How to take care of Far Eastern sultanas.
The fruit liana is often found in the forests of the Far East. Some of its cultivated species gardeners are grouped together, which are called far eastern sultanas. This is an ornamental plant, which differs from other lianas in appearance and prosperity of useful elements.
Cultivation of far eastern sultanas
Characteristics of the variety.
Far Eastern sultanas are better known than Actinidia.
The actinidia has a brainless life span of 160 days. Buds blossom in early spring, so it is important to protect them from sudden cooling. The cultivars are more resistant to frost, but require caution and protection in mid-winter.
Bramble Far East is an ornamental, knobby, tree-like liana.
Its height depends on the variety, the minimum – 2,5-3 m, the maximum grows to 10-15 m. The plant has no antennae or suckers, for proper climbing upwards, starting at 30 to 100 cm.
The bark of the liana has a dark brown color, there are small white dandruffs. The leaves are large, oval or elongated, sometimes round. The color is mostly dark green, shiny, but the leaves of the male plant can change shade during flowering from whitish to crimson-red.
Grapes are presented separately by male and female flowering plants. It is necessary to plant several representatives of this variety to maintain the harvest. Flowering occurs 4-6 years after planting. The buds are large, fragrant, creamy white, with bright yellow on the means. Flowers occur singly, but can be gathered in inflorescences of 2-3 buds.
The fruits are cylindrical elongated or rounded, weighing 2-3 g each. When ripe, the berries are a dark green color, sometimes with a crimson, pale or orange hue. Like all parts of this plant, each grape is covered with a light reddish down.
The aroma of the fruit is reminiscent of pineapple. The flavor is close to sweet and sour. The berry of the Far Eastern grape is a multi-compartmentalized berry with approximately 90-100 small seeds. When chewed, they are not felt but impart a slight muscat flavor.
Interest in Far Eastern sultanas and their merits is attracted by the richness of their chemical composition. It has a high content of vitamin C, the amount of which exceeds indicators for lemon fruit by 10-15 times. The usefulness of berries reaches 10-13%. The vitamin composition is diverse, including group A, P, B, fiber, organic acids (about 1-1.5% of the total weight of the fruit).
The ideal place to place seedlings on the plot is a slightly shaded place, protected from winds. The liana is able to withstand frosts of up to 30 ° C, provided it is well covered with snow and not exposed to structures. Some varieties die when cooled to o-12 ° C, as they are not used for cultivation in the northern regions of the country.
The plant likes moisture.
The soil should have an average composition, for example, with an increase in sand or peat. Acidity is brought to a pH of 5.5-7 units, the floor should be neutral or slightly acidic. Actinidia likes moisture, but the root system does not tolerate an accumulation of water, so it is important to provide the roots with good drainage.
Planting the plant
After preparing the site and selecting the variety, proceed to planting the actinidia in the ground. Actinidia are propagated by cuttings in summer from adult plants or by seedlings from ovaries. It is more efficient to propagate vines with cuttings from 2-year-old young shoots.
The process of planting in the ground takes place in several stages:
- Preparing the stems for planting in individual boxes after wintering. Conduct a dip to a depth of about 30 cm. Then the soil is cleaned of excess roots and small objects.
- Plant the deitia better in rows. For planting, the furrows are filled to a depth of 50 to 80 cm. At the bottom, drainage in the form of small pebbles or broken bricks in a layer of 20 cm is placed. The next layer is fertilizer or a peat pot. Biofertilizer is not required, but sometimes a small amount of humus is added.
- The bottom layers are covered with a small floor ball, so as not to burn the roots of the vine. Seedlings are buried from each other at a distance of 0,5-2 m: so that they do not interfere with the neighbors. Plants are watered with settled warm water.
Far Eastern grapes are characterized by unpretentiousness. The main condition for its care is a cheap environment that reminds the locals of broad. For this purpose, at the stage of planting, arrange a good support to 3 – 4 m. Make sure that young sprouts in the first 2-3 years are not exposed to direct sunlight.
The root system of the vine lies flat, reaching a depth of 25-30 cm from the surface of the floor, as loosening and destruction of weeds is carried out carefully. At first it is better to pour 2-3 buckets of humus under the stem.
Care for grapes also has its own characteristic features:
- After the end of active vegetation, it is carried out in the fall, to first remove dry, diseased and stopped, bearing fruit.
- More often leave the vines of the first order, they give the largest and tastiest fruits.
- Spring pruning is undesirable, since the plant opens the buds early, and the cut branches tend to freeze in early spring.
Water regularly, but in small quantities, in the evening or in the morning. It is better to do it in the dry season, if natural precipitation is not enough. For watering, use settled or rain water. Before the process itself, let it warm up in the sun, so as not to disturb the root system of the vine with cold temperatures.
Fertilizers are applied along with watering, when a small amount of humus or wood ash is diluted. The main source of useful substances is humus or compost, which are regularly added under the grapevine. In winter, it is recommended to add potash to maintain the frost resistance of the actinidia.
How to take care of Far Eastern sultanas.
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What is an actinidia?
Actinidia is a vigorous, mostly deciduous climbing plant (liana) with simple, ovate leaves, in some species mottled. The small, cup-shaped flowers produce edible fruit on female or hermaphroditic plants.
They are oval in shape, up to 25 mm in diameter, and turn pale orange when ripe.
The berries are edible raw, boiled, or dried. The taste is sweet and pleasant. The fruits contain 5 times more vitamin C than blackcurrants. They have many small seeds, but they are easy to eat along with the berry.
types and varieties
The genus Actinidia includes 36 species, most of which are wild woody lianas native to the subtropical and tropical forests of Southeast Asia. Only four hardy species grow wild in the Russian Far East:
Actinidia is called “Far Eastern raisin” there. Giralda species are very rare.
Actinidia colomicta is most common in amateur gardens. This species is the most frost-resistant and unpretentious. The first varieties of this species were bred by I.V. Michurin: these are Michurin’s Pineapple and Clara Zetkin.
Of all the cultivated species Actinidia arguta develops the strongest liana 20-30 meters long and 15-20 centimeters thick. Slightly pointed, ovate leaves, up to 15 cm wide, white flowers, up to 20 mm in panicles or singly. Dark green oval fruits are 15-30 mm in diameter and weigh about 5-6 grams.
Actinidia arguta is less hardy than Colomicta. In the Moscow region it ripens late – in late August – early September. And in the southern regions of Russia Arguta ripens in August and brings a large crop.
- Kiev hybrid-10;
- Kiev large-fruited;
- taiga emerald;
- giantsha and others.
Among the best varieties for the non-Black Earth region, gardeners chose Ribbed.
Ribbed actinidia (Actinidia arguta) is a hardy climbing plant with long brown shoots. The berries are large, cylindrical in shape, with a blunt base and a pointed “nose” tip. The berries are 2 cm long, weigh 5.3-6.2 g and ripen in mid-September. The surface of the berry is ribbed, yellowish-green in color. Their flavor is sour-sweet and has an apple aroma. The ascorbic acid content is 251 mg/100 g.
Polygamous Actinidia creeper is about 2 cm in diameter and 4-5 m long. The leaves are elliptical, oblong, pointing upward. The fruit weighs about 3 grams.
Actinidia polygamum occurs less frequently in nature than other species. The Orange, Canary and Pepper varieties are common in different regions of Russia. Actinidia polygamum is sufficiently hardy in the conditions of the Moscow region and begins to bear fruit at the age of five to six years.
Actinidia polygama stands out among its relatives: its orange fruits taste like paprika and have a peppery flavor.
The Canary variety is considered the best to grow. It is a hardy vine with annual shoots up to 183 cm long, brown or tan. The berries are dark orange, large (average weight 2.7 g, maximum weight 3.5 g), cylindrical, 2.1-2.6 cm long. Fruits contain 136-268 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid, 14.2% of sugar, 0.6% of organic acids.
Actinidia colomicta has a very high frost resistance. The vine can reach a length of 5-10 meters and two centimeters in diameter. The ovate leaves are about 7-16 cm long. The green fruits are 20-25 mm long.
Far Eastern Actinidia giralda is located in the south of Primorsky Krai. In the Moscow region, its cultivation is difficult.
The best actinidia columicta varieties suitable for Central Russia
Currently, the best varieties are:
- Comandor (pollinator variety);
- Fantasy Gardens, etc.
A richly fruity aroma is inherent in pineapple. Magpie is apple, grape is strawberry. Gourmet variety has the largest fruits – the average weight is 3.2 g, the maximum weight is 5.3 g.
Actinidia summata Colomicta is a variety of Dr. Szymanowski. Fruits of delicate taste cylindrical form, 3-4 cm long (larger than those of the nearly doubled Dioscorea).
All these varieties of actinidia are suitable for growing in the climatic conditions of central Russia, especially its northern part: Leningrad, Pskov, Novgorod, Vologda, as well as for Moscow suburbs, Smolensk, Yaroslavl, Vladimir and other regions.
Vines winter wonderfully without shelter on trellises, besides, they are practically not ill or damaged by pests.
Actinidia grows well in Siberia and the Urals, any variety of the above is suitable for cultivation.
Peculiarities of growing actinidia colony-shaped: planting and care of it
Actinidia is grown both from seeds and by re-growing summer green cuttings. The second method is preferable. Propagation of actinidia by green cuttings is faster and preserves all the varietal characteristics of the plant.
Almost all actinidia are biparental plants, that is, male and female. In order for them to bear fruit well, at least five female and two male plants must be planted.
location and soil
Liana can grow for more than 50 years, so the choice of location should be approached responsibly. Actinidia are photophilic plants, but they grow and bear fruit better in light shade. Do not plant the vines with tall trees during the year.
Actinidia prefers moist, but tolerates well humus-rich, weakly acidic soils.
It is desirable not to make lime and fertilizers containing chlorine (potassium chloride perfectly replaces wood ash).
How to grow actinidia from seeds
Only fresh actinidia seeds are suitable for planting, after a year they completely lose their germination. Previously, they had to be accustomed, they endure:
- two months at a temperature of 18-20 ° C;
- two months at 0-5 ° C;
- during germination at 10-12 ° C).
Actinidia seeds are sown in a bed in early spring.
Planting cuttings: conditions and step by step instructions
For planting in the garden actinidia Colomicta in nurseries buy known green cuttings or two seedlings with a closed root system.
Plant it better in the spring, before the buds have opened for the plants and with the expectation that later the lianas will need supports in the form of a trellis or ladder at least 2 meters high.
To decorate a porch, porch or pergola, seedlings should be planted at a distance of 1-1.5 m from the walls, so that rainwater will not get on the roots.
When laying a hedge at the edge of the plot, it is necessary to provide a place for the installation of supports in the form of wooden rovers or forked trenches about 40 cm deep, 50 cm wide and of the required length. Actinidia seedlings in such a trench should be planted at a distance of 2 m from each other.
Plant the actinidia step by step:
- First, install temporary wooden supports, and then replace them with asbestos-cement or iron supports, for example, from old water pipes.
- Dig a planting hole (50 x 50 cm) or a ditch.
- At the bottom lay fine stones or gravel for drainage, and then fertile soil mixed with mineral fertilizers and humus.
- Actinidia is planted without deepening the root neck.
After planting the soil must be covered with humus or decomposed sawdust and mulch.
Care in the open ground: watering, supports, now, fertilizing
Actinidia should be tied to the support at the beginning of disk growth and not removed from it. Further care consists of regular watering, feeding and surface loosening of the soil.
During drought, plants are sprayed with water in the morning and evening, water abundantly, and then mulch the soil. In a dry summer, it is recommended to water the vines 2-3 times a day and spray with water.
How to feed an actinidia
Feeding actinidia promotes the growth of shoots, helps the plant to overwinter and increases the yield.
In early spring, the soil around the actinidia is recultivated and 35 g of nitrogen and 20 g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer per 1 square meter of land.
The second time fertilize actinidia during the formation of ovaries. Per 1 sq. m. it is necessary:
- 20 g nitrogen;
- 10 g of potassium;
- 10 g phosphorus.
In the second half of September, the third fertilization is carried out. This time, phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is applied in an amount of 20 g per square meter.
Supporting the actinidia
The most suitable support for actinidia are trellises 2 meters high and 3 to 6 meters long. For short row trellises, two rods are installed, for long row trellises, three rods.
In the second year, the shoots should be fan spread on the support and, if necessary, tie.
To improve further fruiting, the shoots are pruned annually. Do this in late autumn.
To do this, select the two strongest shoots on the plant and tie them horizontally to the support, pointing in different directions.
The remaining shoots are cut off in October-November. Two main tongues are left on the actinidia. On them, new shoots will appear next year. They are tied up vertically on a trellis. These are fruiting shoots.
Fruiting shoots are shortened annually, with 4-5 buds remaining behind the top berry.
Scheme: black – the main vital, green – fruiting side shoots, red – cutting surfaces.
Preparation for winter
In the fall, in the first years after planting actinidia, it is recommended to cover the ground around the seedlings with leaves to prepare for winter.
In the third to sixth year after planting, the plants usually begin to bloom and bear fruit.
How to distinguish a male actinidia plant from a female plant
During the first flowering, the sex of the liana can be determined by the flowers:
- Female plants have single flowers, with a large stalk in the middle of the flower with rounded ovaries, style and star-shaped scars.
- In male plants, two or three are gathered into inflorescences, which are located in the armpits of the leaves on the shoots of the current year. In the flowers of male bushes, numerous stamens with stamens can be seen on thin filaments.
The photo shows male and female actinidia flowers
Although the female flowers are bisexual, they are adapted to foreign pollination through the air and with the help of bees and bumblebees. The wilted staminate flowers fall off, while the pistillate (female) ovary grows and forms a fruit.
Actinidia species do not fertilize.
Why do actinidia leaves turn white?
The dark green leaves of the actinidia columicta in June become partially or completely macerated before flowering. This is not a disease, but a biological trait. Actinidia is often used as an ornamental liana. Due to the unusual color of the leaves, it serves as an excellent site decoration.
Actinidia colomicta and polygama begin to bear fruit in the fifth year of life, argut – in the eighth to ninth year. At the beginning of August the berries become soft, juicy and green. At the same time they ripen the month. The ripe fruits fall off quickly, so it is better to put something under the bush for harvesting. This way every morning you can easily pick fresh ripe fruits that fell overnight.
If you remove the whole crop at once, the berries will also ripen well in room conditions in paper bags or boxes. The hard fruits lie 2-3 days, while having a great taste, flavor and vitamin C.