Properties of Grenache grape variety

Grenache (Garnacha, Garnaca, Grenache) is a grape variety.

It is called Garnacha in Spanish and Grenache in French. These are all the same old red grape variety that is grown in Spain, France, Australia, and the United States. It is considered one of the most grown and most common species used to make wine. In Spain it is bred in most of the country, and in France it has established itself in the southern regions. Its exact origin is unknown. According to some sources, its homeland is Spanish Catalonia, others say sunny Sardinia in Italy. Beginning as a small variety, it has been able to achieve a high standing among grape growers due to the high stability of its vines.

Description of the variety Garnacha and Grenache (Garnacha and Grenache).

This is a technical variety used in the production of red and rosé wines. It is renowned for its flexibility, which makes it used to make drinks with a wide variety of qualities. Grenache is a thermophilic, productive grape that tolerates dry climates well. For this reason, it is well-rooted in dry soils, and in high humidity, typical diseases such as mildew and aphids can develop on grapes.


Grapes are not only red. There are pink and white varieties, although they are even considered rare in France.


Belongs to an ecological and geographical group of Western European grape varieties. The grape is characterized by a late ripening period. Since it most often grows in hot areas, the wines based on it can be characterized by the alcohol content of 15% and more. In its pure form, Garnacha wine exhibits a variety of spicy berry flavors, especially raspberry. Garnacha cannot be used for fresh consumption as a technical variety.

There is an international day in honor of the Grenache berry, which will be celebrated on September 24.


Fresh berries are low in calories, with 100 grams containing no more than 70 kilocalories. The calorie content is almost the same in finished wines, but grapes increase their energy value in the form of juice. Due to the high glucose and fructose content, the drink can contain up to 150 kcal. Oddly enough, these extra centigrams may be due to grape juice, not wine.

Benefits and harms

The benefits and harms of Garnacha are characterized by the same properties as most red grapes. It is useful for normalizing hemoglobin levels in the blood. Antioxidants contained in berries contribute to the work of the digestive tract, liver and gallbladder. Grapes and products of their processing have a positive effect on skin condition and that is why they are often used in cosmetics production. It is necessary to take into account the possibility of individual intolerance of berries. It is necessary to rinse your mouth or brush your teeth after drinking, because this variety is characterized by strong coloring pigments.

Red berries have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. However, they are not suitable for people with allergic reactions.


The berries of this variety have a thin skin. Acidity and tannin values vary depending on the climatic conditions of the place of cultivation and harvest. The most common acidity value is “below average”. However, if the grapes are grown on slate and stone floors, it can produce a concentrated wine that can be stored for decades.

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Shrub properties

The variety is characterized by strong bushes with an average number of stems. The leaves are small to medium sized, five-toed, three-lobed, sharp toothed. The leaf plate is slightly curved. The upper part is shiny and the lower part has light arachnoid hairs. In general, the vine matures well.


The plant is very drought-resistant, but tolerates low temperatures only up to 18°C.

The variety is characterized by a strong vine with a strong trunk. Shrub can survive as a solitary plant. It tolerates windy and dry conditions, making it suitable for growing in the hot climates of California and South Australia. Because of its strong root system, the plant can do without watering for a long time. Garnacha prefers warm, dry climates and blooms early.

Bunch of wine

The Grenache grape bunch is medium-sized, conical in shape, and varies in density from loose to dense. The berries are round, purple, and small. They are characterized by their medium size and a purplish-pink color. The grapes have a thick and dense skin, and a juicy flesh with a high sugar content. Because the growing season takes a long time, the berries often fall off before they have time to fatigue. However, this natural selection makes it easier for grape growers, as only the best grapes remain by the time of harvest. When yields are high, the quality of the grapes decreases.


Yields in dry climates are 20 quintals. High yields are influenced by the properties of the variety:

  1. Wind and drought tolerance.
  2. Vine hardiness.
  3. A good root system.
  4. Frost-resistant vines d o-18 ° C.
  5. Easy in comparison with the composition of the soil.
  6. Resistance to serious diseases.

However, the variety has disadvantages that negatively affect the yield. Grapes become diseased when the humidity increases.



In order to grow a good harvest, it is necessary to consider the properties of the variety. Grenache is found in three varieties:

  1. Grenache noir. The berries have a black color, which is used to make red wine.
  2. Grenache gris. The addition of this variety gives the wine a raspberry color.
  3. Grenache Blanc. A rare white variety that gives the drink a straw yellow color.

For breeding, you should choose a variety suitable for your climate. When growing this variety, you should choose the warmest regions.

Time of planting

For planting grapes, you should choose the most well-lit place on the plot. The plant needs plenty of sunlight. The planting should be protected from draughts. The plant thrives best in the spring and fall. The floor under the vine should be as dry as possible. In addition, the plant should be protected from excessive moisture. If you want to plant several bushes, the distance between you should be more than one and a half meters. Garnacha is considered a plastic variety. Depending on the growth of growth, the berry can change its properties.

Read more about planting garnacha grapes on the plot here.


The vines of this variety begin to bloom early, but have a long growing season. All Grenache varieties are characterized by a late ripening period. In most cases, the berries begin to fall off and do not have time to fatigue, which reduces the amount of harvest.

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For vines, the first year of growth is considered the most important. With the right approach, the plant can take root well and then bring a decent harvest. The following recommendations should be adhered to:

  1. First of all, the newly planted bush needs support, which will increase with the growth of the shoot.
  2. The earth under the bush should be loose and clean from weeds.
  3. You should not often water the plant, as this only brings harm.
  4. In the autumn it is necessary to carry out mandatory pruning.
  5. The condition of the leaves should be checked regularly, so as not to miss the moment of the appearance of disease.

About pruning grapes in the spring, read here.

Disease prevention

Vines should be protected from excessive moisture, both on the surface and on the soil surface. Excessive watering can lead to mold and aphids, gray rot. It is necessary to regularly inspect the leaves and trunk for signs of disease development. The system will save their timely detection.

You can read about gray rot of grapes at the link.


Pruning grapes

Pruning the vine is necessarily carried out in the fall after the sap has run out in the institution. This way the bush will not suffer. Only the lower shoots are cut to give the bush a fan shape. This also allows you to concentrate resources on fewer branches, which has a positive effect on the quality of the harvest.

How to properly prune grapes in the fall, you can read in this material.

The heat-loving high Gurney (Grenache) grape.

Garmer is a grape variety from either Catalonia or Sardinia. The lightworkers (grape cultures) still can’t reach a consensus on the origin of the variety. The crop is most common in Spain, Italy, France, California, Australia, and Israel. This grape is used to make rich, ruby-red tannin wines with aromas of black pepper, spice, smoke, tobacco, and delicate, harmonious pink wines.

Description and properties of the grape variety for fermentation

Garni (Grenache) high grapes under heat stress

Garmera or Grenache is a star variety in Spanish priority. There is Garnacha Tinta, Uva di Spagna, Lladoner, Tinto, Tinto Aragonese, Tinta, Rossillon Tinto, Tintilo de Rota, Tinto Menudo, Tinta Mensida.

In Sicily this grape is known as granaccia, in Sardinia as Cannanou, in France as Grenache Noir, Alicante, Carignane Rousse, Rossillon, Sans Pareil, Rivesaltes, Aragonais, Rouvaillard, Redondal, Rancnnat.

History of origin

The exact time of the origin of the variety is unknown. Some Gaudinians believe that the grape originated in Catalonia, from where it spread to Navarra (Spain), Languedoc-Roussillon (south of France) and Sardinia. However, Sardinians are convinced that Grenache originated on their island, hence in fourteenth-century Spain.

The variety got its name after the wine-growing region in Liguria – vernazze. At first it was called neglected, later the name was changed to Garni. The red variety is the most popular, the white and pink grapes are rare and mostly found in France.

According to another version, Grenache was exported to the north of Aragon, the territory of Granrer with France. For a long time it was used to make red wines with a bright flavor, high alcohol content and tannins. Later, the French managed to unlock the grape’s full potential, giving mellowness and softening the taste of drinks. In the south of France they stopped aging the wine on the skins long time ago, which resulted in a light pink wine that became popular among the connoisseurs of this drink.

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The modern status of the variety is ambiguous. Despite the importance and vitality of Grenache, mono-varietal wines were produced in small quantities until recently. It was not until the beginning of the 21st century that the Spaniards went back to basics and began to produce red wines with a strong flavor, which gradually brought back the popularity of the variety.

Grape description

Garni (Grenache) high grapes under heat stress

Garmer is a high-growing variety that does wonderfully well in heat and drought conditions. It has taken root in the stony, dry soils of Spain and is highly adaptable to sandstone and limestone soils of other countries. Less pomegranate is grown in fertile valleys with moderate humidity, since a large amount of moisture adversely affects the growth and development of the plant – fungal infection and aphids join in.

The grapevine blossoms early, but the growing season is quite long, so the berries become immature. Nevertheless, winemakers consider this feature amidst declining yields, that the remaining berries absorb all the beneficial substances from the vine, which are best shown in the wine.

Grenache belongs to the Western European group of grape varieties, which are characterized by late maturation. Since this variety grows mainly in hot climates, the wine from it contains 15% of alcohol or more. In the varietal wines Grenache shows spicy and berry notes, the aroma of raspberry is the most pronounced. The technical variety is used exclusively for wine production and is not suitable for fresh consumption and long-term storage.

Interesting. The caloric value of fresh berries is only 70 kcal per 100 g. The caloric value of finished wines remains the same. However, the energy value of juice doubles due to the large amount of fructose and glucose.

The bushes are characterized by great growth power and form an average number of stems. The trunks are strong and allow the bush to survive even as an individual plant. The vine is characterized by resistance to dry and windy weather and can grow in hot California and Australian climates. The root system is strong and can do without water for a long time.

The leaves are small to medium-sized, five- to three-lobed, serrated at the edges. The leaf plate has a curved shape resembling a funnel. The front part of the leaf is shiny and the back part is covered with slight cobwebs. The vine is fully attached.

The bunches are medium-sized, conical, medium-dense or very loose. The berries are rounded, small, lilac or dark purple with light waxy spots. Skin thick and dense. The flesh is juicy and sweet.

The location of cultivation and climate have a direct impact on acidity. Often acidity is below average. Growing grapes on stony and shale soils produces sweet, tannin-rich berries that yield rich wines that last for decades. When grown in dry climates, Grenache yields about 20 c/ha.

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growing regions

Grenache variety is widespread not only in European countries (Italy, Spain, France), but also in the USA (California), Australia and Israel. Clones of Grenache rose (pink), Grenache gris (gray) and Grenache blanc (white) can be found in the south of France. The white variety produces a soft white wine with a dense structure.

For a long time the grape confidently held second place by area, but in the 19th century winemakers switched to growing Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties, and Grenache took fourth place in popularity. The EU campaign to cut down vineyards to drain Europe’s “wine lake” contributed to this.

Grenache plantings cover 200,000 hectares worldwide, more than the area under Pinot Noir. Ironically, despite its enviable distribution, Grenache is little known to consumers. In wine stores, customers pay more attention to Malbec, Pinot Noir or Carmenère.

This is due to the fact that in many wine regions, due to varietal characteristics, it is impossible to get a varietal quality wine from Grenache. Many drinks from this grape have a very ordinary taste, dense texture, pale color and contain more than 14% of alcohol.

Therefore, producers strive to keep the yield of the variety under control and use different growing techniques to get a rich ruby red color and improve the taste.

Interestingly, on barren, stony soils of Châteauneuf-du-Pape, conscientious winemakers use ruthless pruning of Grenache and produce delightful red wines that reveal their qualities as they age.


The flavor and aroma of the Grenache varietal are ambiguous. The varietal version of the wine has notes of forest berries and spices that are more evident in the taste than in the flavor. Depending on where it is grown, harvested, produced and aged, Grenache has fruity, Moroccan, woody, raspberry, strawberry and herbal notes.

advantages and disadvantages

Garni (Grenache) high grapes under heat stress

Advantages of the variety:

  • Drought and wind resistance;
  • well-developed root system;
  • strong vine;
  • high sugar content;
  • frost-resistance up to 18°C;
  • unpretentious to soil composition;
  • resistance to fungal diseases.


  • Reduced palatability with high yields;
  • Development of powdery mildew and aphids at high humidity.

Grenache wine

Garni (Grenache) high grapes under heat stress

The following wines are produced from this grape:

  • In Spain, Alvaro Palacios L’Ermita;
  • in California, Sine Qua Non;
  • in France, Chateauneuf-du-Pape;
  • In Australia, Torbreck, Clarendon Hills.

Characteristic aromas:

  • without aging in oak barrels: spices, freshly ground black pepper, red berries;
  • with long aging in oak barrels: spices, vanilla, black pepper, berries;
  • With long aging in barrels and bottles: toast, smoke, tar, tobacco, humidor (cigar box).

The Grenache grape is capricious, somewhat reminiscent of Pinot Noir and requires a special approach. Initially the grape had a bad reputation, until some winegrowers discovered its potential. René Barbier and Álvaro Palaciosa In the early 1980s they bought abandoned, century-old cliff vineyards in the Priorat mountains. At the beginning of the 21st century, they began to create masterful new-age wines – refined, rich, terroir.

Attitude. The bouquet of terroir wines captures the common characteristics of wines from a particular area. Such beverages are controlled by provenance. Soil type and composition, climate, vineyard location and winemaking techniques are taken into account.

In France, Garnach is prized for its “plasticity” – the berries are used to make wines of different styles. Mourvèdre and Syrah are used to make a typical French wine. The result is a drink with a berry-like, yet delicate and complex flavor. In the south of France, wines with floral, harmonious aromas are preferred.

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Spanish winemakers don’t mess around with Grenache and create aromatic, powerful monovinos or complex I T Temperanilla and Monastrostal.

Americans and Californians are trying and creating monosatte, an interesting blend and an unexpectedly stylized light pink and burgundy tannin wine. In Australia, fortified drinks are also popular, creating a counterpart to Portuguese port – there they combine Grenache with Shiraz and Mourvèdre.

Plant the seedlings

Choose sunny sites on the south or west side for planting. The most favorable time for planting is April.

The site is pre-compacted, heavy clay soil loosen with the introduction of sand. Pits of size 80×80 cm are formed. At the bottom is laid drainage – bricks or brudelstein. A layer of soil is poured on it.

For planting, choose healthy and strong seedlings with a green top cut. Healthy roots have a white color. Before planting, seedlings are immersed in water with the addition of a growth stimulant (“Kornevin”, “Epin”). Then they are planted in the prepared holes, observing the distance of 1.5 m. Near each seedling put a support for another garter.

Subtleties of further care

The first year of seedling development is considered the most important. With competent care, bushes take root better and grow faster.

Basic rules:

  1. Intensive watering is carried out only at planting. Later the bushes do not need it, preferring dry soil.
  2. After planting, the bedding circle is emulated with sawdust, straw, dry grass to prevent the growth of weeds and the spread of infection and insects.
  3. Mature shoots are tied to a support and set the desired direction of growth.
  4. In summer, check the leaves regularly for fungal infections.
  5. Fertilizing is carried out once. Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, zinc and copper are used for this purpose. Example of a nutrient solution: 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 5 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water.
  6. In autumn, after the end of the sap movement, pruning of the vine is carried out. Remove only the lower shoots, giving the bush a fan shape. This will help the grape to distribute resources and not waste strength on a large number of branches.
  7. In the first year after planting, young bushes are covered for the winter with agrospan, which is removed in early spring. Considering the main regions of grape growing, the winter is not harsh.

Control of diseases and pests

In general, the Grenache grape variety has a strong immunity and rarely suffers from dry climates. Problems arise when air and soil moisture increases. Most often the vine is affected by powdery mildew. Bordeaux liquid and colloidal sulfur preparations are used to treat the bushes.

To protect grapes from OS attacks, the bunches are placed in a mesh or cloth bag. Insecticides such as Fozalon or Kinmix are used to kill aphids.

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