Mycorrhiza and its role in plant life
Mycorrhiza is a living example of symbiosis between soil fungi and the root system of higher plants. From this publication you will learn about the benefits and harms of such mutually beneficial cooperation in the life of agricultural plants and get acquainted with the features of “mycorrhizal grafting”.
Mycorrhiza in simple terms
As elements of an ecosystem, microscopic soil fungi and plants are intimately linked throughout their lives. The exact definition of what mycorrhiza is in biology can be found on Wikipedia.
In simpler and clearer language, the phenomenon can be described as follows. During photosynthesis, the plant produces plant sugars, some of which end up in the soil. The glucose attracts microscopic mycorrhizae, which form fungi, because it is a nutrient medium for them. Soil fungi utilize the plant root system and provide plants with nutrients from the different soil layers.
The advantage of this symbiotic union is obvious:
- The fungi receive constant nutrition in the form of plant sugars.
- The plants’ ability to obtain moisture and mineral elements from the soil is greatly enhanced, making them stronger and more resistant to undesirable factors and fungal diseases.
Gri b-mycorrhiza are GIFS – the best absorbent filaments capable of extracting the most valuable nutrients, moisture and trace elements from the soil. Mycorrhizal fungi, spreading over a large area, play the role of a kind of “natural pump”, siphoning off nutrients and moisture from the soil. In return, the fungi regularly receive food in the form of plant sugars.
Existing types of mycorrhizae
Depending on the principle of spreading LIFs through the plant’s root system, mycorrhiza are of three types:
- Endotrophic, in which GIFs penetrate directly into the plant cells. Endo-mycorrhiza is formed in the root system of the symbiont and additionally nourishes the plant with beneficial substances.
- Ectotrophs, in which miles of mycelium penetrate the plant’s roots without penetrating the plant’s structure. Ecto-mycorrhizae are less effective for harvesting because they benefit the fungus more and feed it with sugars contained in the soil. In the process of life, fungi secrete a special kind of protein, glamolin, into the soil, which promotes the growth of the root system of the plant.
- Mixed (endoendotrophic). Absorbing fibers create a special coating around the roots and partially penetrate into the cells of the root system of the symbiotic plant.
According to scientists, more than 90% of all plants in nature are mycorrhizal. Most cultivated, fruit and ornamental plants are infected with endo-mycorrhiza, which provides tangible benefits to the development of agricultural plants. External mycorrhizal fungus is common to most conifers and occurs on the root system of trees growing in parklands and forests.
Benefits of mycorrhiza
The gradual overpopulation of the planet contains an inevitable lack of resources and livelihood. Until a few decades ago, all agricultural technologies were focused on increasing the efficiency of fertilizers, the use of various chemicals to stimulate plant growth, and the use of artificially bred high-yield varieties. According to scientists, the frontier in the effectiveness of these technologies has now been reached. Therefore, mycorrhiza is now a real solution for increasing yields using the natural abilities of the ecosystem.
Nonpathogenic soil fungi form mycorrhiza with plant roots. Regardless of the species, this phenomenon has a specific crop benefit and acts as a natural growth stimulant and strong immune modulator. Even today, some companies are actively using artificial infestation of agricultural plants, which greatly increases yields without the use of expensive mineral fertilizers and chemically active preparations. This method has shown high efficiency in growing weapons with nutrients and soil moisture.
As an intermediate conclusion, let’s try to list the main advantages of mycorrhizal:
- Significant increase in plant consumption;
- Moisture harvesting;
- Delivery of plants with nutrients;
- Increased resistance of crops to fungal infections;
- Increased rate of growth, development and productivity;
- Improved soil structure;
- Reduced soil acidity.
In addition to the above benefits, there is an increase in resistance to some pathogens, increased immunity, improved quality of fruits.
Artificial mycorrhial infestation.
According to mycologists and botanists, fungi with plants are found in layers that formed about 450 million years ago. Which fungi form mycorrhiza? Almost all for the right interaction for different plants, however, these are strictly defined mixtures that may even include edible mushrooms.
Mycorrhizal forming fungi are almost all cap mushrooms, including all known inhabitants of coniferous and deciduous forests:
- Carabidae; :
Even the most poisonous mushrooms live in close community with plants, providing them with root moisture and useful substances.
It’s important to understand that mushrooms don’t just grow next to a particular plant! Proper proximity is critical to the development of fruiting bodies. The cooperation of a mushroom with a selected plant is often reflected in its name: podberezovik, podolshannik, etc.
Parasitic fungi do not form mycorrhiza. For example: florets, oyster mushrooms and honey mushrooms, which live not on the roots, but on the trunk of plants. Many people ask, is the fungus a mycorrhiza? There is no answer! Therefore, it is easy to breed in artificial conditions, because the mushroom does not need the proximity to a particular tree or a particular plant.
Today there are areas where mycorrhiza is destroyed due to man-made disasters and regular exposure of the soil to chemicals. To help plants, experts recommend infecting the soil with mycorrhizal fungi or mycorrhizal inoculation for young crops. The vaccine is an adapted soil that is adapted for different plants. Mycorrhiza contains mycorrhial substrate, spores and live microorganisms of mycorrhial fungi.
Inoculation is carried out only once and only with the appropriate substrate.
Mycorrhizal substrates for improving the growth of indoor flowers, balcony, bed and garden plants and vegetable crops are widespread in the home farming market today.
Rules for inoculating plants with mycorrhizal fungi
Grafting” with spores and mycorrhizal fungi should be done in the ground in the fall after the harvest. Unlike most garden crops, mycelium does not rest during the cold season. During the winter months, the fungi form mycorrhiza with the root system of the plants. The first positive results of such grafting will be noticeable in the spring.
Mycorrhizal grafting is successfully used for transplanting young plants to “permanent residence”. Proximity to mycelium reduces stress and accelerates rooting and development of the crop. When transplanting houseplants, the powder is added to the soil substrate. If the drug is used in liquid form, it is drawn into a syringe. The suspension is injected directly into the root zone of the plant.
Within 60 days after grafting, no fertilizers, pesticides or fungicides should be used. This is necessary in order not to provoke the development of mycelium.
In conclusion, let us summarize this publication:
- Mycorrhiza is a natural process of mutual cooperation between fungi and plants.
- Symbiosis can significantly accelerate the process of plant development and increase their protective functions. It increases the yield of agricultural crops, fruit, leaf, ornamental trees and shrubs.
- Mycorrhiza is formed by all cap fungi, except for parasites. The fungus does not form mycorrhiza and mycelium. Therefore, it cannot be used as part of mycorrhizal inoculation!
Inoculation of horticultural crops with preparations made of live spores will significantly reduce the number of irrigations and the use of fertilizers.
Mycorrhiza is the sister of fertilizer
Cultivating plants is always about the extra nutrition. Feeding is required for roots, seedlings, planting material and adults. Universal fertilizer is in particular demand because it can be used for all or most of the flora. Mycorrhiza preparation is very popular among gardeners and vegetable growers.
The composition of mycorrhiza, of course, is created, it is a symbiosis of useful spores and plant media. But in natural conditions, such substances are formed for too long. Mycorrhiza is a biological preparation, which is ready for use immediately after purchase. It is recommended for use to improve the growth and development of various conifers, ornamental, vegetable and fruit crops.
Mycorrhiza “Kormilitsa” is offered for sale under the brand name “Bashinkom”. It is a mineral universal fertilizer, not a special one. It comes in liquid form and is easy to use. The way of using the concentrate is standard – you need to dilute it with water. According to the class of danger, it is assigned to the tissue of the fourth group, that is, the drug is low-hazardous. It contains spores of the fungus Glomus, Mysel, particles of peat, the root system of the colonial type.
What plants are used?
This remedy belongs to the universal, can be used for most types of plants – garden, vegetable plants. The only exceptions are representatives of the groups of Kreuzblutler, Haze and Amaranth. Therefore, refuse to fertilize mustard, radish and cabbage.
The efficacy of the drug has been shown when used for waxing:
Cucumbers, peppers and tomatoes;
Pumpkins, eggplants and zucchini;
Carrots, potatoes, beets;
onions, garlic, celery;
dill, parsley, and peas.
Positive results were recorded for fruit and pumpkin:
strawberries, blueberries, blackberries;
plums, cherries, cherry plums;
pears, apples, cherry plums;
raspberries, grapes, currants;
blueberries, honeysuckle, peaches;
pumpkins, watermelons, melons.
Not only fruits and berries, but also ornamental plants benefit from the use of this drug. Among conifers and shrubs, these include:
Thuja, spruce, pine;
juniper, larch, cypress and spruce;
The product performs well in most flower crops including gladiolus, peonies, roses, dahlias, petunias, asters, marigolds, lilies, tulips, hostas and others.
action on plants
The intended use of this drug is very broad.
Plants need less moisture and you can use the mineral less often. At the same time, the survival rate of plants, especially in adverse weather conditions, increases. The root system gets to take water from a greater depth.
Crops get good nutrition and grow healthy and strong. Spores take part in the work of decomposition and assimilation of useful organic substances. The plant absorbs zinc, potassium, nitrogen and other minerals in large quantities.
Activity of pathogens and insects is significantly reduced. Resistance to weather disasters increases, plants are less likely to get sick, they are not afraid of insects. Mycorrhizal stem secretes necessary enzymes that form a kind of boundary protection of the root system. Pathogenic flora, parasites are in uncomfortable conditions and die, retreat.
Yields increase quite significantly, this point has been proven by scientists. Symbiosis allows the plant to channel more energy into fruiting. Metabolism is accelerated, the plant exchanges useful elements with others.
The impact on the earth is positive. The mushroom picker produces glomalin, a protein that has a stabilizing effect on the soil. Erosion processes are greatly inhibited. The amount of salts and acids is greatly reduced.
Instructions for use
The substance is dissolved in water and is applied to the soil during digging in autumn and spring, when planting and fertilizing during the growing season. This type of fertilizer is applied under the root in the open field and in greenhouses. Can be used on any type of floor. Quantity and dosage depend on the purpose.
During transplanting. When a young plant is moved from a container to a permanent place with a clump of soil, it needs symbiosis to compensate the damage and stress. The drug in this case is applied in an amount of 5 g per hole.
When planting large plants. Trees and shrubs are often sold with bare roots. It is necessary to properly saturate it with moisture so that the roots get soaked, and then immerse it in mycorrhiza. This is done just before the process of transplanting into the ground.
When growing in a container. It is recommended when planting to immediately apply the drug to the soil, the basis can be peat, garden soil, coconut soil. The main thing is to ensure constant moisture, especially at first, and refuse to use antifungal preparations. However, it is recommended to feed the soil with carbohydrates.
During cultivation. It is recommended to apply to the water used for watering. The composition is applied only under the root, the interval between the procedures is 14-30 days. The minimum number of treatments per season is five times. Such measures are especially useful for young and mature plants, they will not bring particularly positive changes. Mature perennials are better to fertilize in the fall, so that over the winter the mycelium developed well, and in the spring the effect was obvious. Spring fertilization leads to the fact that the result will have to wait until the next season.
For seedlings. Mycorrhiza application leads seedlings to active growth and development. The solution is prepared from filtered liquid, you can take distilled water. Tap water is not suitable, as it has chlorine and suppresses spores. A few days before planting, begin to sprinkle the soil. The process is repeated before each picking.
Treatment of planting material. At the stage of preparing the seeds, you can use this fertilizer. It will give the material strength, energy, increase the percentage of germination. First, the seeds are stratified, if necessary, and then sent to the nutrient solution. Similarly, for 5 large tablespoons of water, take a spoonful of white clay and fertilizer in the amount of 1 pc. Total. Seeds can simply be dipped in the solution and sent into the ground.
Brand (filter) Type (filter) Mineral Universal and special No Form Liquid Hazard Class 4 (low-hazard) Safe (filter) Yes
For which plants, any crops, except members of the cabbage and amaranth families, for groups of plants (filters), all garden and vegetable crops (filters), cucumbers, peppers, eggplants, zucchinis , Tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants, zucchinis, pumpkins, potatoes, Radishes, carrots, turnips, onions, garlic, peas, parsley, dill, basil, celery, beans, pods and berries (filter) apples, pears, plums, cherries, cherries, cherry plums, grapes, hops, blackberries, blueberries, blueberries, strawberries (strawberries), currant berries, peaches, honeysuckle melon (filter) melon, watermelon, pumpkin flowers (filter) roses, peonies, dahlias, astunias, iris, narcissus, tulip, lily of the valley, lily of the valley, lily of the valley, lilies, orchids, delphinium, navigation, velvetveteen pelargonium, begonia, zinnias, mortgage Aquilegia, rudbeckia, echinacea, cinquefoil, geichera, hosta , chrysanthemums, lobelia, phlox, astilbe, gladioli, pansies, orphans ornamental flowering shrubs (filbertum) Hydrangea, viburnum , budget, spirea, panicles, panicle, panicle. , Weigela , clematis , rhododendron , needlegrass (filtrum) spruce, cypress, larch , juniper, pine, fir, thuja
Purpose Inhibits the development of phytopathogens and pests, reduces the need for regular watering and fertilization with minerals, especially phosphates, the survival of seedlings at transplanting, under drought and low temperatures
Application compaction in soil classification basic (digging with soil in spring or autumn), at planting, top dressing (application during vegetation period) place of application open ground, greenhouse type all types of soil type