The main feature of red grapes is the color of the fruit. They have a light, purplish-purple color, there are rubbery, almost scarlet berries. The shell is even darker, blue-purple. Unlike the black varieties, the juice of such varieties is always white or colorless. Similar species are common in the wild, only the cultivated varieties have a slightly lighter color.
The composition of berries includes more than 150 biologically active substances. Anthocyanins give the red color to the shell and cellulose. There are fewer red varieties than black ones, but this does not affect the usefulness of the berries in any way. Anthocyanins increase immunity, resistance to infections and counteract cancer.
Flavonoids and catechins also affect the immune system. They thin the blood, reduce cholesterol levels. In addition, the fruit is rich in vitamins. The most important for the human body:
- Ascorbic acid or vitamin C – increases immunity, strengthens blood vessels
- Tocopherol or vitamin E has antioxidant properties, counteracts the formation of free radicals.
- Retinol or vitamin A, and its precursor beta-carotene – improves night vision, has a positive effect on the skin, hair, nails and local immunity.
- Vitamin B group – affects hematopoiesis, has a positive effect on the nervous system, the condition of mucous membranes and skin.
- Nicotinamide or vitamin PP – strengthens blood vessels, has anti-allergic effect.
- Vitamin K – regulates blood flow.
In addition to vitamins, the fruit also contains minerals. The high iron content helps to cope with mild anemia in 2-3 weeks. Potassium improves heart function. Magnesium, copper, zinc, selenium, phosphorus, calcium and other elements are identified in the pulp.
The amount of FAT (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) in 100 grams of product:
- POINTS-0.70-0.72 g;
- FATES-0,15-0,16 gr;
- Carbohydrates-17,1-17,3 g.
The rest of the mass is water. The caloric value of red grapes is low, only 69 kcal. Indicators vary depending on the variety.
From the analysis of the composition it is clear that red grapes have preferential properties. The combination of components has a positive effect on the human body. The berries are recommended:
- Elderly and mature people for the prevention of cell aging.
- To strengthen the heart and blood vessels, they reduce blood pressure.
- For the prevention of atherosclerosis.
- In chronic constipation.
- To improve memory, attention, prevention of Alzheimer’s disease.
- As a preventive and beneficial agent for cancer.
- To strengthen the immune system and body resistance.
- In pathologies of the liver, both profound and choleretic.
- In reduced acidity of gastric juice.
- To reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.
- When nervous exhaustion, stress, depression, chronic fatigue.
- In diseases of the joints.
Fruits prevent vitamin deficiencies and colds. They help with respiratory diseases. If you want to have a healthy heart, you should also eat these sweet berries.
The benefits of pips.
It is recommended to eat berries with pips.
It turns out that not only berries have bioactive substances. The benefits of red grapes for the body are not less. Therefore, it is recommended to eat fruits with seeds. They contain a large amount of antioxidants, which compensate the effects of free radicals on cell membranes. As a result, aging is slowed down, inflammation is relieved and the risk of malignant rebirth is reduced.
Grape seed extract is often added to health supplements and pills, which are prescribed for the prevention of a number of diseases. Cosmetics use it to make anti-aging and moisturizing creams. Kernels contain substances with antiseptic action, as their extract relieves skin inflammation on the face, reduces acne.
There are no products that bring only benefits. Red grapes are no exception. It is high in carbohydrates, organic acids, calories, which can have a negative impact on health. There are a number of conditions in which the berry is contraindicated and harmful:
- Diabetes mellitus. The fruit contains many simple carbohydrates, especially glucose, so it is not recommended for patients with high blood sugar levels.
- Increased acidity of gastric juice. A number of components of berries and their constituent acids irritate the stomach and increase the acidity of its juice.
- Disorders of the colon, diarrhea. Pectin and fiber improve intestinal motility and aggravate the condition of the patient.
- Obesity. The caloric content of grapes is low, but more than other grapes (e.g.
- Allergy. Red grapes can cause allergic reactions in some people.
It is necessary to know a measure, or you can do harm if you eat grapes. It is not recommended to eat more than 600-700 grams of berries a day. Overdosing causes stomach upset, heartburn and sometimes allergies. Do not combine berries, milk and carbonated drinks. In some people, grapes are bloated, because during the digestion of glucose, a lot of gas is formed. In such cases, it is worth limiting the consumption of the berry, although you should not exclude it from your diet 100%.
Characteristics of varieties
People have been cultivating this species for several centuries, so various varieties of red grapes have been bred. Some varieties are hybrids, which have been preserved as a result of crossing different plant lines. They are divided into several groups.
- Technical grapes or wine grapes;
- Table grapes.
It is sometimes singled out as a separate group. It is often used as a table plant. It is also used to make dewdrops, and this is already a technical processing.
Varieties are divided by maturity into:
- Early and ripe;
When selecting varieties, winter hardiness, immunity against fungal diseases and pests, taste qualities are taken into account. Also pay attention to the adaptability to the conditions of a particular climatic zone. Almost all varieties retain beneficial properties characteristic of the variety.
Red grapes are good for wine production
Most cultivated varieties have been bred in Europe. Some have been cultivated since the 13th and 14th centuries. Nowadays, mainly technical varieties are grown. From them make erroneous varieties of all categories, including elite.
A brief description of popular varieties of red grapes:
- Cabernet Sauvignon. The variety appeared in France in the 17th century thanks to crossing Caburnet Franc and Ovignon Blanc. The color of berries is black, the juice is light. Capricious sort, does not tolerate frosts and drought. It is considered to be a technical variety, and almost all its products bear the same name for its wine. The taste combines a pronounced currant with an aftertaste of black and brown mountain ash and blueberries. The aroma has tones of spice and flowers.
- French Cabernet. An early technical variety with a long history. Cultivated in Bordeaux for several centuries. Its color is dark and its shape is rounded. Its bunches are cylindrical and resistant to many diseases. The wine has a fruity aroma of blackberry and raspberry.
- Merlot. Another French variety that has the third largest vineyard area in the world. It comes from the Garonne, though it is said to have first originated in Bordeaux. Its berries are black, rounded, and contain a lot of sugar in warm years. The variety is used to produce young wines, only in favorable weather is it left to produce for long-term storage. Its taste is fruity, with hints of plum and currant.
- Pinot Noir. This grape variety is capricious and unpredictable, so it requires a lot of growing experience. Rain, cold, drought, disease, and pests can cause damage. Most of the vineyards are in Alsace and the Loire Valley, but it is grown in California and Australia. Pinot Noir makes elite pink and red wines, as well as champagne.
- Syrah or Shiraz. A variety with low yields but high resistance to disease. It grows in France (where it comes from), Chile, Argentina, South Africa. Strong, medium-sized shoots. The berries are black, slightly elongated. Syrah goes into the production of a strong, dense wine with an aroma of black pepper.
- Grenache. Old variety of technical grape, grows in France and Spain. Its fruits have a high sugar content. Used to produce high quality rosé and red wine.
- Cardinal. Food variety bred in the U.S.. Now widespread in European countries. Its clusters are loose and large. Fruits are large, purple-red, covered with smoky patina. Shape oval, fleshy middle, thick skin, 2-3 pips. The taste of berries is nutty and sweet. Keeps this species for a long time, in supermarkets sold until spring.
- Cordianca. Moldova is a table variety with large fruits. The bunches are conical, weighing 700 g or more. The fruits are oval in shape and have a dark purple hue. The variety is characterized by good winter hardiness, immunity to many fungal diseases. Red grapes taste sweet with bright acidity.
Many varieties are capricious, have unstable productivity, as they are grown on limited areas. Wine from such varieties is expensive and highly valued all over the world.
Purpose of use
Red grapes have versatile uses. The first is the wine industry. Most varieties are technical and are grown on an industrial scale. The most expensive and elite red wines, costing thousands of dollars a bottle, are produced from this grape variety. Mass and inexpensive brands are also produced on a large scale. Cultivation of red wine varieties in France. They are also grown in Spain, Italy, Greece, the United States, South Africa, Chile, Argentina, and Canada.
For example, they are sold in supermarkets. They have a sweet nutmeg with bright acidity. Fresh berries are often used for cooking and baking desserts. They are used to decorate cakes, whipped cream. Very tasty is a jelly made from grape juice. There are such varieties as seedless sultanas. They are used to make dried raisins. The leaves are also considered useful in many countries. They are used to wrap rice, meat, and prepare dishes similar to stuffed cabbage rolls.
What are the useful properties of red grapes and are there contraindications to their use?
Very often grapes are called divine berries or vitamins in bunches. It is impossible not to agree with this. About the healing properties of the perennial plant spoke about five thousand years BC. Fruits, seeds and leaves of grapes contain more than 150 kinds of biologically active substances.
The medicinal power of the berry is scientifically proven: in modern medicine there is one direction – ampelotherapy, which means grant. Among the variety of varieties of the plant, red grapes are considered the most useful. What are the benefits and harms for the body of this tasty berry, let’s try to understand in this publication.
Types of red grapes
Scientists have bred more than 200 varieties of perennial plants. Depending on the purpose, different varieties of red grapes are distinguished:
- technical, processed for making red wine;
- table grapes, consumed as food;
- Kishmish, seedless, from which raisins are prepared.
The varieties of red berries grown by winemakers to produce the drink include Caburnet, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah (Chores), Tempranilla, Nebbiolo, Pinotage, Malbec, Zinfandel, Carmenère and others. The wine from the mentioned grapes differs with the saturation of color, content of sugars, alcohol, tannins, acidity, astringency. The quality of the ready wine directly depends on the region where the plant grew, the winemaker’s experience, the storage conditions and the time of ripening of the vine.
The medicinal properties of red grapes have long been known.
Types of table varieties of red grapes are considered depending on the time of ripening – early, mid-ripening and late receptive types:
- The early varieties are joy, kokur. The first has pink-red oval/oval-shaped fruits with thin skins that grow in large bunches. The sucrose content does not exceed 23%. Kokur is a high-yielding variety. The brushes are small and the color of the berries is almost purple.
- Mid-early varieties are Frankenthal, Ichkimar. The most common is the first variety, which grows mainly in the southern part of Crimea. The fruits are large bunches of red cone-shaped fruits. The last grape variety – Ichkmar – has tall bushes with large brushes, dense and sweet flesh.
- Late varieties. Moldova is the most popular. During ripening, it has increased resistance to diseases and pests. The bunches are medium-sized in the form of a cylinder, large bright red berries. The flesh of the plants is very juicy, with a musky flavor.
Kishmish, whose berries form a cylinder-shaped brush, is considered a hybrid variety. It is characterized by increased juiciness and density. In the taste there is a nutmeg variety. The yield of this variety is relatively high and it is resistant to low temperatures.
Red grapes have been renowned for their medicinal properties for over 500 years and have been used as medicinal food since ancient times.
Benefits of pink and burgundy berries
The delicious red berry has been revered by doctors since ancient times. Even more revered red grapes, the effective properties of which are now recorded and scientifically substantiated.
Let’s try to understand why red grapes are useful.
The beneficial effects of the red berry on the human body can be explained by the components with which it begins:
- B-vitamins, which have a positive effect on the psycho-emotional state of a person;
- Vitamins PP, A, C, K, E, which strengthen the immune system, visual organs, enhancing the body’s defenses;
- Minerals – iron, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium;
- Organic and saturated fatty acids that provide the body with energy;
- Mono/dysaccharides – simple carbohydrates;
- Digestive fiber.
Red fruits contain a strong natural antioxidant, phytoalexin – resveratrol. It prevents the formation of free radicals that damage cell membranes and make the human body age and get sick.
Experiments on animals have shown that resveratrol is effective in preventing malignant pathologies and stops various foci of inflammation, has a beneficial effect on liver cells and reduces harmful cholesterol.
Calorie content and glycemic index
Among nutritionists there is a widespread opinion about the high caloric content of red grapes. In fact, the caloric value of red grapes is not high – 64 kcal, while the glycemic index (the influence on blood glucose levels) is also low – 45 units. Nevertheless, grapes in excess are prohibited for people who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This is due to the increased content of simple carbohydrates. How many calories are in a mango, how to cut it properly and are they?
What is useful?
According to many medical experts, red grapes are no less useful for the human body. Regular use of a moderate amount of red berries (no more than 200 g) carries:
- Prevention of premature aging of cells;
- Strengthening of the cardiovascular system;
- Maintenance of a healthy circulatory system and cardiac cycle;
- Normalization of blood pressure;
- Elimination of chronic constipation;
- Improving brain function and strengthening memory, which prevents the development of Alzheimer’s disease;
- Slowing the multiplication of tumor cells;
- Strengthening the immune system;
- Improving the function of the liver, gallbladder and biliary system of the body;
- Reducing the level of acid in the stomach;
- Mitigation of side effects caused by chemotherapy;
- Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, normalization of blood pressure and restoration of heart rhythm;
- Improvement of the psycho-emotional state of a person.
In addition, red grapes are an excellent means of preventing colds.
The plant helps to improve the properties of memory. Therefore, the benefits of red grapes for the body of the elderly and children are especially noticeable.
Experts recommend consuming the red berry for students during the period of the session. However, it is better to consume grapes in advance (2-3 months) in order to feel the maximum benefit.
Useful properties of grape seeds
Most people prefer grapes without seed. This is usually because it is unknown which red grapes are useful with seeds.
In fact, grape seeds also have medicinal properties. They are often used to make various salads or as one of the main ingredients in making homemade mayonnaise.
There is no harm in eating the seeds, so the berries can be used with them.
Grape seed extract is a popular dietary supplement, which is sold in the pharmacy chain. The dietary supplement has a favorable effect on the organs of vision, as it strengthens the retina, restores age-related damage and eliminates eye stress. Thanks to the constant use of grape seed-based supplements, the quality of attention improves and the minerals necessary for the body are preserved.
Since grape seeds contain a lot of antioxidants with anti-aging properties, the extract of grape seeds is included in cosmetics for face and body.
Despite the proven benefits of red grapes, not everyone can include them in their diet. The tasty berry should be used in limited quantities by people with high blood sugar levels and excessive body weight.
The use of grapes is not recommended in case of exacerbation of pathological processes of the gastrointestinal tract, an acute form of pulmonary tuberculosis, oral ulcers and individual intolerance to the product.
In order not to harm your body and health, it is enough to eat more than 15 tasty grapes in one day.
After eating the berries you should rinse your mouth thoroughly with water, because the fruit contains a lot of acids, which have the ability to corrode the tooth enamel.
Can it harm the body?
Red grapes, the benefits of which are undeniable, can also harm the body. Mostly it happens with unlimited consumption of the tasty berry. You should not eat large amounts of red grapes to the following people:
- Having high acidity and suffering from stomach diseases;
- People with high blood sugar (diabetes);
- If diagnosed with intestinal disorders.
Excessive consumption of red grapes can aggravate the river of existing pathological processes.
The video shows how to prepare an exquisite dessert from red grapes: