Potato harvesters and potato harvesters. Types, types, features.

Models of potato harvesters and potato harvesters for MTZ tractor

Tractors “Belarus” are aggregated with a set of specialized attachments, trailers and machines for harvesting potatoes. The main series of models was developed during the Soviet era, nowadays improved versions are produced. The described below machines in the aggregate with universal tractors of the pulling class 1,4 – MTZ 80 (82) work in the mode of travel drive, in which the drive of working tools from the rear shift shaft works in independent mode.

Potato rotor for tractor

Classification of potato harvester models

According to the set of devices for digging potatoes with MTZ tractor, by the type of mechanism operation two types of machines can be distinguished:

Non-driven – primitive attachments in the form of a one- or two-row gravel plowshare. Excavator’s work consists of digging out a layer of tubers, and then picking up the tubers from the ground by hand.

Driven machines not only excavate tubers, but also on the way separate them from the soil, tops and other debris. Working bodies of such machines work not only at the expense of the movement of the unit, but also with the drive of working bodies from the power take-off shaft of the tractor.

By the way of aggregation for MTZ tractor there are models of potato harvesters:

Depending on the functionality of the driving mechanisms, the machines are divided into:

Hinged and semi-mounted potato harvesters

Machines that perform the function of digging with the separation of tubers from the ground and the top with laying them in a swath. Machines of this type are used in the two-phase harvesting method, when these machines carry out only the first phase – digging of tubers. After that, at the second stage, the collection of the excavated potatoes, cleared of soil and tops, is carried out manually, or a towed potato harvester is used for mechanized picking, formed by a tuber swath excavator.

To perform the stage of potato harvesting in a biphasic way, there are the following models of mounted and semi-mounted machines, aggregated with the tractor Belarus MTZ 82 (80):

  • KTN 2 – mounted two-row potato harvester
  • UKV 2 – semi-mounted universal potato harvester with two-row rake

Potato rotor for tractor

Potato rotor for MTZ

These models are the most common on the agricultural market. The technique and has many analogues of similar design.

Trailed potato harvester

Such machines perform the whole cycle of harvesting, including: digging, separation of tubers from the ground and tops, collection of potatoes in the bunker, unloading of the harvested crops for transportation. This type of machines can be used for one-step harvesting or as a pick-up of previously excavated potatoes. A representative of this type of harvester is the two-row universal potato harvester KKU 2.

Potato starter

The digging mechanism of potato harvesters

All potato harvesters have a ploughshare type digging mechanism, which is a flat ploughshare that digs into the soil together with the tubers. Depending on their design and functionality, potato harvesters have both passive and active drip heads.

The passive bigger works only due to the movement of the machine. The operation of the active Lemex trencher consists in its additional vibration with low amplitude, which facilitates the selection of the soil layer with tubers. Vibration of the trenching unit can be provided by the crank contained in the design, which, like all mechanisms of the active unit, receives the drive from the general power flow from the tractor.

Mini-tractor Fighter T15. Review, technical characteristics, reviews, video of work

Potato digger KNT-2

The machine is a double track excavator, which combines three tractor tasks. The KNT-2 is equipped with: Passive trenching implements; Two booms receiving drive from the tractor.

The rotor for growing potatoes

Plowing machine, which is set at an angle by the movement of the device, cuts a layer of onion and feeds to the transporter shavings. The vibration in which the floor with the tubers enters the van is done by actively separating the tubers from the floor thanks to the rotation of the ellipter, which supports the fork. A second cascade conveyor finally clears the tubers from the chaff and places the potatoes on the surface of the chaff in a tapered role.

Scheme of work of a rotor for potatoes

The degree of deepening of the trenches and the setting of the thickness of the open layer is determined by changing the length of the central pulling catalyst, whereby it is increased by shortening the attack of the limer, as well as the angle of attack and the depth of the layer of eroded soil.


Efficiency, ha per hour 0.25-0.47
Working speed, km/h 1.8-3.4
Working width, m 1,4
Swimming depth, cm 22
Transport speed, km/h Up to 16
Maximum strength of bare soil, kg/cm² Up to 20
Humidity in places of soil ruptures, % Not more than 27
Radius of rotation of the unit in the outer point, m 6,2
Dimensions, mm

advantages and disadvantages

The advantage of the machine is its simple design and low cost. The excavator is actively used in the first stage of the two-phase cleaning methods.

The disadvantage of the machine is its low ability to work in wet conditions (not more than 27%) on heavy soils, where the resistance of the soil increases significantly when digging and the vibration of the machine is not enough to fully break up the clods and extract the tubers from them. Also a disadvantage is that the weight of the machine in the transport position creates a negative load on it and causes problems in control, if the total weight of the machine is redistributed to the rear of the tractor.

Universal potato digger Valca-Layer VHF-2

This machine is an improved version of the high-speed half-sounding potato harvester developed in the Soviet KTS-1,4 and differs from the KNT-2 in that

semitrailer nature of aggregation with two wheels on the chassis; The machine is equipped with active trenching pesticides. Between the lemons and the receiving PUTKOVSKY transporter is set beet for active careful crushing clods of soil. Extended frame design allowed to install conveyor belts with longer webs, which improves support qualities. A Come d-Defender made of two rubber buns is installed between the two conveyor belts (receiving and cascade). Potatoes coming out of the cascade conveyor are separated by the tops of the tote separator, which consists of two belt conveyor webs. For placing 4 rows of tubers in the windrow of UKV-2, it can be additionally equipped with a cross conveyor, driven by a hydraulic motor included in the machine. In order to prevent emergency situations when foreign objects get into active mechanisms of the machine, drives are protected by safety clutches; Trench depth is regulated by the height of the front drive mechanism.

Potato harvester for MTZ 80

Technical characteristics

Potato harvester for MTZ 80

length, mm 5800
width, mm 2700
height, mm 1400
mass, kg 1800
Track, M.M. 1500
Road of freedom, ММ 300
Working width, m 1,5
trench passage, cm 70-75

Advantages of UKV-2

Semi-circular nature of the aggregate provides a uniform load on the tractor chassis. Equipping of the UKV-2 with active tracks, beaters-crushers and extended rod conveyors ensures effective digging and separation of tubers from the lower and upper part under conditions of high humidity and density of the soil. Functional ability of lateral search of tubers when forming a potato windrow of four rows of excavated tubers provides increased productivity in biphasic and combined potato harvesting. The belt transmission, which is protected from the ground, is less subject to wear and is easy to maintain.

KKU-2 potato harvester

This machine was developed by the Soviet agro-industrial complex, its predecessor was a semi-trailed harvester for harvesting potatoes KPG-2. Today KKU-2 is produced in modern upgraded versions. The combine can be coupled with MTZ 80 (82) wheeled universal tractors and DT-75 type caterpillar tractors with narrow caterpillars. At harvesting the combine harvester is served by: a tractor operator, a combine operator and 2-4 persons on the hanging table of the machine.

Potato harvester

methods of use

Under normal soil moisture conditions, the KKU-2 harvester is used in a direct combination of potato harvesting and cleaning in one step. In the picking mode the harvester is used with two-phase separate cleaning after the pre-harvesting for burying and laying of tubers in a swath. The harvester is also used in the combined method of harvesting, which involves laying potatoes in a windrow between two rows of raw potatoes in a direct combination with the simultaneous selection of the dug and tubers.

arrangement and diagram

The semi-trailer is mounted on a welded tubular frame with a pair of wheels. Two-row digger is equipped with active coulters with crank drive. The tubers are separated from the lower and upper part by passing a layer of tubers through two transporters and a crusher, consisting of two rubber rollers with a pressure that excludes any damage to the tubers. Additional separation of potatoes from soil residues is performed by a topper belt at the rear of the harvester. The subsequent cleaning of the potatoes from small impurities is carried out on a rotating vertical lifting drum at the rear of the harvester. From the vertical drum, the tubers drop down a short rubberised conveyor onto a gentle hill. From the gentle hill, the tubers fall into the Schotttisch, where the potatoes are also manually separated from the impurities. At the end, the crop enters the harvesting bunker via a loading conveyor belt, from where it is unloaded onto a transport vehicle via an installed unloading conveyor belt.

Potato harvester

The harvester is driven by the tractor’s PTO via a series of gearboxes, drive shafts, sprockets of roller chains and V-belts. To prevent overloading the mechanisms, the drives include adjustable overload clutches.


Efficiency, ha per hour 0.32-0.43
Working width, m 1,4
Row spacing, cm 70
Working speed, km/h 1.8-4
Transport speed, km/h Up to 16
Hopper capacity, kg 800
Required tractor power, kW 44-74
length, mm 7630
width, mm 4750
height, mm 2570
mass, kg 4440
Road of freedom, ММ 300

Technological adjustments

In order to adapt the harvester to specific field conditions depending on tuber depth, physical condition of the soil and the possibility of separating the tubers from the stems, a number of adjustments are made:

Potato planters – the best models and homemade devices

Potato planters can greatly facilitate and automate the labor-intensive and tedious sowing process. There is a large variety of such devices, varying in size, characteristics and compatibility with a wide range of devices.

use of equipment

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

The purpose of using potato planters is, above all, to relieve man and automate the process.

The advantages of using potato planters are the following:

  • reduction of physical labor;
  • Uniform distribution of tubers in the soil;
  • faster planting;
  • Increased productivity;
  • uniform planting depth;
  • fertilizing the soil;
  • possibility of adjustment of parameters;
  • good payback of the technology;
  • high productivity and wide range of functions.

features of choice

The right choice of equipment is necessary for high-quality and productive sowing work.

There are a number of important parameters that should be taken into account:

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

  • Mechanism of extraction of plant mass from the hopper. The tubers can be moved on a belt or chain. The first method is preferable. Vibrations during the operation of the equipment can loosen the chain, which often leads to the loss of tubers from planting cups.
  • Speed preselection – a useful feature for determining bushing clearances that increase as the vehicle accelerates.
  • Transport wheels – they increase the maneuverability of the unit and allow it to turn without stopping the engine.
  • Bowl volume. The choice of this characteristic depends on the amount of potatoes to be loaded. For a small vegetable garden, 20 liters is enough, large areas are easier to process 40 liters.
  • Set the binder. With this function, you can use devices for sowing other plants, different in size and density of the potato planting.
  • Soil type. Loose soil is better handled by devices with a high floor. For hard soil, it is preferable to choose heavy devices. In virgin lands, narrow bikes are used to cultivate massive units.
  • DISC light adjustment. It is necessary to set the depth of entry into the soil and the distance between the rotating parts.
  • Price of the product. Low quality models are often too cheap and can fail under heavy loads. Many units are also quite expensive, for most farms two Lane units will suffice.

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

Tools for planting potatoes can be manual or mechanized, which are designed to be mounted on a walking tractor, cultivator or mini-tractor.

There are also models that are equipped with fertilizers in parallel with planting. Different types of potatoes can handle from 1 to 8 lines in one pass.

Hand tools are divided into the following types:

  • Tubular – inexpensive option with a simple design in the form of a hollow tube. You can plant different types of vegetables.
  • Conical – contains a cone-shaped device, which is attached to the stem. It combines the process of digging a hole and directly planting tubers due to the design features, which greatly accelerates the sowing credit.
  • The T-shaped has a suitably shaped handle that has a cup-like tip. The working part is pressed into the ground and deepens the tuber placed in the hole. From above, the hole is filled with a rake and backfilled.
  • A tee is a simple metal device with three holes. In the middle of the tool is a loop, by which the operator deepens the device into the ground. The principle of operation is similar to the T-shaped analogue, but the device has a more massive construction with a weight of up to 9 kg.

Mechanized equipment has a more complex structure and an extensive list of functions. It is installed on small-sized work equipment or checked manually.

Devices are divided into machines according to the methods of assembly:

  • Prepared – equipped with their own bikes for movement.
  • Semi-mounted – in addition to auxiliary wheels, traction mechanisms are attached.
  • Mounted – do not have support and bicycles, are attached to the body of the equipment.

Grouping of devices is also possible according to the degree of autonomy:

  • Semi-automatic – require an operator and are attached to power tillers.
  • Automatic – create the entire work area autonomously, without manual power supply. Some such models are equipped with an electric drive.

The mechanism that drives the device can also be chain or belt.

There are also different designs of the device for feeding root crops:

  • Square or band – suitable for sprouted tubers, move the material gently without damaging it.
  • Driven – buries shredded potatoes.
  • Extraction of sprouted tubers from the funnel.
  • The input string rotates in a circle with a wave under the bottom of the funnel.
  • Confederate or spoon-shaped – similar to the ribbon model, but with spoon-shaped depressions.

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

The number of rows the device registers affects the speed and productivity of seeding.

There are such models:

  • Einerigig – attaches to a hand tractor or cultivator.
  • Tw o-row – attached to a mini-tractor with a back cover.
  • Dreiheig – is coupled to the tractor and is supplemented with a fertilizer tank.
  • Vierreigigig – represented by riveted or painted models with voluminous hoppers.
  • Si x-row – large-format roofs for medium and heavy tractors.
  • Eight-row – massive units for heavy machinery with large hoppers, suitable for industrial-scale plants.

Popular single row models

The functional and most common type, suitable for small areas.


Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

Joint design for mechanized planting of potato tubers, suitable for mild climates. The limiting cap prevents tubers from falling from the spoon. There is a function for adjusting the depth of the furrow plunge.


  • Reliability;
  • Compatible with all kinds of equipment;
  • Compact size;
  • Efficiency.


Belarus KSP-02.

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

Efficient potato harvester, suitable for connection to power tillers of different classes, which work on gasoline and diesel fuel. With its help the planting place is formed, the tubers are placed and covered with earth. It also performs ducking and ridge formation.


  • Versatility;
  • Productivity;
  • High quality of assembly.


  • No trailer attachment.

Kadvi KSM-1.

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

The device is suitable for single-axle tractors from 6 hp. С. Considerably facilitates and accelerates planting of the material, has a high performance. The product is made of high quality metal and has a function of depth adjustment.


  • high power capacity;
  • High-quality and reliable working elements;
  • Compatibility with a variety of devices.


Comparison of the properties of single-row potato diggers:

model VRMZ Belarus KSP-02 Kadvi KSM-1
Type of mounted devices Motor cultivator, rotary tiller Cultivator, small tractor Motobloc
compatibility Salute, Agat, Newa, Avangard, Belarus (08n, 09n, 012vm), Oka, Patriot, Lifan, Cascade, Ugra Belarus 09n, Kaskad, Salut Favorit, Nova, Agro, MTZ Cascade, Lifan, Kadvi Oka MB-1, Nova, Agat
Type of furrow Keel Keel Keel
Crossbar diameter, cm 4-6
Installation mechanism Elevator
Bullet spacing, cm 27-31 55-65
Hiller variety Panel (with adjustable distance between panes and angle of attack) disc disc
Light penetration, cm 0-15 5-18
Trade width, cm 47-53 55-65
Cam height, cm 0-15 15-20
Required speed, km/h 2
Number of rows recorded 1 1 1
Cycle diameter (tip/tire), cm 34/30
Funnel volume, l 28 34 34
Size (LXBXH), cm 67,5×56,5×79 98x57x84 76x76x64
Weight (kg 49 27 33
Price, p 12800 13742 9471

Best double-row devices

Two-row models are used for medium-sized areas, have good performance and connect to more powerful types of devices.

Scout S239

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

A two-row model with an additional platform for a second worker to oversee the planting process. The design includes three “Strela” hills, tunnels. The unit connects to the three-point cultivation of a working tractor.


  • Ease of use;
  • Three hills included;
  • Second platform for the operator;
  • Durability.


Bomet S239.

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

A model that is aggregated with machines with a second category tail end. Performs the whole stage of work in the cycle – plowing, automatic planting of tubers, accumulation of chaff, creation of the ridge.


  • Energy;
  • Wide range of functions;
  • Large coverage area;
  • Productive work.


Comparison of the properties of a two-row potato cloth:

model Scout S239 Bomet S239
Planting depth, cm 10-15 10-15
Row spacing, cm 29-35 29-35
Crossbar diameter, cm 4-5 4-5
Row spacing, cm 63-68 62-67
Funnel volume, l 180 180
Speed, km/h 6 6
Dimensions (LXBXH), cm 140x180x145 140x150x145
Sponsor type Chain Chain
Required power of device, hp 25
Weight (KG 205 210
Price, p 46800 44600

Making a homemade device

To build a working potato planter, you will need the following tools and materials:

  • A square profile tube or metal lick for the frame;
  • A chain and some gears for the sponsee;
  • An axle with outlined cams to form the eyelets;
  • Steel wire 5-6 mm thick;
  • Eyelets (made from a small gas cylinder);
  • ready-made cone-shaped hopper or similar homemade container made of sheet metal; with several hard discs; with a set of metal drill bits;
  • Electrode welding;
  • Locksmithing.

Potato planters - best models and homemade devices

Instructions for making the device:

  1. Create a frame. To do this, a 60 x 30 cm frame is welded from a profile pipe, to which an axle with a star is attached. This structure will act as the main drive.
  2. Structural tabs. They are usually made from a small gas cylinder. Two 8-10 cm wide rings are cut from the container, bushings are welded to the resulting parts and attached to the axle with bolts. The bikes should be removable.
  3. Build a hopper. You take a ready-made container from a washing machine or make it from a sheet metal thickness of 1 mm. The volume of the container is designed for 30-40 kg of tubers.
  4. Configure the conveyor belt. This part consists of a chain with welded cells of steel wire 5-6 cm in diameter. They are attached at intervals of 8-9 limbs. With this arrangement you can plant potatoes at a distance of 30-40 cm.
  5. Install a drainage pipe. Its diameter is 100-120 mm. This part serves to feed the seeds into the furrow. The lower end of the pipe should come out of the furrow.
  6. Make fasteners for the hand tractor. It is formed on the basis of metal or channel angles. To simplify the coupling, the assembly should be set vertically.
  7. Assemble a mound to fill the holes with earth. On the back of the frame there are two cuts, which fill the planting with earth. Such a device is similar to a regular hiller with an adjustable angle of rotation.
  8. Set up a furrowing machine. Take a plow from the murjum or make a similar piece yourself. The item is attached to the conveyor pipe. It will work as a RAL and loosen the floor. Its main task is to form a furrow for laying the tubers.


Machine for planting potatoes is chosen depending on the size of the homestead plot, the type of equipment used for work, and the functions required in the planting process. A simple version of such devices can be assembled by yourself.

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