Popular tractor Belarus MTZ-50 and MTZ-52. Description, properties, video

MTZ-50: Specifications

MTZ-50: Technical properties

Rad tractors from the “Belarus” brand are still used in our country, although their production has long been discontinued. This speaks for the high potential of design, its reliability and maintainability. The MTZ-50 bike tractor belongs to the category of universal agricultural machinery with a traction class of 1.4 TF. They are designed for a variety of tasks:

  • Transport of goods on followers and saddle trailers.
  • All types of field work: plowing, cultivating, sowing, intermediate series processing and much more.
  • Drive of stationary and drawn machines and aggregates.
  • Road construction.

The tractor carries out the above and other technological operations with a wide range of cultivation, replica and attachment devices. For this purpose, the machine is equipped with a trailer system, a tensile device and a tap wave to drive the aggregates.

Tractor MTZ-50: history of origin

The Minsk tractor plant was founded in 1946 by the government of the government of the USSR No. 1142 and two years later it produced its first products. The development of the MTZ-50 “Belarus” model began in 1956 in parallel to the construction of a diesel engine. The technical and technological documentation was created in the shortest possible time and approved by the industrial institute.

The workshop of the work began in 1958 with the pr e-series production of a new row culture tractor, then it went into the state tests. Based on the results of the latter and taking into account the commission’s comments, the machine was completed and an all-wheel drive version of the MTZ-52 was created on its basis.

Tractor MTZ-50: History of Creation

Tractor MTZ-52. Al l-wheel drive

According to the decree of the Council of Ministers of November 14, 1959, the production of the main tractor model for 1961 and the improved model for the next was planned. By the end of the fiv e-year plan, the company was ordered to bring the overall overall production of cars from both brands to 75,000 units.

Development work was carried out in 1960 to install a semi-chain drive on the MTZ-50. Tractors of this modification were delivered to farms and other organizations on a separate order. The use of rubber metal cups increased the traction properties and the economy of the machine.

In 1963 the modernization of the MTZ-50 “Belarus” was completed especially for cotton farms. The basic difference to the series model is the tricycle scheme that is suitable for a fou r-row system. In the Minsk plant, this tractor was produced for 8 years until 1977, after which its production in Tashkent was recorded in a newly created work.

Tractor MTZ-50

In 1964 the first series version in all-wheel drive was carried out by the MTZ assembly line. This machine was quickly popular with machine operators and was estimated due to its high of f-road capacity. On the basis of the described model, three T-54V caterpillar tractors were created for working in the vineyards. The modification was made with a trail of 950 mm and 850 mm. The tractor was produced until 1985 and a total of 1,256,800 copies were produced.

Technical properties of the MTZ-50 tractor

Wheel tractor MTZ-50 is made according to the classic scheme, the basis is a semi-frame design. The power frame consists of two channels connected in the front part by a cast beam. In addition to the half-frame, the skeleton of the tractor consists of clutch housings, gearboxes and rear axles.

In front of the MTZ-50 “Belarus” is installed a diesel engine in the longitudinal direction, closed by an alligator hood tilted forward. Directly behind the diesel engine are the power transmission mechanisms and the rear axle, as well as a single cab for the operator.


The tractor is equipped with a four-cylinder diesel engine, produced by MTZ D-50 in two modifications: with an electric starter and D-50L with a gasoline starter. The main technical characteristics of the engine:

  • Rated capacity – 55 liters. s., maximum – 60 l. With..
  • The frequency of rotation of the crankshaft is 1700 rpm.
  • The maximum torque is more than 36 kgf.
  • The working volume of the engine is 4.75 liters.
  • The specific fuel consumption is not more than 195 g/e. l. With. H.
  • High-pressure fuel pump – four-piston brand UTN-5 with an all-mode centrifugal regulator.
  • Injection pressure – 130 kgf / kgf / cm 2.
  • Engine weight without technical fluids: D-50 – 410 kg, D-50 L – 470 kg.
  • Operating oil pressure 2.0 – 3.5 kgf / cm 2.
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The unit is equipped with a combined two-stage air filter. The cooling system is liquid with forced circulation of water or antifreeze, the radiator is located just in front of the engine. The fan is permanently driven by the crankshaft via a belt drive.

The lubrication system is combined: some parts are supplied with oil under pressure from a gear pump, the rest is sprayed. The oil is cleaned in two stages with a mechanical and a centrifugal filter.

The power supply system includes a fuel tank, a coarse filter, a fuel suction pump, a fuel injection pump, a fine filter, swirl chambers and nozzles.

The engine is equipped with an hour meter, a tap for draining the coolant, a fan for forced air flow to the radiator, a thermostat, a water pump and an alternator. Attachments ensure the operation of the power unit and other systems of the tractor. So the alternator is driven by a belt from a pulley mounted on the crankshaft. The device is used to supply consumers with direct current.


Torque from the engine to the drive wheels is transmitted through a chain consisting of the following mechanisms:

  • Coupling;
  • Coupling;
  • Transmission;
  • rear axle.

The clutch and coupling are installed in a housing that is connected to the drive unit. The rear axle and gearbox have separate housings in the lower part, which are housings for gearbox oil.

The MTZ-50 tractor is equipped with a manual gearbox that has 9 gears (including one direct) for forward travel and one for reverse. A gearbox is installed at the rear of the transmission, which doubles the tractor’s driving modes. Both mechanisms are controlled by a lever while the transmission is first shifted to an increased or reduced range.

The transmission of the tractor MTZ-50 consists of the following parts:

  • body with crankcase;
  • primary and secondary shaft;
  • front and rear car;
  • intermediate and inner shaft;
  • driving and driven gears;
  • gear change mechanism.

The torque from the engine reaches the entrance shaft of the gear via the couplings, is then converted via gear pairs with different translation ratios and transferred to the secondary wave. The connection of gear pairs that are in constant intervention is due to the movement of the sled along the wedge of the entrance shaft. Doubling the operating modes of the tractor is guaranteed by using a gear.



The kinematic diagram of the MTZ-50 tractor is traditionally for this machine type and includes the following elements:

  • Main gear with a few constant combing bowling wheels. To reduce noise, gear wheels with a spiral toothing (41 or 12), translation ratio are used.
  • The closed cone difference is installed in the rear axle housing and has 4 satellites. The device is equipped with a double-sock clutch locking mechanism that is activated when the pedal is pressed. Deactivation takes place automatically when the foot is taken from the control body.
  • The end drives are installed in housings at the ends of the axle waves and consist of two head wheel pairs (one for each side). The translation ratio is 5.308, the teeth are straight, the number is 69 and 13.

The driven rear wheels are mounted on hubs, the rotation of which is guaranteed by the use of roller bearings. In the version of the MTZ-50 tractor, the drive is only carried out on the rear wheels, in the all-wheel drive a distribution gear is provided. The power transmission to the front axle takes place via the cardan shaft.

The tractor is controlled by the operator by acting on the steering wheel, the pedals and the levers. The starting, maneuvering and braking of the agricultural machine is carried out by the following systems:

  • Brakes. Disc, dry type, assembled on the drive tooth wheels of the axle drives. The drive is hydraulic, the operation is controlled by activity of the pedal.
  • Steering. The system consists of a steering wheel, a gear (snail gear with a translation of 17.5), a hydraulic amplifier, longitudinal and cross bars and levers.
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In order to reduce the tax forces on the steering wheel, the mechanism is equipped with a hydraulic amplifier of the type of a separate aggregate. The system is equipped with a cog pump of the NSH-10E brand with an output of at least 14 l/min. The drive is a doubl e-acting cylinder with a piston stroke of 19.5 mm from the middle position. The operation of the hydraulic amplifier is controlled by a single coil distributor that is installed on the axis of the snail gear.

Measurement and measure of measure

The MTZ-50 “Belarus” model refers to medium-sized tractors that enable it to use it in agricultural premises for various operations. The most important geometric and weight parameters of the agricultural machine:

  1. Maximum length (at the ends of the longitudinal rods of the swiveling device – rear and counter weight – front) – 3815 mm.
  2. Width (at the ends of the axle waves of the rear wheels) – 1970 mm.
  3. Cabin roof height – 2485 mm.
  4. Tractor base (distance between the centerpoints of the front and rear axles) – 2370 mm.
  5. The track width of the front and rear wheels varies from 1200 to 1800 mm.
  6. The minimum floor clearance is 465 mm.
  7. The tractor’s turning adius is the smallest when a maneuver is carried out with brakes in the inner wheels – 2.5 m.
  8. The design weight of the model (as standard without additional equipment and attachments at wheels and other hanging points) is 2790 kg.
  9. Weight without operating fluids with cabin and security cage – 3040 kg.

The geometric dimensions of the tractor, combined with optimal weight, determine excellent indicators for traction radiation, continuousness and maneuverability. An agricultural machine can develop with a slight radius of the trajectory. This function is very much the price when carrying out work in the areas that are limited under the conditions of of f-road.

The cabin of the MTZ-50 tractor: review of the workplace

The MTZ-50 Belarus tractor is controlled by the operator’s workplace. It is located in a closed single cabin with an extensive glazing area that ensures a good overview of the tractor driver in all directions. The operator is located on an outer route, in front of which the following line bodies are mounted:

  • Pedal: coupling couplings, fuel supply control, differential lock, right and left brakes.
  • Lever: transfer of gears, switching on the brakes of the trailer, control of the rear woman, the hydraulic performance of the clutch weight, the hydraulic system distributor.
  • Fleet adjustment of the pressure pressure.
  • The steering wheel with the switch of the sound signal and the switching handle of the turning point.
  • The instrument shield on which the amperemeter is installed are the oil pressure display, the temperature sensor and the display lighting lamp.
  • The thrust of the ride of the mountain brake bar.
  • Battery mass switch.
  • The grip to switch the rear shaft of the power selection.

The windshield of the tractor cabin is equipped with a windshield wiper, which is manually driven with a lever. To ensure a normal microclimate, a fan controlled by a separate switch is provided. The lighting of the workplace is carried out with a blanket installed on the ceiling. In general, the cabin was quite comfortable for their time and provided the operator normal working conditions.

The cabin of the MTZ-50 tractor: review of the workplace

MTZ-50-hinge system system

The MTZ-50 model tractor was used to carry out a variety of field work with a variety of units. The list of attachments contains the following names:

  • 3-fall plows for plowing different types of soils of different types.
  • The mower is a trendy helicopter.
  • Pendant for planting notes.
  • Sights of different types, including the function of the production of mineral fertilizers.
  • Cultivating mammals.
  • Combined aggregate cheese and soil processing.
  • Cultivating for continuous soil processing.
  • The Harrow is hung.
  • Units to apply liquid fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Semi trailer transport and special purposes.
  • Pendants and semi trailers are sel f-important.
  • Mineral fertilizers hang and load.
  • Disc and segment-T mowers.
  • Robil-like Rake type rake.
  • Press releases are secured and rolled.
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MTZ-50-hinge system system

A dung device is installed on a tractor with a special chopstick system. Units that require a mechanical drive are connected to the power selection wave. The trailer devices are connected to the agricultural machine with a universal hook on the crossbar of the suspension system.

Modifications of the MTZ-50 tractor

Minsk tractors The system constantly improved its products and produced MTZ-50 in several versions. The modernization of the machine was carried out in two directions: improvement of the operating features and increased continuousness. In addition to the basic version, three modifications of the tractor were published:

  • MTZ-50L with D-50L diesel with an electric steamer.
  • MTZ-52. It was equipped with a D-50 four-wheel drive power unit, for which a bridge and transfer case were installed instead of the front beam. The power is transmitted via a cardan drive with an intermediate support. The inclusion of the front axle is possible in automatic mode or by force.
  • MTZ-52L is an all-wheel drive version and differs from the previous model in the presence of an electric starter in the engine starting system.

Tractor MTZ-50X1

Tractor MTZ-50X1. cotton modification

All modifications are maximally unified in terms of the main nomenclature of parts, assemblies and assemblies. This approach makes it possible to reduce the selling price of the end products of the plant and to simplify the supply of spare parts and components to farms. The all-wheel drive version of the machine has the best traction characteristics and is used on difficult terrain.

Operational experience of MTZ-50. advantages and disadvantages

Tractors of this model were developed based on the technical requirements of today and had excellent characteristics for their time. MTZ-50 “Belarus” has a number of advantages over machines of other models, in particular:

  • Minimal costs for maintenance and operation of the tractor.
  • High reliability of machine components and assemblies.
  • Sufficient power, allowing to carry out significant amounts of work with a relatively low cost.
  • The tractor is designed for use without paved roads.
  • The climate version of the machine allows operation in winter and summer at extreme temperatures.
  • The tractor can be combined with a wide range of attachments for agricultural and other work.

Operating experience of MTZ-50

The car is characterized by unpretentiousness, ease of use and excellent serviceability. Restoring a broken tractor is possible on site using a standard tool kit. At the same time, the MTZ-50 model has a number of features that should be considered when using it for its intended purpose:

  • Insufficient engine power for work on heavy soil.
  • High sensitivity of the starting motor to the quality of gasoline.
  • The tractor driver must be careful when selecting the operating mode of the engine and transmission.

Operating experience of MTZ-50

Given the vast experience of operating agricultural machinery of this model, the listed disadvantages can be considered insignificant. Machine operators notice simplicity, high reliability and well thought-out design. The machine has proven itself well in the conditions of the middle lane and, after appropriate refinement, was delivered to countries with hot or cold climates.


The MTZ-50 Belarus tractor is deservedly popular in our country and abroad primarily because of its simplicity. Operation and maintenance do not require highly qualified personnel. The high reliability of the model is evidenced by the fact that, despite the cessation of its production more than 20 years ago, a sufficient number of machines are still in service.

Popular tractor Belarus MTZ-50 and MTZ-52. Description, properties, video

The MTZ-50 and 52 tractors are popular agricultural machines in the post-Soviet space. Distinguished by reliability and unpretentiousness, they are deservedly considered one of the most popular units for performing various works, not only in agriculture, but also in other areas.

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Due to the fact that the models were produced for a long time, manufacturers tried not only to save the design from the identified flaws, but also to improve it using the latest methods.

Particular attention was paid to the increasing comfort at the driver’s workplace and the expansion of functionality through the use of agreed and trailed devices. The Belarus MTZ-50 tractor became the ancestor of many different design changes.

The unit found unity in agriculture, where it was successfully engaged in ploughing, fertilizing the soil and sowing various crops. Thanks to the possibility of connecting different units, the tractor can replace the bulldozer, excavator or loader.

The standard design implies the location of the engine in front, the presence of small front wheels and increased tail leading.

Over time, the cab and appearance of the tractor have changed. So, for example, the other has become the shape of the hood, the cabin increases since they started fiberglass and improved panoramic drains.

The weight of the tractor is 3600 kg and its dimensions are 381x197x247 cm.

Now several modifications of the Belarus MTZ-50 tractor, produced by different factories, are known:

  • MTZ-60 and MTZ-62 were exported for export;
  • The MTZ-50x model differed from the others with a reduced spacing between the front wheels, which were sometimes replaced with one in the middle. Increased clearance provided good cross country ability. The publication was made in Tashkent.
  • The MTZ-50K model had a steep slope and was produced in Tbilisi.
  • T-50 and T-54V were supposed to work on grape farms. MTZ-50R was used to process paddy fields.
  • The Belarus tractor MTZ-52N had a low clearance and reduced rear wheels.
  • MTZ-50L had a difference in the method of starting the engine.
  • Tractor Belarus MTZ-52 did not differ from its brother, except increased dimensions and weight. The photos presented show that the models look almost similar.
  • MTZ 50
  • MTZ 52


A 4-cylinder diesel engine D-50 of 4.75 liters was placed on the tractor. Electricity was 55 hp.

At the time of the release of the first models, these indicators were considered the best. The fuel consumption was 8 l/h, which was considered very economical.

Now, of course, it is difficult to surprise the consumer with such characteristics, but the tractors are worthy of this hour, since they differ in repair and non-insulation of fuel quality.


Only a mechanical transmission with a single dry clutch was installed on the tractor. The gearbox was 2 ranges with 9 front speeds and 2 rear speeds.

Due to the use of lowered gears, the maneuverability characteristics of the machine improved. Differential locking was performed by pressing the pedal, which was located in the cabin.

The tractor had a hard back suspension and a semi-rigid front.


The location of the cabin is behind the engine, a strategic course, because in this case access to the engine is unlimited.

This made it much easier to carry out the technical inspection, adding fluids and other maintenance. Since at that time the issue of ensuring comfort for the driver was far from it, people of high growth often faced significant inconveniences.

This was particularly so when driving on a bumpy road, when the taxi jumped and the driver banged his head off the ceiling.

But compactness played on the hands when it was necessary to reach a control device that could be carried out without visible efforts. The cabin was attached to the feathers, the somewhat soft fluctuations on an uneven street.

The manufacturers tried to provide sufficient level of sound insulation. However, rubber bishops in the doors and windows were of low quality.

They wear themselves quickly and became unusable. The heating system worked weakly and practically did not achieve the desired result.

Technical characteristics

  1. Structural weight- 3130 kg
  2. Bas e-2370 mm
  3. The total dimensions are 3815x1970x2550 mm
  4. Trade on the front wheels 1200-1800 mm
  5. Trail on tail wheels 1400-2100 mm
  6. Street freedom 465 mm
  7. Fuel tank-13
  8. Top speed of 33 km/h
  9. 4-stroke engine, diesel
  10. The number of cylinder 4
  11. The work volume is 4.75l
  12. Power 41 kW (55l.s.)
  13. Twist-wiper-15%
  14. Specific fuel consumption at operating performance 8 l/h
  15. The coupling coupling is dry, individual disc, constantly closed
  16. Gears nin e-swept two gang
  17. The number of gears forward 9; The number of transmissions back 2
  18. Disc brakes; Type of the rear STS SPS authorities
  19. Maximum printing 20 MPa
  20. Productivity of the hydraulic system 45 MPa
  21. Cycling formula 4K2
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Types of connected devices

To expand the scope of the tractors, you can use the following attachments:

  • Loader;
  • Garbage copies;
  • To brush;
  • Pigtails;
  • Rake;
  • Voroshili;
  • Scattering;
  • Bucket.

Operating characteristics

M-8G and M-10G oils are used for the hydraulic system of MTZ 50 and 52 tractors and for the diesel card M-8DM and M-10DM.

Litol is used as a lubrication.


In the event of a long downtime of tractors, it is necessary to carry out them. All parts of the machine are worked out during this procedure and the lubricant occurs all the knots.

The curren t-in itself does not require significant costs for the effort of the mechanic, but thanks to this, the operational resource is significantly extended by parts, and the occurrence of breakdowns is also prevented.

For the first time, which takes about 20 motorized hours, the load of the engine should not exceed 50 % of the full power.

It is important to ensure that the temperature of heating the body parts does not exceed 70 degrees.

Throughout the entire time for the execution, it is necessary to carry out a technical inspection in all rules every month.

After completion of the run, a number of actions must be carried out:

  1. Clear the tractor of pollution;
  2. Replace oil in all systems;
  3. Lubricate knots and mechanisms;
  4. Replace the oil filter of the engine and hydraulic system of the trailer coupling;
  5. Rinse out the fuel tank filter;
  6. Check the movement of the clutch and brake pedal;
  7. Make sure that the reliability of all fastening elements;
  8. Check the tire pressure

The main disorders

The tractor of Belarus MTZ 50 and 52 is easy to repair and exchange parts.

Below you will find the main disorders:

  • The engine does not begin due to the presence of air in the fuel system or a malfunction of the fuel pump.
  • The filter elements are often clogged.
  • When using fuel with low quality, the engine can behave unstable.
  • The gaps between the valves are not set correctly.
  • The appearance of blue smoke during the exhaust occurs due to oil in the combustion chamber.
  • Overheating of the engine.
  • When the gears are switched on, noises occur.
  • The connecting discs wear out in the brake system.

Video review

The next video check shows how plowing on the MTZ-50 tractor is carried out

Reviews of the owners

Evgeny: “The tractor is considered one of the most successful models among all agricultural machines presented on the market. A large engine with a force of 55 horses. This allows you to do all agricultural work that is necessary in your farm. Significant disadvantages that I shouldn’t have found. “

Gena: “Despite the fact that the tractor is 9 years old, new works. How much I had to plow on it is unknown, but with all the works such as plowing, sowing, hay production. The repair is carried out on site because the design is simple and if there is a large amount of reference material and already accumulated experience, there are no problems. The reliability of the electricity unit fell. “

If you are the owner of the MTZ-50 tractor or have to work on it, we offer a review so that our readers can familiarize themselves with the advantages and disadvantages of the model presented.

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