The Kamaz-4310 is a well-known off-road vehicle with permanent all-wheel drive on all 3 independent axles. This article provides a catalog with technical specifications and a catalog with modifications of the famous truck model. You will learn the fuel consumption per 100 km, how the vehicle goes off-road, its load capacity.
The Kamaz-4310, which entered the armed forces of the USSR, was first used as a multi-purpose off-road vehicle to transport cargo and personnel. If the vehicle is bodied, the vehicle serves as a mobile workshop, headquarters or medical station. KAMAZ-4310 is very often used to organize the work of units of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and geological prospecting expeditions. As a flatbed truck, it is used for transportation of agricultural goods, construction, in hunting farms and in various industries. Very often there is a Kamaz-4310 with an installed lifting device and a special trailer for loading and transportation of wood in the timber industry. By request, some configurations of the truck were equipped with a driver’s stand, which allowed the driver to rest on long distances while transporting loads. The truck has a military origin, so the construction and all systems are designed to operate on bad roads, in all weather conditions and in all climatic zones.
|Carrying capacity, kg||6000|
|Puller weight, kg||10 000 highway 7000 mud|
|Gross weight, kg||15000|
|Unladen weight, kg||8410|
|Overall dimensions (LXBXH), mm||7650 x 2500 x 2900|
|Overall dimensions of platform (LXBXH), mm||4800 x 2320 x 500|
|Charging height, mm||1530|
|Ground clearance, mm||365|
|Wheelbase, mm||3340 + 1320|
|Width of front/rear wheels, mm||2010/2010|
|Outer Wender Adius, M||11.2|
|Maximal speed, km/h||85|
|Fuel consumption, l/100 km||30|
|Fuel tank capacity, l||125 x 2|
|Cruising range, km||830|
|Diesel four-stroke 8-cylinder V-type, 90° top-valve, liquid-cooled|
|Cylinder diameter, mm||120.0|
|Piston bushing, mm||120.0|
|Working volume, L||10.85|
|Engine output PS (kW) (with speed limiter)||210 (154) at 2600 rpm|
|Torque, kgs*m (nm)||65.0 (637) at 1500-1800 rpm|
|transmission||Manual 5-speed (synchronization 2, 3, 4, 5)|
|Distributive transmission||2-row (1.692: 1 and 0.917: 1) with lockable center ratio (1: 2)|
|Main stroke||Dual, multiple taper and multiple front wheels (7.22: 1)|
|Front axle drive||Permanently non-switchable|
|Rear axle drive||Sequential pass|
|Tire size/model||1220 × 400-533/IP-184|
|Matching ford, m||1,5|
|Rising capacity, deg.||31|
The KAMAZ-4310 was equipped with a power unit KAMAZ-740.10, which had a capacity of 210 horses. A more advanced modified KAMAZ-740.20, which had 220 horsepower, was also considered. Later, the trucks were equipped with 8-cylinder engine with an output of 430 horsepower.
KAMAZ-4310 consumes 31 liters per 100 km. The truck has two fuel tanks of 125 liters. Cruising range is 830 km.
The truck is presented with a 5-speed manual transmission, which has synchronization on 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th gears. The RAZDATKA is equipped with a two-speed gearbox and a cylindrical lockable planetary-type middle differential, which distributes torque between the rigidly connected front and rear axles in the ratio of 1: 2.
The RAZDATKA is controlled remotely by means of an electro-pneumatic shift actuator. The differential locking device is actuated pneumatically with remote control.
Suspension is independent, with the front suspension standing on semi-rigid springs with shock absorbers, and the rear suspension shifts on the feathers. The rear-mounted suspension is balanced and also stands on half-echter feathers with reaction rods, in which the ends of the feathers slide.
The technical component of the three-axle vehicle allows it to overcome depths of up to 1,5 meters, which makes it a clear off-road leader.
The brake system
It is equipped with drum devices and dual-circuit pneumatic actuator. There is a parking brake, an interchangeable brake and an auxiliary brake. The drums are 400 mm in diameter and the pad width is 140 mm, the relaxation is from the toe-type.
It is represented by the presence of a mechanism with a screw, a spherical mother and a piston rod that intervenes in the sector of the two-legged shaft. The hydraulic power steering helps to steer such a large machine. With this amplification, the car also drives well off-road.
The voltage is 24V. The batteries themselves are 2 pieces. There is an alternator and voltage regulator. The diagram of the electrical equipment of Kamaz 4310 is shown below.
The designers have even provided for the use of a drum winch, which has a gear-wheel and a band brake. The cable length can reach up to 83 meters.
It is very important to conduct a timely scheduled inspection to restore the performance of the technical component of the machine and extend its life.
Load capacity varies between 5,000 and 6,000 kg. Empty weight is 8,410 kg. The total weight of the truck is 15,000 kg. Maximum speed is limited to 80 km/h. Fuel consumption per 100 kilometers at speeds up to 40 kilometers per hour is 31 liters.
This consumption may vary depending on technical condition and operating conditions. The maximum grade of climbing is 31 degrees. The car will be able to overcome a ford with a depth of 1.5 meters. The smallest venderadius is 10.8 m. The driving height is 365 mm, which is very good.
- Maximum speed of 85 km/h;
- Acceleration to 60 km/h – 35 seconds;
- Braking distance 40 km/h – 17.2 m;
- Acceleration to 50 km/h – 600 m.
- Height – 3590 mm;
- Width – 2500 mm;
- Length – 7650 mm;
- wheel rack – 3340 mm;
- front stripe – 2010 mm;
- Rear bar – 2010 mm;
- Weight – 8410 kg;
- Carrying capacity – 6000 kg; R.
- Charging height – 1530 mm;
- External turning radius – 11200 mm;
- The street freedom is 365 mm.
The structure of the vehicle
If you take the technical condition, this Kamaz was for the 80s of the last century the most excellent off-road truck, which was able to overcome the big rutted roads, not afraid of steep climbs and descents, which were almost “cross” reached 1.5 meters in parts. Series production of this model began in January 1981, just before the 26th Congress of the Communist Party.
The very name says that the truck was produced at KAMAZ (Naberezhnye Chelny). However, only few people know that Kamaz-4310 Moscow has roots and was developed from the design staff of ZIL association. The team of designers took an order to develop a car for the street in 1960.
A year later, the technical components were settled, and the production was given 10 years. During the entire period of the order, about 12 prototypes of a possible KAMAZ car were assembled at ZIL facilities. Interestingly, the development found a significant number of original technical implementations, for which the technical staff of ZIL received more than 50 copyright certificates.
The standard configuration of the truck received a completely new principle of working of drive axles. The model was equipped with a permanent drive with 4 driveshafts. The configuration was full time and included a body, which consisted of a metal base, where there was also an awning and a frame. The truck was supposed to carry passengers and various high tonnage cargoes.
Kamaz-4310 model can operate in different climatic latitudes. It can withstand temperatures from t-45 to +50, so it is in demand in many countries around the world.
The cabin turned out to be 3-seater and has thermal insulation, which allows to feel more comfortable along with noise insulation. They also did not forget to introduce an autonomous heater. The cabin can be tilted back with hydraulic buoyancy.
The basic version does not have a sleeping compartment, but it can be installed as a separate option. The driver’s seat is snug and can be adjusted in length, weight and backrest tilt. In addition to all this, the manufacturer guarantees tropical configuration seats.
It is clear that the interior of Kamaz-4310 is still far from its European counterpart, but in these days of release the cabin was comfortable enough and allows not so much fatigue when working long hours. The seats themselves are quite simple. The dashboard looks spartan, but everything that is needed is placed on the dashboard.
We should not forget that many copies got the army, where comfort is not so important, and important is the preference of the cross, skills, reliability and functionality. On a bright sunny day you can lower the visor for both the driver and the front passenger.
Here is a catalog of the Kamaz-4310. The very first modification was so successful that with minor changes it was made from 1981 to the 1990s. The modifications included a cabin with a hydraulic tilt system and a sleeping compartment as a separate option.
Eight years later, in 1989, the production of additional configurations began, for example, Kamaz-43101 was sent to support agriculture, which was equipped with benches that could be retracted, which gave the possibility to carry up to 30 people. This configuration can carry not only passengers, but also a trailer 2PN 4M. The standard configuration has a winch and an additional sleeping place.
In the same year Kamaz produced 43106, which differed from the previous year in its own weight, but it was capable of carrying more than 1 ton (7 tons). It could be hitched to a trailer, often used an open “GKB-8350” or its variation with a folding awning.
Kamaz 4310″ model could work in rough terrain and offered a trailer. The truck perfectly coped with its objectives, despite the frequent overloads.
The early 1990s showed everyone a semi-custom version of “Typhoon-1”. This modification has a status for transporting soldiers, as well as powerful frontal armor that can protect the cabin. Good technical characteristics allowed taking 4310 as the basis for this modification.
It is somewhat coincidental to assume that this model is only the first version of the fundamentally new anti-terrorist tank “Typhoon”, which was made in accordance with the instructions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. However, that is not the case. The debut Typhoon was not shown until 2011. This is the fruit of the general development of the engineering staff of the original “Ural” and “Kamaz” automobile company. They were not built on the basis of 4310.
Typhoon-1 is also very interesting, the company released a sports version of the car, which is called C4310. The purpose of the release was to participate in rally-raids. When expanding the debut sports car, specialists borrowed the production version of KAMAZ 4310.
Therefore, the new vehicle was assigned the index KAMAZ C4310. If we talk about the technical filling, the basic current unit (210 horses) was increased to 290 hp due to the introduction of turbochargers and increased fuel supply.
In addition, the race car engine featured pistons with a variable profile, crankcases with steep vibrations, an improved lubrication system, and the cooling system had a viscocoupling and a fan with increased efficiency. The model had stiff springs and special shock absorbers.
In accordance with FIA standards, the truck was equipped with safety arches. The C4310 was also different in that it had a completely new canopy which was painted yellow, while the standard model came with a green canopy. September 1988 was the first month of the rally-raid.
The KAMAZ-master team took part in the European rally “Jelch”, which was held in Wroclaw, Poland. The car managed to take 2nd and 4th place in the individual overall classification and the first in the team classification. A few years later, in 1991, the sports car won the 2nd final place in the famous Paris-Dakar rally-marathon.
After that, the manufacturer made the following upgrades, so already in 1991 KAMAZ had a completely new eight-cylinder unit (KAMAZ 7482), which produced 430 hp. Later on, it was this engine that became standard for production KAMAZs.
The main changes
|KAMAZ-4310.||Base version. It differed by a shorter platform with an awning, rear tailgate and folding seats (30 people) along the pages. Produced in 1983-1990.|
|Kamaz-43101 (prototype).||The transport version. It differed by a cargo platform from the Kamaz-5320 with three folding sheets.|
|Kamaz-43101.||An upgraded version of the Kamaz-4310. It was equipped with the KAMAZ-740.10-20 engine with an output of 220 hp. Carrying capacity was increased up to 6 tons. Produced in 1989-2000.|
|Kamaz-431010.||It is a sport version. It was made for the Paris-Dakar rally. In 1992 it took part in a marathon Paris-Moscow-Beijing.|
|Kamaz-43102 (prototype).||Kamaz-43101 variant with a bunkhouse.|
|Kamaz-43103 (experienced)||Another variant of the KAMAZ-4310 with a trailer with a bed.|
|Kamaz-43105||Civilian version. It differed by absence of windage and tire pressure control systems.|
|Kamaz-43106.||Civilian movement. Differs by the engine Kamaz-740.10-20. Produced in 1989-2000.|
|Kamaz-43114.||A modernized army version. It differs by a 260 hp turbocharged diesel engine KAMAZ-7403.10. С. It has been produced since 1996.|
|KAMAZ-43115.||An upgraded, civilian, transport version. It is equipped with the KAMAZ-7403.10 engine. It has been producing since 1998.|
|KAMAZ-43118.||A vehicle with an extended cargo platform. It is distinguished by the Kamaz-7403.10 engine. It has been produced since 1996.|
|Kamaz-4410.||It is a hood prime mover based on the 4310 chassis. It is used for towing points with special semi-trailers with the gross weight up to 15 tons.|
Characteristics and operation
All modifications of the machine were equipped with hydraulic tilt system. As standard, the machine was equipped with a windlass, which was mechanically driven by a cardan gear from the power selection box. These devices contributed to the efficient use of the machine for a variety of cargo handling operations and as a means of escape for stranded vehicles. The cabin of the vehicle was not distinguished by design refinements, but provided quite comfortable driving in road and weather conditions.
Kamaz-4310: technical features of the truck with an increasing degree of implementation
In the Kamaz-4310 vehicle, the technical properties and dimensions of the wheel system provide increased cross-country capability. This is a well-known vehicle with all-wheel drive system with 3 independent axles. The high potential of the model allows using it in many areas for cargo transportation and as military equipment for the Russian Army. In the field of the army, it has fully revealed its abilities in combat conditions. With the help of gas stands it is possible to move without refueling over long distances designed for diesel fuel.
Design and purpose
The publication of the model began in 1981. Since then, many mechanisms and transport systems have been improved, and several modifications have been created. Tuned car is standard for the Soviet transport. It is possible to highlight a few main advantages of the Kamaz factory engine:
- Basic configuration – permanent four-wheel drive.
- 4 driveshafts;
- all-metal body;
- Collapsible side and rear boards.
The cargo platform can be presented as an awning surface, a frame or a wooden surface. Due to the three folding sides, the vehicle is in high demand as a truss. It facilitates the loading and unloading process in the agro-industrial balloon when grain, power and other material need to be transported. The body of such a vehicle was equipped with benches that could later be removed.
Reliable and sturdy chassis can withstand any load and overcome any unevenness well.
The cabin has three seats. Heat and sound insulation ensure comfortable driving. Including:
- Microclimate is maintained by an autonomous heater;
- Hydraulic elevator for tilting the cab forward;
- A sleeper seat can also be installed;
- Driver’s seat around all axles;
- tropical seat.
This model series does not plan a large number of variations, as other Kama models. But each version has found its application in the civilian or military sphere. The most popular with users are the Kamaz-43101, 105 and 106. Model 101 is an improved copy of the first model with many innovations. The device of the car has been improved for several years.
The 105 series is a civilian vehicle, which is not used for military purposes. The features of the 106 series are an improved engine and chassis, a modified gearbox.
The manufacturer also offers a sports version of the vehicle – the C4310. Differences: powerful tubular compressors, new canopy, and safety bars. The design was constantly updated to be competitive with European counterparts.
In the military field another modification Typhoon was used. It differed by armored body. Scope of application: special anti-terrorist operations.
KAMAZ technical features indicate its performance and a wide range of applications in freight transportation. Features:
- Overall dimensions (L * H * D) – 3.4 * 2.5 * 2.9 m;
- The loading capacity – 6 tons;
- Total weight – 15 tons;
- Tank capacity – 125*2 liters;
- Fuel consumption per 100 kilometers – 30 liters.
Open space and high filling capacity make the truck versatile in many industries.
Kamaz-4310 engine has two variations. The first copies were equipped with 210-horsepower unit. On modern machines the engine power is 430 hp. This required the installation of units with 8 cylinders.
Characteristics of the Kamaz engine:
- Torque – 637 N/m;
- V-shaped arrangement of the cylinders;
- Working volume – 10.9 liters;
- Maximum speed – 85 km/h; The vehicle accelerates to this speed in one minute;
- Braking distance – 17.2 m.
The 101st and 106th series have increased power units. Fuel consumption has been increased in comparison with more modern models.
The transmission of the vehicle is universal and has all-wheel drive. Distinguishing features:
- Subsid Notum;
- Synchronization of 2 and 5 gears;
- Multiple transfer modes;
- Remote control;
- two-speed transmission.
Manual transmission has 5 gears and an auxiliary mechanism as standard. The purpose of the distributor gear is to distribute torque evenly between the wheels.
The power from the engine is transmitted via the driveline. It consists of 4 cardan shafts: rear axle, middle, intermediate and front axle drive.
The steering mechanism consists of a hydraulic booster, a spherical-mater screw and a piston rod.
Individual wheel suspension is formed by:
- Front semi-elliptical feathers;
- Shock absorbers;
- Slewing rods.
Suspension power allows the machine to overcome obstacles up to 1.5 m deep.
The brake system
Brake system in drum design with pneumatic 2-circle actuation. The vehicle is also equipped with a bracket, changeable and auxiliary brakes. The trommel registration diameter is 400 mm, cams. The pneumatic system has been changed, its efficiency has become higher.
KAMAZ 4310 controls
Controls and instruments of KAMAZ 4310 are located in the truck’s cabin.
The main control is the steering column with a bicycle, which is located so that the driver has a good view of the dashboard. On the steering column itself there is a combination switch (light, “indicator”, sound signals).
Position of the various pedals in relation to the steering wheel:
- Brake, fuel supply (right)
- Cup (left)
The Kamaz is also equipped with an auxiliary brake, which is operated by a button located between the clutch and brake pedals.
To the right of the driver’s seat are manual control levers for various systems, such as In. engine shutdown, fuel supply, and transmission.
On the left side of the instrument panel are various gauges (speedometer, fuel gauge), on the right side is the driver’s belongings box, under which the fuse and the preheat switch are located. In the middle of the dashboard are the switches and fuse panel. Also in the middle is the tire pressure control valve lever and the battery power button.
All controls, including switches, levers and instruments, are equipped with symbols that make the truck easy to operate.
Kamaz-4310 electrical diagram is designed to show the main elements of the system and make independent repairs, if necessary. The color scheme shows the order of wiring and all electrical devices of the vehicle with a description of the elements. The color wiring diagram has the following elements:
- The power unit starter;
- Cab lighting;
- Blinker, headlight, emergency signal;
- Schematic diagram of window cleaning, heating and power system;
- Anti-theft mechanism;
- Audio system;
- Security unit;
- Tax unit.
These units operate normally only if the electrical equipment of the dump truck is in satisfactory condition.
The manufacturer has made provision for a winch with a drum system. It has a belt brake and a snail gear. The cable extends up to 83 m.
Operation and repair
The operating instructions contain basic information about the transport mechanism, its preparation for work, the rules and frequency of maintenance, as well as the most important faults. The following faults are frequently encountered:
- Clutch adjustment;
- Valve adjustment;
- KAMAZ-4310 transfer case repair.
Compliance with the manufacturer’s recommendations extends the life of the unit. For minor breakdowns, you can use the scheme and instructions for self-repair. Otherwise, you should contact the service department.
Reviews and Cost
The price for different configurations is in the range from 1800 000 to 2500 000 rubles. The price for a used car starts from 400,000 rubles. In some cases, it is worth comparing first: Perhaps the purchase and rental prices are not comparable, and it makes sense to arrange temporary ownership of the vehicle. This is especially true for those areas where trucking is done only a few months a year.
Nicholay, 40, Ekaterinburg: “Good option for short distance transportations. The car is not afraid of the stretch, which can often be found in Russia. No difficult problems in 4 years. A few times in cold weather the engine did not want to start, but the problem was quickly fixed. Regular maintenance makes the car a good helper in agriculture and as a carrier of firewood. “
Mikhail, 37, UFA: “The car is not suitable for traveling long distances. Long driving causes a lot of fatigue, the seat is not comfortable. The engine is reliable, the running gear worked well off-road. I used the vehicle as a manipulator and only for trucking. Maintenance is standard – pump the wheels, change the oil.
Igor, 39, Moscow: “I have been using KAMAZ for 2 years now. The price-quality ratio is good. I have some shortcomings, but for such a price they are not worth paying attention to. Many people complain about unreliable engine. But if you change the oil and filters in time, there are no problems with starting. It works both hot and cold. Agility and maneuverability at a high level. The shelf makes a lot of noise in the cabin, the stove has all the necessary elements, but it is made according to the Soviet model. The seating position is uncomfortable. The car is not suitable for long trips.
advantages and disadvantages
- Improved visibility due to the absence of the hood;
- good cross-country ability;
- Remote control of tire pressure;
- All-wheel drive;
- High ground clearance;
- high stability;
- Easy maintenance and repair;
- Large selection of spare parts;
- Reliable operation in various climatic conditions;
- powerful engine;
- several modifications.
Disadvantages include: high fuel consumption; uncomfortable cabin; fatigue symptoms on long trips; low dynamic performance and interior.