How to form grapes: tips and schemes
Shaping grapes is a responsible procedure that can increase the yield and improve the presentability of the fruit. Lifehacks and tips from experienced gardeners will help to implement it correctly.
Grapes can be grown for various purposes: direct consumption, making canned goods (juices, compotes), as well as the extraction of raw materials for vineyards and production of spirits.
The vineyard gives everyone their fruit, from young children to experienced, solid men, and in order for them to be successful, they must be properly shaped.
What is grape shaping and how important is it?
Any crop that is grown to produce a crop requires constant care: watering, fertilizing, pest and microbial treatments. Grapes are characterized by the fact that for him the process of formation determines the further productivity:
- The object of care;
- The quality of the resulting fruit;
- Aesthetics as an object of landscape design.
Shaping grapes is a series of sequential pruning, sawing, pruning, and driving activities by which to improve the quantity and quality of the crop.
Tips and tricks for shaping grapes
The inexperienced gardener needs effective and working schemes now. With the help of tips and tips and tricks, you can build on the experience of others to form your own a little later.
Decide on the terminology
To understand how to grow grapes, it is better to learn the basic concepts at once, because the amount of information is growing. The following terms can be recommended as mandatory:
- Stem – the trapezoidal part of the grape to the first skeletal touch.
- Eyelet – bud bud, it usually contains the main and two or three lateral, “spare” buds. Eyes are located in the axils of the leaves.
- Shoots are the name given to the perennial part of the vine, often the one that is hardwood.
- Head of bush – the part where the branch begins (it is located at or near the floor).
- The fruiting stem is the disc of the previous year, left for further growth and harvesting for the winter.
- The replacement node is last year’s disc, which will be cut off in the fall to stimulate growth the following year. Together with the fruit ovary, it forms a fruiting member.
- The stigmas are young lateral shoots and leaves that form during the growing season, but do not produce a crop. They are usually removed.
Develop an accumulator in the first year.
Grapes are propagated by cuttings or seedlings – small shoots that have their own root system, although weak. The grape lover usually buys such material or borrows it from acquaintances.
The rooting process should begin in a new place immediately after the system takes root. Timely watering, feeding, creating a light shade regime should ensure active vegetation.
All drives of the young plant should be stopped – cut and cancel all side shoots up to the middle drive.
The reason is simple – weak roots simply do not have enough power to feed more than one instep, which means the plant can become weak, sick, and growth will slow down. If it leaves a single disc, it retains maximum vigor.
Forming the sleeve as the base of the future bush
As long as the vine is young, it can produce shoots from almost anywhere.
The task of the gardener in the second year, having formed a strong shoot, is to translate its base into a long tier. To do this, it is necessary to pull out all shoots one and a half to two meters long, one and a half to two meters.
By doing this, the sap goes further to the ends of the vine, and the basal stem coarsens and touches the bark, that is, into the sleeve.
Even with unforeseen frosts, this part can remain vigorous and produce a harvest. It can be made into the desired shape by choosing the shape of the future bush.
Decide on a rearing scheme
A nurturing scheme is a plan for pruning a grape bush that allows for the best possible adjustment of growing conditions and a person to get a crop of the desired quality.
It is similar to a growing strategy, the goal of which is to achieve the greatest efficiency. Given the longevity of the vine, the formed bush will determine the appearance of the garden for a long time.
Use a netting
Grapes – the vine are horizontal and vertical planes with whiskers – the modified ends of the shoots, with which the plant firmly holds even large masses.
To properly fasten the vine bush, you can use various objects, but the most convenient are wooden and metal trellis supports, between which a few rows of wire is stretched.
Ties also help shape the plant in different ways. They are simple, inexpensive, and can be made from readily available materials.
As the vine grows, new shoots are attached to the higher rows. At the end of the season, a moderately thick grape bush can be removed from the trellis all the way to the stem and laid on the ground. They are bought or swaddled for the winter.
Observe seasonality of formation.
Experienced grape growers often say that it is necessary to constantly form the bush in all seasons, except in winter, when the vine is covered to prevent frost. Keep in mind, however, that pruning is done differently at different times of the year:
- The best time for extensive pruning and sawing off the necessary shoots is in the second half of fall. It is necessary to choose the interval between the slowdown or complete cessation of sap movement and the onset of the first frosts – at this time, even the removal of a significant part of the shoots is painful for the plant.
- The air can also warm up in spring. Even the beginning of sap movement does not interfere with this, but large branches should still be touched.
In the spring, most often prune unnecessary branches, guided by the current development of the bush, especially the eyes and buds.
Planting scheme. For a spacious garden in a warm climate
Kink The standard form is a great option if there is free space. Grapes need supports and garter only in the early stages, after the branches diverge to the sides after the formation of the trunk, resembling a low fruit tree.
The lack of hassle with gartering, and the ease of picking has made this system popular.
In addition, a properly formed trunk with branches looks great in the overall landscape. This arrangement is often used in warm wine-growing areas – Spain, in the south of France.
All about shaping a grape bush: types and pruning schemes
Shaping the grape bush is the most creative and responsible work on the vineyard. The vine must maintain its shape with pruning suitable for local conditions, and overwintering suitable for winter shelter and proper care.
types of pruning
Pruning itself is a preventive measure that can serve different purposes. For example, pruning can serve the purpose of shaping the bush, rejuvenating it, or increasing the yield. It can also be related to the peculiarities of the chosen variety or to the disease of the grape. Let’s consider the main types of pruning.
This type of pruning is very important, since the quality of the harvest depends on the bush with vines and fruits. In addition, we should not forget that different varieties require different shaping. A certain bush shape may be suitable for some varieties, but can be addictive for others.
In the first year of its life, a seedling does not require much care. In order for it to grow properly, the growing shoots need to be cut back. Tie the seedling vertically to a support and leave it alone until the following year. Remember that a future bush is being formed.
When the sapling is two years old, it is time to decide on the future bush, that is, choose the way of its formation. Next, according to the chosen scheme, carry out pruning for the current and subsequent years, stick to one course, ahead of narrowing for the future, or completely remove the bunches. You can learn more about how to prune grapes in different years of life in a separate article.
When all the previous year’s vines have died, the shoot should be pruned with them. He will no longer bear fruit. On the bush it is necessary to leave at least ten living buds. It is recommended to find short shoots evenly.
Important! Pruning old shoots on an adult bush should be carried out in the spring, and it is better to do it in the first days of April.
It is necessary to cut off all withered branches, as well as branches that died during the winter. Live shoots should remain.
The first signs that the bush needs rejuvenation are poorly developed shoots and a noticeable reduction in the size and number of fruits. To combat such a problem, it is resorted to rejuvenating pruning.
To clean up a severely weakened bush, sometimes you have to resort to special measures. One of them is, so to speak, full pruning of the bush, “reloading” the grapevine. First of all, it is necessary to remove all the upper part, the so-called sleeves and vines, where growth was very weak. This pruning is done in the fall, because in the summer remove exactly and how much should be removed.
The nuances of the bush are important when shaping it
The process of rejuvenation of the grape bush is as follows:
- The base of the bush is plentifully digged for 10-15 cm.
- Then the entire bush is cut off at a height of about 5-10 cm.
- The disc should be covered with garden or stuffed with wax.
- After the entire procedure, the cut grapes are backfilled with loose, fertilized soil.
- In the spring, the soil must be removed so that the young shoots grow without obstruction.
When is the best time to perform the procedure?
The bush is pruned twice a year. In the fall, a kind of sanitary pruning is carried out. Old, dead branches and shoots are removed, eyelets are left in reserve (in case of frost). And in the spring, pruning is aimed at shaping the bush. It is made depending on how the grapes can survive the winter.
Make a plan
To decide which scheme of pruning grapes is necessary, you need to rely on an experienced gardener, who can do a lot, or on an amateur, and a beginner will do one or the other method.
One of the simplest pruning schemes for grapes is the so-called Guillot model. In the first phase, a strong shoot grows. In the second phase, it is necessary to prune all the shoots that have grown during the summer, except for the strongest one. Then, in the autumn, it is necessary to cut this disc by five or six eyes.
Important! If the only instar is weak, it is cut off, and the form of the bush is transferred to the next year.
In the spring of the next year, the fruit arrow should be tied horizontally to the trellis. If there are two shoots, they should be tied and placed in different directions. In this way, we will form a two-armed bush for the Guiyot variety. Shoots of the fruiting vine also need to be tied, but already perpendicular to the second and third wire – because they are elongated.
The first harvest finally appears in the third year. In autumn, it is necessary to completely free the vine from inflorescences and stems. The next year the vine will gradually become longer by twelve and then by twenty eyes.
The next year the fruit bole is lengthened by 12 eyes (you can do it by 10) and gradually increased by 20 eyes. And every following year all levels of this technology are duplicated.
The advantage of this technology is the following:
- Very simple.
- The vine is at the same level and the bush is well lit.
- The grapes grow upwards and are easy to pick.
The only disadvantage is that the shoots are difficult to tie to the trellis.
The fan-shaped formation scheme produces short sleeves that are at the same level, but slanted at different angles.
As a result, the vines can easily be removed from the trellis in the fall and covered for the winter. Another advantage of this method is that the bush is constantly renewed, and it does not affect its yield. The vineyard has two to eight branches, the bases of which are in the ground. This is where the dormant buds hide. When the bush is damaged, help it recover quickly.
Moscow Little Fan.
Among the many methods of shrub formation, a common one is the Moscow Little Fan. In this formation, the bushes are less than one meter apart, with only one and a half to two meters between rows. On how to choose the right scheme when planting, you can learn in our separate article.
The method is also interesting because in the autumn, the bushes are covered with dry branches and grass, thanks to which the vine breathes. Thanks to this, the bushes live more than ten years. This method is well suited for use in northern regions.
Formation of bushes with a horizontal cordon.
In this method, a disc is pulled, which is cut along its entire length in the fall. At the same time, the last eye should remain on the underside – the sleeve grows.
The next year, the disc is tied at the bottom wire and all the flowering eyes are broken out. Only the last one remains. The upper eyelets are also thinned, leaving a distance of 30-35 cm between them.
In autumn, in the second year, the vines are cut by 2-3 eyes, and the last one is cut to the full length of the sleeve, that is, to the next bush. In the spring, buds blossom on the new part of the cord and leave only a few shoots at a distance of 30-35 cm.
In the fall, in the third year, 2 shoots grow on the 2-3-round shoots. The lower ones are cut by 2-3 buds to obtain replacement nodes, and the upper ones by 5-6 buds to obtain fruiting arrows.
Assignment of methods by region
Each region has its own preferred method. For example, the small fan in Moscow is preferable for the north, the horizontal cordon formation is suitable for the northwestern climate, and the Gyo formation is exclusively for the warm southern climate.
Determining the bush load
It is very important to know how to load the bush with bunches and shoots and how to correctly calculate their number:
- shoots. If last year the diameter of your vine was 8-10 mm, this year you need to leave 2-3 shoots. If the diameter is 12-14 mm, leave 4-5 shoots. And if the diameter is 16-18 mm, then 6-8 shoots.
- Rabbit. For the shoots, it is best to leave the bulbs. To accurately determine the number of bunches, you need to know the coefficient of fruiting. Its value is approximately 1,5. That is, on the first shoot only one bunch, on the second – two bunches. It is necessary to monitor the bush. If he fructifies well, then the load for him is chosen correctly.
Common mistakes that beginners make when forming a bush:
- The first mistake. It lies in the fact that beginners try to load the bush heavily, as a result of which it is depleted.
- Second mistake. It is that they cut grapes from thick vines on the fruit arcs. But it has long been proven that the thicker the vine, the less fruit.
- The third mistake. It is made by those who are afraid to cut old vines. It is only necessary to take the right approach to pruning, removing the old bows and arrows and leaving a twig on it as a spare twig.
- Fourth mistake. The bush should not be pitied. All diseased vines and arrows should be ruthlessly removed in order to get a good harvest the next year.
Therefore, it is necessary to properly care for grape bushes, timely pruning the vines, read manuals, watch videos with tips from experienced grape growers on the Internet for beginners. When shaping bushes, it is important to adhere to the timing and rules depending on the season, the grape and your climate. If you do it right, pruning your grapes will be an enjoyable and easy task for you.