Pond in fall and winter

Heating the pond in the fall and winter period

With the approach of cold weather, every owner of an artificial pond thinks about the comfortable wintering of their pets. After all, in severe frosts, we have to solve many problems associated with cleaning and heating water, preservation of systems and access to oxygen.

Pond care in the fall

The most important task in the fall is maintaining water quality. The pond and its inhabitants can suffer due to active decomposition and decay processes of aquatic and riparian plants, fallen leaves and other factors that reach the surface of the pond. An increase in organic residues means that toxic substances accumulate in the water: methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia compounds. As a result of oxidation, oxygen is actively consumed in the water.

To prevent this, it is necessary to properly trim aquatic plants, remove fallen leaves, dry branches from the surface, take care of sufficient ventilation, as well as to bring warm-loving fish into the aquarium.

Protect the pond from debris

Garden ponds get leaves, dry branches and other small organic debris. In the fight against them helps a fine mesh net. It should be stretched over the pond so that it does not touch the surface of the water and at the same time completely covers the surface. If there is a lot of debris in the net, it should simply be shaken out. It should be noted that despite the presence of a net, it is advisable to clean the bottom of the pond after the leaf fall.

Replanting fish and algae

Do not forget about the plants, which may not survive the winter cold, after the fall work of transplanting heat-loving species of fish can be planted in aquariums. They should be transplanted into special containers and moved indoors, such as a cool basement. Frost-resistant plants should simply be moved to the deepest part of the pond. If the pond is 2 m or deeper, the fish will overwinter in it.

Remove devices from the pond which kept it alive in the summer, such as pumps and filters which may fail due to the cold weather. Pumps should be stored in a warm room in a container of water. Keeping a pond in winter requires special attention: If living creatures remain for the winter, it is advisable to place ventilation in the water, and if funds allow, an autoclave. The task of the latter is to maintain a certain temperature and not to be covered with ice.

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Care of the pond in winter

In late autumn and winter, fish are in ponds in summer houses, gardens or parks in a state of anabolism, i.e. H. It slows down the processes of life, it does not need a rear, but it needs oxygen to breathe. Therefore, one of the biggest problems for a body of water is ice, which covers the surface and prevents good gas exchange – the release of decomposition products and oxygen. New technology helps to solve this problem – devices for heating the pond in the fall and winter.

How to heat the pond in winter?

If you solve the problem with ice on the surface of the artificial pond, you must remember that it is not recommended to heat the water at the bottom, as it leads to disruption of biological processes in plants and fishing. Therefore, decorative pond heating is arranged in such a way that only the top layer of water is heated – to create a so-called frost hole. For this purpose, there are two types of heating on the market – floating heater and flow-through devices.

The principle of floating pond heater is based on the fact that the heating element in the water heats the water around itself, and the upper part does not allow the device to sink. Thus, a non-freezing hole is formed. Manufacturers recommend installing such devices in ponds with a depth of 1.4 m. The device usually has a built-in thermostat that protects the pond from overheating, as well as a cover that protects the pond inhabitants from thermal burns.

Floating pond heaters operate from 220 V mains and are connected to it with a waterproof cable. However, it is up to the owner to determine when to use this device, given the ambient temperature and volume of the pond.

The pass-through heater is a newer and more technologically advanced design. It not only floats, but also consists of a heated underwater part and an overhead part. However, this device is equipped with a thermostat that responds to cooling and a small pump that allows water to move around the heater. The circulation of water destroys the ice microcrystals which start to form already at 0 ⁰c. As long as the air temperature has not dropped below 3 degrees below zero, a frost pit is created by the pump, and when the temperature drops, the thermostat is triggered and the heating element is turned on. Thus, the device helps to save a lot of energy, because it turns on at certain environmental conditions. In addition, the micro-circulation of water improves the gas exchange of the entire pond.

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Heating the pond in winter

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Landteich: How to take care of it in winter

Landtaych: How to care for it in winter

Garden ponds are not simple garden design elements. They require not only a large investment at the design stage, but also constant care, including during the cold season. Only if certain rules are followed, both the construction of the structure and the organisms living in it will survive the winter without loss.

Fish need water

When fish live in the pond, they need to be taken care of. Fish absolutely need fresh air, for which they produce and maintain ice holes in the ice. You can use pond vents for reliable air exchange. These are devices with a pump that enrich the water with water bubbles and constantly let it move in the hole, preventing freezing. For a few ponds, of course, it is expensive to install such devices. But if the pond is large and seriously equipped – for fishing options – then the fan will justify itself.

The cause of fish mortality in winter can be not only a lack of oxygen, but also an excess of carbon dioxide and gases released by rotting plant residues. When this happens, the acidity of the water changes, which can be determined with a pH meter or test strips. If it is very alkaline (above 10) or acidic (below 5.5), the fish will die. If there are signs of freezing, the ice should be opened as much as possible and measures should be taken to clean the pond of silt.

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Landtaych: How to care for it in winter

But that’s not all. Fish are definitely needed. Water. There should be enough of it under the ice. The minimum depth of the winter pond – 1,2-1,5 m, even better, if there are two-meter pits. In such pits the water temperature is somewhat higher than near the ice, and fish willingly gather in them for the winter. But food is hardly necessary for most pond fish in winter. Carp, carp and silvercore are more severe in the fall and survive in a state close to anabiosis, hardly eating at all. Hornwort have a good appetite in winter, but with a small population they will find their own food.

Who winters in the pond?

Only those plants and animals that are adapted to exist in cold water can overwinter in the pond. At the beginning of the ice-freeze, the water temperature is set at 4° across the entire depth. It is also maintained throughout the winter, except in the slightly colder layers. Creatures that cannot withstand this temperature are doomed for the winter.

Therefore, do not send koi and other ornamental fish from warmer countries to the pond for the winter. For the winter they should be taken to an aquarium or warm pool. Clearly, for most gardeners, this is too expensive. For them, it is better to breed fish of local breeds that can withstand oxygen deprivation. Ideal inhabitants for a small dacha pond are crucian carp. Harsh winter will not survive even exotic frogs and other terrarium inhabitants, which the owners sometimes do not survive.

Landtaych: How to care for it in winter

At first heat-loving aquatic plants are better to plant not in the ground, and in containers submerged in water. Containers can be secured in advance in front of a rope with floats that are not susceptible to rot. In the fall, they are simply removed. Find out in advance what conditions the exotics need for a successful wintering.

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Moving on to the well.

An interesting way to preserve for the winter. The tribal number of the Fish is to move it to winter in a deep well, a column of water located under the freezing ground.

If there is a tight lid on top, the water level is not covered with ice and there is enough oxygen in the liquid. In such a tight but comfortable hole, carp and crucian carp, which do not feed in winter, can be sure.

Landtaych: How to care for it in winter

One of the most important conditions for successful wintering in the gully: fish must be well-fed and healthy, with no signs of diseases and parasites. Otherwise, the entire stock will be infected during wintering.

“Live” and “undead”

By the highest degree of convention, garden ponds can be divided into “ornamental” and “life” ponds. Both can be large and small, pleasing to the eye with beauty, be plants and water dwellers, have fountains, waterfalls and lighting. However, “decorative” structures cannot provide their own life, while “living” ponds have the properties of a full-fledged biocoenosis in full.

Most often “live” ponds have a significant size of the water surface (at least several square meters), a decent depth, base and bank. Even if the pond shell is concreted or lined with sealed geotextile, a small layer of soil and natural silt deposits remain on these materials. The water is sure to contain microflora, aquatic plants and small living creatures specific to the region, which provide self-cleaning water, recycling incoming sewage and organic matter.

Landtaych: How to care for it in winter

“Decorative” ponds are usually small, with water in a plastic or concrete basin that is sometimes sprinkled with clean sand for beauty. Plants are carefully selected by the owners and planted along the shore or in underwater tanks. The purity of the water must be monitored to ensure that it flows, is replaced or filtered. Without human care, such a pond turns into a pit of unclean water, while a “living” pond, though it loses its luster, can live long in the mode of a natural body of water.

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Cleaning and making holes

Beginning in the fall, clean the pond of excess organic material: Cut back withered riparian plants with lush foliage, pull out overgrown algae and debris. Use a rake to clean the shallow water of sediment that accumulated over the summer. Particular attention should be given to leaf protection. Leaves falling into the container lie on the bottom and absorb a lot of oxygen for their decomposition.

Landtaych: How to care for it in winter

Once the pond is covered with ice, holes should be drilled into the ice regularly to allow fresh air to enter the water. There should be several holes in different areas of the pond to avoid anoxic zones. If you can’t renew them often, immerse a bundle of straw or reeds in the wormwood: the stems keep the water from freezing quickly in the monolith, the air channels can stay inside. Warm but slightly dirty sewage, such as from a bathhouse, can be diverted into large ponds. They will thaw as they flow into the Wormwood, and the biota of the pond will be ready for recycling.

A simple solution.

Although an ornamental pond requires constant maintenance in the summer, there is no need for complicated maintenance in the winter. The best solution here is to drain the water and preserve it until spring. Draining the water primarily protects the structure of the pond from damage caused by expanding ice. Water drive systems (fountains, streams, waterfalls) are removed or canned. In addition, all ornamental elements are usually removed or securely covered.

Landtaych: How to care for it in winter

Coastal lighting is usually left on, it is usually waterproof and fairly frost-proof, and lighting in the winter garden is always welcome.

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