When to open grapes after wintering?
Grapes are a heat-loving crop, many varieties of which are extremely sensitive to low temperatures, especially during the spring awakening. When planning spring work and deciding when to open grapes after wintering, gardeners should carefully study and take into account the climatic conditions of their region, so as not to harm it.
At what temperature can I open grapes?
The first thing a gardener should pay attention to is the weather conditions. It is important not only to know at what temperature to open grapes, but also to take into account the fluctuations of these indicators during the day and night. Despite the fact that grapes are heat-loving plants, many varieties can tolerate temperatures up to 20 ° C if they are covered.
In the case of open grapes, culture tolerates frosts of up to 5 °C without consequences. However, the most harmful to the plant is not low temperatures, but their sudden changes. Therefore, it is necessary to study the weather forecast for at least a week before starting work.
When should I start to remove the cover from the grapes? The following temperature requirements should be observed:
- The daytime temperature should be above +5 ° C;
- At night, the thermometer should not drop below e-5 ° C.
This means that the first manipulations to release the culture from the covering material should be carried out while there is still snow. At this time, some trees begin to show signs of awakening – buds are swelling.
When to open grapes
There is no specific time when to open grapes after winter. It all depends on the climate of the region and the ambient temperature. The amount of rainfall is also important. If it rains a lot in spring or rains with snow, and the temperature is still below zero at night, it is better to postpone the work to a slightly later date.
Heavy rains saturate the soil with moisture that stays around the root system for a long time. If you open the crop prematurely, low temperatures can cause the roots to freeze, which often leads to the death of the plant. Late opening can also reduce yields:
- Rotten buds;
- Development of diseases;
- Improper shaping of the bush;
- Vine dieback.
Vines and buds that have been under the cover for a long time do not receive enough sunlight, which means that the process of photosynthesis does not occur and the coloring chlorophyll is not produced.
After opening, such shoots have a weak, pale appearance. They are also called ethylated – grown without access to light. They are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet rays and if opened sharply, such a vine can get sunburn, which with a certain probability leads to the death of the instep. Therefore, a golden mean must be found here. Below we offer average conditions depending on the region.
Only the experience of local gardeners will determine the date of beginning work in a particular region. In particular, this applies to zones of risky agriculture, which includes the Siberian region. As experience shows, for example, in Siberia V:
- Altai Krai.
Depending on weather conditions, work can be done from late April to mid-May. And in case of late snow or high humidity, they may be postponed until early June.
In the Moscow region
In Moscow and the Moscow region, work on opening the crop in mid-April begins in late April if night frosts persist. As a rule, by early May all work should already be completed.
In the Volga region
In the regions of the Volga region, including:
- Saratov, etc.
gardening also begins in the middle of April and lasts until the beginning of May. In the easternmost regions, such as the Republic of Bashkiria, the city of Orenburg, and the Southern Urals, spring begins a week later.
The middle belt includes huge areas:
- Moscow and the oblast;
- Leningrad Oblast;
- Rostov and the Rostov region;
- Voronezh Oblast, Belgorod Oblast, and the rest of the Black Earth Region.
The areas are vast, so the decision of when to open grapes in the middle belt in spring is made depending on the weather conditions. Work usually begins in mid-April, and by mid-April it is complete.
In the Far East.
The Far East is also a vast area. There it is recommended to lift the covering material from the middle of April. With abundant rainfall and low temperatures, the last date when all work should be completed is the end of May.
In the south
In the southern regions of Russia, such as Cuba, as well as Kazakhstan to Almaty and Crimea, the winter period ends much earlier. In warm climates, spring work in the garden begins March 20, and by the end of April, all manipulations related to the opening of the grapes should already be completed.
Belarus and Ukraine
Belarus and Ukraine have rather warm winters. However, the difficulty of growing grapes in these regions is the large amount of snow cover, which slowly melts. In addition, unpredictable night frosts pose a threat, in which frost can destroy all plantings in one night if the culture is hastily opened.
Therefore, in the areas of Kharkov, Kiev and Minsk, it is recommended to take a break of a week, even if the ambient temperature allows you to start working. Usually, the grapes there open from mid-April to mid-May.
In the western region of Russia, Kaliningrad, work in the garden can begin at the end of March and continue until the end of April. A big problem for grapes in this region is high humidity and temperature fluctuations.
Gardeners should rely on current weather conditions. Early opening and sub-zero temperatures can cause grape shoots to freeze.
How to properly cover grapes
There are various ways to cover grapes for the winter (we have already written about it here). These can be as simple mounds or as full protection. Regardless, opening the grapes should be done gradually. In order to make all the necessary manipulations in time and not to lose the crop, you need to adhere to certain rules:
- Work should be carried out in the daytime, if the temperature reaches at least +5 ° C, and at night there is no threat of frosts;
- If the grapes are insulated with a simple method of dip, the opening begins with loosening the snow cover around the bush. When the temperature at night stops dropping, the snow cover is completely removed and replaced with a small amount of hay or straw.
- In partial or complete grape protection, the snow cover is first removed. During the day, the protective structures are partially or completely removed for airing, and put back together at night.
When temperatures are consistently above freezing, the protective insulation should be removed completely. Insulating layers of straw, hay, sawdust, or fallen leaves should also be removed. To get the floor to breathe better, loosen it with a trap around the bush.
Warning. If the danger of frost persists at night and the buds are already swollen, they should be treated with a solution of iron sulfate to stop the process of awakening. This will slow down growth for around a week and could save you from getting frostbitten.
What to do if there is a frost
To save plants from sudden frosts, you can use the following methods:
- The first thing to do is to save the main system. To do this, any available covering material can be used: hay, straw, sawdust, etc.
- To preserve the vine and partially opened buds, a quick maintenance vegetable temporary greenhouse helps best.
Its frame can consist of improvised materials: sticks, ropes, fittings. On the frame you need to throw any polyethylene film. Such a construction is quickly erected and can save during short-term frosts.
Spring works after the opening
After the system is fully opened and the risk of frost remains, preventive work to increase the yield and protect the grapes from diseases should begin.
Passbanding is carried out immediately after the shoots have dried up. In this form, they are more flexible and fragile. The procedure is carried out for the proper formation of the bush and more convenient processing of the culture.
The first trusses are ready at the end of April – beginning of May. The second time the procedure should be repeated in a month if new shoots should spread over the mesh.
After pruning, all shoots should be inspected and any unusual or excessive branches should be identified. A test cut should be made to determine if the vine is frost-resistant and dry. If the core is brown or dark in color, the shoot is dead.
The floor around the bush is solved with a siphon. This is done to better dry the soil, eliminate weeds and prevent the development of fungal diseases.
The vine and the floor around the bush to avoid the development of mold and other diseases should be treated with antifungal preparations. Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, etc. are used for this purpose. The preparations should be used in accordance with the instructions for use. The first treatment is carried out before the buds open.
An important stage of spring works is to apply fertilizer to the base. For this purpose, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are used in a ratio of 5: 4: 3. Fertilizer is applied immediately after opening the system. Of course, the procedure is not carried out if it is necessary to slow growth.
When growing grapes, every level of plant care is important. The quality of the harvest largely depends on the ability to correctly calculate the period of opening grapes in the spring.
When to open grapes in the spring?
Grapes have always been considered a southern plant, for this reason in the middle belt it began to be grown not so long ago. As a result, there were many inexperienced breeders who have not yet gained enough experience. One of the most frequently asked questions is when to open the system in the spring. Also, many people wonder what activities are recommended immediately after removing the insulating cover.
Of course, the first thing to do after the snow melts is to set the right time to release the vines and start the growing mechanism.
It has been known for a long time that grape buds can tolerate frosts of up to 4 degrees Celsius in their dormant state. However, if a bud has already awakened, it will definitely die in a slight frost of 1 degree. This biological feature of the crop requires special attention from the gardener in early spring, when weather conditions remain variable. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the average daily values, if the daytime air temperature differs significantly from the nighttime. The following factors are taken into account:
The minimum air temperature a vine can tolerate is t-5 degrees Celsius;
If the frost is more severe, it ends up with the shoots freezing;
The worst grapes tolerate temperature fluctuations;
The cheapest conditions occur when daytime temperatures reach a value of 8-10 degrees Celsius, and nighttime temperatures do not drop below zero.
Despite the inert spring snow, plants gradually awaken to life. To open grapes in the spring, it is not recommended to start from a specific date. First of all, you need to make sure that the risk of overnight frosts has passed. Until then, it is better to have patience.
When to open in different regions?
If it becomes clear that stable positive temperatures have already arrived, and the soil gradually begins to dry out, the vine can be opened. For each region this time comes at a certain point in time. For southern regions, the time of uncovering is early April. In the middle belt or in the Volga region the opening will be closer to the beginning of May. In Belarus and regions north of the temperate zone, wait for the scion in May. After winter sheltering, the vine continues and requires a number of preventive measures.
How to open?
First of all, the protective covering is removed from the vine – it can be insulating mats, boards, film or roof cuttings. If the vine was buried for the winter, it should be carefully removed and cleaned from the ground. It is safer if this procedure is started when you are sure there will not be any overnight frosts.
However, it is also not advisable to delay it, because if the vine is left closed after a clear warming, it may leak.
It is much better if the winter protection is removed on one of the sunny days and left covered for some time overnight. As a result, the grapes can gradually dry out and not suffer from the probable cold weather overnight.
Protection from frost
The biggest threat to grapes in the spring is unexpected frost. To protect the plants from a possible frost, a framework of metal arcs or wooden slats covered with fleece is installed over them. Agrotex is best, you can also use spunbond. Such a cover will provide the necessary ventilation and protect against sharp temperature changes.
It is not recommended to cover grapes with polyethylene film, as it does not allow evaporation and can heat the buds or shoots. In addition, high humidity in greenhouse conditions will provoke the development of mold or fungal organisms. In any case, adequate ventilation during the day should be provided.
A cover of non-woven material protects the vine from an unexpected cold snap of up to 3 degrees. If there is a risk of temperatures dropping below this point, additional insulation is recommended. The soil around the grapes should be moderately moist throughout the day. These measures will help keep the property viable in variable weather.
What to do after opening
In spring, when the grapes are opened after the winter, they are allowed to dry well. But high humidity at this moment carries certain risks for the development of diseases and activation of parasites. To avoid negative consequences, it is necessary to take a number of precautionary measures. In addition, the vine should be prepared for the period of active development.
Usually, the vine is never gartered immediately after the removal of the winter cover. For some time, the plant has to come back to life a little. Therefore, the straightened shoots are spread out on a stationary rack and weathered for 3-4 days. Gartering in the spring is called dry, because the procedure is carried out on a sleeping plant.
After selecting the optimal vertical, diagonal or horizontal arrangement, the shoots of the vine are fixed in a fixed position. If necessary, the supports are renewed or additional sections of wire are made.
After complete drying, young shoots are pruned, as well as shoots that were not pruned in the fall. This event is carried out according to certain rules.
First, all unnecessary shoots that may dry out, break or give excessive neatness are removed.
The thicker the tendril at the base, the longer shoots should be left.
The cut is made with a sharp tool between the ovaries or slightly above the eyelets.
The fruit-bearing rootstocks should be made from vines that have developed well.
An annual vine with a stem thickness of 6-12 mm is suitable for fruiting.
Fragments of vines that bore fruit the previous year are removed. From the two shoots located on the replacement node, an inner shoot remains.
Spring tillage around grapes begins with weeding, loosening the soil and, if possible, mulching with organic matter. Loosening begins after the soil is completely dry, and in late May this procedure should be repeated. Spring watering should be very moderate, so as not to create favorable conditions for fungal development. Too wet soil can cause root rot, and also freezes much faster.
After the grapes are cut, they are sprayed with a chemical composition that can prevent the development of fungi and pests. Suitable fungicides or insecticides are selected from an assortment of modern chemical preparations. Popular preparations include nitrafos, carbofos and Oxychom. A solution of urea, copper or iron sulfate is also good for spring spraying of grapes.
One of the best antifungal preparations is the Bordeaux mixture, the solution of which is poured under the root.
In addition, in the spring, mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil to support the active growth and development of the green ceiling. Superphosphate and ammonium nitrate are well suited for this purpose. For arid areas in the spring, watering with skipping water is often used.