Planting and pruning of trees and shrubs

Cut off seedlings after landing

The need for trimming occurs in the first year after planting. When pulling planting material from the nursery, part of the roots will inevitably be damaged, the root system will decrease and can hardly cope with the supply of nutrients to the crown. Pruning restores the balance between the root system and the crown necessary for its formation (Fig. 2).

Annual and biennial seedlings are used for planting. An annual seedling represents a vertical flight, it usually has no lateral branches. Regardless of the year-long landing period, you need to cut them out in the spring. In amateur gardening, having a standard of 30 to 40 cm in height is sufficient. 6–8 buds for spindle-fished and 4–5 kidneys for other formations are counted from the upper border of the stem. Above the last kidney, the escape is cut off by a garden secateur. The correct incision is made 3-5 mm above the kidney so as not to damage it (Fig. 3). All kidneys are removed on the stalk.

Rice. 2. Cutting a two-year-old seedling before landing: after planting, cut the roots shortened (cuts are marked with dashes).

Rice. 3. Branches slices: a – the incision is correct, it is made 3-5 mm above the kidney so as not to damage it. B – the cut is wrong, very low, the kidney can dry; B – The cut is wrong, left a foam that prevents the wound from overgrowing

In the conditions of the central black zone, any type of pruning is best done in early spring: in this case, more and more and better overgrown wounds.

Planted two-year seedlings with sufficiently developed side branches – more than 40-50 cm – need to be cut (Fig. 2). With an annual growth of less than 30 cm, pruning is best carried over to the next spring.

When pruning, they try to observe the so-called subordination of branches in the crown of the tree. This means the following. In the crown there should be 4-5 of the main well-developed skeletal branches on the trunk at a distance of 12-15 cm from each other. In each of them, the branches of the already less developed (semi-sustainable) branches grow. On these latter even smaller ones. It is impossible to allow two branches in thickness from one place, and even in an acute angle of discharge, they can appear later.

In the seedling, the two upper branches (the ladder and the side branch next to it) grow the same growth performance, in one direction and at an acute angle, forming a fork. In relation to the conductor, the adjacent branch is called the competitor. It must be rejected from the conductor, give a stupid angle of discharge, and if this is not possible, then cut to the base.

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General rules for preparing tree seedlings for planting: pruning the crown and roots

A healthy orchard without unnecessary fuss is every gardener’s dream. Read how to collect trees in the article: Orchard: how to lay a new one, add to an existing one and update it. And about the features and differences between spring and autumn planting and how to prepare seedlings – we will tell you more.

Prepare seedlings for planting

Planting dates: Which trees are best planted in autumn and which in spring?

All seedlings of modern fruit trees from Yaskrava Klumba are varieties intended for Ukraine, suitable for all planting seasons. Both in spring and in autumn – plant apple trees, cherries, pears, plums. Even fruit trees that are considered to be particularly heat-loving – apricots, walnuts, cherry plums – root reliably after autumn planting. But peaches, cherries and nectarines, which are more susceptible to winter frosts, are preferably planted in spring in the northern regions. When sowing these seedlings in the fall, we recommend additional warming with agrofibre and mulching.

Prepare planting hole and plant seedlings

For most fruit seedlings, they begin to prepare the pit in advance, it is desirable for the soil to be settled for several weeks. The size of the planting hole is approx. 80 cm x 80 cm, with a depth of 60 cm. The larger you make the planting hole and “fill it up” with nutrient-rich soil, the less you need to fertilize in the first few years. However, you can compensate for insufficient preparation – more frequent feeding of seedlings. In preparation, a good three-year-old hummus, compost, a couple of glasses of ash (as a potash fertilizer) are brought to the landing site. In the spring – add full mineral fertilizers, in the fall it is better to use nitrogen-free. To quickly saturate the landing site with nutrients, water-soluble fertilizers from the Aqua series can be used.

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Prepare seedlings for planting

One of the most important stages in planting seedlings is preparing the plants. We recommend lowering the root system of plants in water for several hours to restore moisture balance. Add stimulants and some fertilizer to the solution in the spring.

seedling planting depth

When planting, the trees are deepened to the “knee” of the graft at the bottom of the trunk. On light soils it is left at ground level, on heavy soils – 2-3 cm above ground level. Check how the grafting site is after planting and watering. The earth in the pit will settle and may “tighten” the seedling deeper than necessary. If necessary, gently pull the seedling up by the stem and compact the soil (just trample it down with your foot).

Prepare seedlings for planting, prune plants

Pruning the crown and roots of seedlings

Especially when planting, pruning the seedlings raises the most questions. Let’s find out together how pruning depends on the planting season, why it’s important to do it right, and how it affects the formation of the crown and root system.

Why is it so important to prune seedlings before planting?

Yaskrava Klumba seedlings are strong 2 year old plants. In this growth phase, the foundation for the right crown of the fruit tree is laid. If the pruning is done correctly in the first few seasons, then further “crowning” will be successful and easy. If not, you already need to cut out large overgrown branches. The wounds take a long time to heal, the tree becomes weaker and the total yield decreases. But if you cut in time, it will help you avoid problems in the future.

If you see a seedling a little over 2 years old in a nursery, it is quite a tall tree, up to 250 cm, with several long side branches. Most amateurs make a big mistake, sorry for cutting off such beauty. Remember that after professional pruning before planting, the seedling will be much smaller in both height and width. This is the key to excellent rooting and early fruiting.

Pruning seedlings before planting

The purpose of pruning is to balance the root system and crown. In fact, when digging seedlings, the root system is somewhat damaged, but the crown remains the same.

During spring planting, the process of leaf sprout and rooting of the seedling takes place simultaneously. It is important that in the rooting phase the crown does not consume more moisture and nutrients than the roots can “feed”, which during this period are actively taking root in a new place. The crown cut is quite vigorous. Each branch is truncated 1/2-1/3 the length to a strong outer kidney or, in the case of horizontal branches, to the upper kidney. Remove branches that grow in the middle of the crown and those that are too acute an angle to the trunk.

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Pruning Scheme and Rules

Some experts believe that crown pruning is carried out more moderately on heat-loving apricots and other seedlings. Only branches with immature bark are removed, the shoot tips are shortened into a strong outer bud. Remove shoot tips with weak upper buds. After the kidneys awaken, an additional incision is made, leaving the strongest.

Why cut off the roots of a seedling?

It is important to remove the root tips damaged during digging so that the infection does not penetrate through the “crumpled and torn” wounds. Renewal of cuts with sharp secateurs – stimulates the growth of roots, their branching and development. The cut is made to a clean white cut. The cuts are made perpendicular to the root, not at an angle. Most lateral roots are left no longer than 25-30 cm to allow wounds to heal faster, roots to remain healthy and grow quickly.

section processing

It is very important to close branches immediately. Use garden pitch and other means to prevent entry of water cuttings, rot, pests and diseases. It’s much easier to cover up the cuts right away than it is to treat diseased trees. In addition, processing cuttings will help tree seedlings to more easily overgrow the damaged area.

Do you still find pruning difficult? Then this is our bonus for you. Before the seedlings are delivered, experts from Yaskrava Klumba carry out a pre-planting pruning. You will receive plants completely ready to plant. We professionally trim the crown and root system, all you need to do is plant seedlings. And another plus: Immediately after the cut, our specialists treat all cuts with garden pitch. You don’t have to take extra care of it. The seedling is ready for planting.

Growing a good orchard is easier than it seems to beginners. And cultivation tips from our experts will help you care for fruit trees simply and easily.

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