Pruning grapes in the middle belt
Grapes are a heat-loving crop that requires careful care during cultivation. Pruning grapes in the middle belt is important for the growth and development of the plant. Learning how to prune allows beginners and professionals to choose the right method and create beautiful vineyards.
Pruning grapes in the middle belt
What is pruning done for?
Pruning grape bushes positively affects the yield and taste of fruits.
The need for pruning is as follows:
- increase the yield of grapes and the speed of their ripening;
- An increase in the size of the fruit;
- A beautiful decoration of the bushes;
- cultural rest.
Pruning is recommended for each grape variety in the fall. It should not be done in the spring, as pruning to shape at this time is stressful for the plant. In the spring, grapes expend energy and sap to renew, this reduces yield levels and slows down the ripening phases.
In summer and early fall, it is worth pruning shoots, cutting off diseased and dry branches, and thinning the leaves on the vines.
time for pruning
In the central part of Russia there is a prolonged autumn. It is worth to choose the right period for pruning vine bushes. It is carried out in stages:
- The first stage consists in pruning the diseased shoots after the harvest, and the young shoots of the vineyard should be pruned;
- After 14 days deep pruning is carried out when the outside temperature does not drop below 3°C.
Pruning is done with secateurs and pruning shears and metal hacksaws. Initially they are treated with a solution of manganese or alcohol.
Pruning in the fall should be timely and adhere to certain rules of shrub formation:
- 2-3 cm is left to the eye to protect the stump from damage;
- the depth of pruning depends on the thickness and age of the shoot, branches from 5 years of age are cut completely;
- crosses should face inward and be on one side of the bushes.
- Young vineyards are formed by age according to the chosen scheme;
- In old vineyards, replacement shoots are selected. They are cut short, but must not be completely removed;
- A short pruning leaves 2-3 buds, a long pruning leaves 10 or more ocelli.
Shaping young vines
With pruning, bushes are shaped, a pod is formed that bears fruit, and green foliage grows.
The formation of young vineyards in the middle belt occurs according to the following rules:
- bushes from 1 year cut by 2-4 buds, from them in the next season will develop new shoots;
- Two-year vine contains 2-4 shoots, some are cut, leaving 2 buds, others are shortened to 4-10 buds, when bushes are weak, they are cut to 2-4 buds;
- On a three-year-old grape bush, spare branches are formed, on which there remain 2-3 eyes, the main shoots consist of 10-12 buds.
In 3 years, following the rules of pruning, there will be 3-6 fruit pods on the grape bush.
Pruning a mature vineyard
If pruned correctly in the fall for 3 years, they will form without problems. Shape the mature vineyard according to pruning guidelines:
- Fruiting arrows are removed this year;
- The arrows are cut by 5-10 buds;
- The lower branch is cut to 2-3 eyes, replaced by new shoots;
- Shoots with a thickness of 10-12 cm are removed.
Prune the arrows carefully after pruning, especially in the Volga region, when growing in the southern regions – tied to the trellis.
Vineyard formation programs
Grapes are formed according to one of the existing programs. It is worth choosing it depending on the variety, the place of cultivation and other characteristics.
According to the Huot technology, in the first 2 years on a bush remains 1-2 fruit plates. Next, 1-2 arrows grow and bear fruit. They are tied to a horizontal wire. 2 arrows are directed in different directions.
On the bush place 3-8 sleeves, which carry the fruit. 2-3 eyelets remain on the annual vine, 2 eyelets are added to the two-year-old. On the 3rd year, shoots are strengthened horizontally. On weak bushes form 3-4 sleeves, on strong and mature – up to 8 sleeves.
In the Volga region grow according to Guyot technology, and in the central regions of Russia – fan method, which consists in the fact that the vines for the winter are removed from the trellis and covered from frost.
This method is suitable for growing grapes in the southern regions in the presence of an arbor or arch. In this scheme, the annual vine is properly pruned. The arrows along the support are directed to the second year. In addition, pruning is carried out randomly to decorate the place.
Pruning grapes in autumn: clear instructions for beginners
Pruning grapes is usually a problem for beginners grape growers, because you have to know a lot of nuances in this area. You have to independently decide which plates need to be removed and which need to be preserved, so that the bush develops well and bears fruit. Therefore, you need to know the structure of the bush, the principle of pruning young and adult grapes, ways of tying to bearers. Pruning grapes in the fall is very important, because painful grafting is removed, the bush is formed. The correct ratio between the soil and the underground parts of the plants is determined.
Advantages and disadvantages of grapes pruned in the fall
There are several advantages to pruning grapes in the fall. First of all, it makes it easier to overcome the plant: the crown simply does not fit under cover. But after pruning in the spring, sap is released from the trunk, which leads to a decrease in yield and sometimes the death of the bush. Autumn pruning also stimulates early bud blossoming in the spring. For this reason, the crop ripens faster, which is important for cold regions.
The possibility of cuttings freezing is considered a disadvantage in late fall pruning of grapes. For this reason, the upper parts of the shoots may wither. If there are frequent frosts in the spring, early bud development can be a problem.
When pruning grapes, timing is important. It can affect the yield and even the vitality of the bush.
Autumn pruning is done only after the natural leaf fall. If you do it earlier, the bush will not have time to absorb all the useful elements from the leaves. If the time has already come, and the leaves are still on the stems, it is worth to snip them by hand or cut off the selector.
It is best to carry out pruning after the first frost. At this time, the vine is actively maturing, the leaves turn yellow (this indicates that the useful elements have passed into the stems).
Warning. Pruning too early means that the young shoots will not be able to grow. A later pruning can provoke brittle discs.
The timing of grape pruning is determined by the climatic characteristics of a particular growing area and weather conditions.
- In the south, pruning is done in late autumn, 3 weeks after leaf fall. At positive temperatures, work is also carried out in winter.
- Approximate data of autumn pruning of grapes for the average strip: in late October – early November.
- Residents of Moscow and Moscow region should be guided by the end of November.
- In the Leningrad region pruning of grapes can be carried out a little earlier – in early October.
- The same terms are also suitable for the Urals.
- In the northern regions, this procedure can be carried out at the end of September.
Good data for the lunar calendar for 2019
The lunar calendar is a good helper for all gardeners and vegetable growers. Since ancient times, people have determined by the moon when it is better to sow trees and shrubs, apply fertilizers, remove weeds. As for pruning grapes in 2019, the following days are distinguished:
- In September – 4, 5, 6, 24, 25 (cheap), 1, 2, 9-11, 16-21, 27-29, number (unfavorable);
- In October – 2, 3, 21, 22, 29-31 (cheap), 6-8, 15-18, 25-27 (unfavorable);
- November – 17,19, 26, 27 (cheap), 2-4, 13, 14, 21-23, 25 (unfavorable).
Step-by-step pruning instructions + diagrams for beginners
Before pruning, it is necessary to understand the structure of the grape bush. The sleeve is a perennial fragment of the bush or old wood. Fruit arrow or fruit arrow is called a long vine on which 6-10 ocelli are retained. They produce shoots on which fruit is produced. A replacement node is a short vine that is retained for further fruit arrows. The eye joins the buds and ensures their normal development.
Young grapes: scheme and video
If the grapes are planted in the spring, then in the fall it’s time to rootstock. The shoot should be shortened and get 3-4 eyes. If the seedling has two shoots, the same pruning is carried out. Some experts argue that it is better to be insured and leave 6-10 eyes in the fall, and already in the spring – up to 3-4. Otherwise, the vine can die because of insufficient frost resistance in winter.
Grapes of the second or third year
In the case of correct primary pruning in the fall in the second year, leave 4-5 shoots, which then turn into a sleeve. The bush can not be like a fan of 6-8 small shoots, it is better if there are 4, and weakened and in the wrong direction – cut out.
Each of the shoots is covered with 3-4 eyes. This way they get the optimal length and do not protrude beyond the edges of the bottom wire of the trellis to which they are tied. It is always better to leave a reserve, as in the corral you can set the bush and remove all the excess.
In the fall of the third year, 4 strong sleeves are formed at the bush with new sprouts. For each sleeve take the largest shoots, weakened. Two strong shoots are left, half of 3 eyes are shortened to form a replacement node. The second shoot remains with 6-10 buds. For reinsurance, it is possible to keep 2 large fruit arrows, and already in the feather remove the weaker ones. After 3 years, the bush is fully formed and continues to bear fruit.
There are usually 4-5 sleeves on a mature bush. Each sleeve must be trimmed separately. First remove all unnecessary weak shoots and fruiting vines of the previous year. Of all scions, leave 2 strong, 1 replacement node (the lower instagram is cut by 3 buds). On the 2 remaining shoots retain 6-10 eyes, the extra part is removed.
If there are only 2 shoots on the sleeve, they should be left until spring. If both survive, the lower one can be cut off to a replacement node, and the upper one should be left for fruiting.
The same procedure is carried out with the remaining sleeves.
Old grapes: Video for beginners on pruning in autumn + schemes with work description
After many years, the grapes are heavily thickened. To rejuvenate, the trunk is cut at a height of 35-50 cm and from the young shoots form the future sleeves. If the disc is suitable for fruit arrow, it leaves a tendril no thicker than 7-9 mm, it has 3-4 buds and a replacement node. Only in the 3rd year it is possible to form a full-fledged bush again.
If the entire old bush is removed, the lower eyelets begin to sprout on the stumps and on the trunk. In spring and summer, these buds gain strength and become up to 1.5-2 m tall. In a short time, you can create a new bush and get a harvest.
This method is also used to bury old sleeves to sprout young sprouts. Trenches up to 40 cm deep are dug near the bush, and fertilizer is added. There the old sleeve is placed and covered with earth. In the spring, the buds and the lower part are rooted. In the autumn, the old sleeve can be cut off, and the seedlings can be implemented in the desired place.
Care after pruning
After pruning, grapes are treated against parasites and diseases. Next, the vine is prepared for protection. Young bushes can be bent to the ground and covered with earth. If the winter is particularly frosty, it is better to cover them with a wooden box and roofing material.
For adult bushes, the vines are removed from the supports, bent to the ground and covered with spruce branches. Then everything is covered with polyethylene film, it should be pressed to the floor, so that it does not fly away from the wind.
Pruning grapes in the fall requires some knowledge and skills, but only through exercise can you acquire all the necessary skills that come with experience.