Preparing the garden for winter – autumn work in our garden
Autumn is not only the richest time of the year, when in addition to harvesting all sorts of crops in the literal sense of the passion various supplies are prepared for the future, we work, as in this fable Ant, not to become the same Belle fable. In addition, we need to gradually get into a rhythm of preparing the garden plot for winter so that everything doesn’t fall evenly, and we shouldn’t get down on the weather conditions – they can throw off all our intentions and possibilities. Especially if the location doesn’t go beyond the threshold of one’s home, but is removed.
Preparing the garden for winter – a variety of work: removal of fallen leaves; pruning of trees and shrubs plus their treatment with pesticides against winter pests of any kind; treatment of strawberries; grafting the lawn; fertilizing all plants for the winter; re-cultivation of the earth with the calculation of planting in the next season; planting and sowing seeds of flowers and bulbs; growing plants for shelter in cold regions; conservation or equipment of greenhouse equipment, fixed greenhouse and so on. Don’t forget that only our eyes are cowardly – our hands are much braver!
Prepare the garden for winter as early as August, since some beds and flower beds have already served their purpose and need to be cleared of withered plants and their disposal. Fruit trees have dropped bad fruit – all need to be removed without collecting snail food. Continue to fight weeds that take away moisture and soil fertility.
September is a strict and responsible month. It sums up our production successes and rushes to work on preparing the garden plot for winter. Early in the fall, in dry weather, they carefully collect with simultaneous sorting by quality late varieties, which are properly stacked in suitable containers for storage and transportation. Experienced gardeners pour over packed pears and apples with dry sawdust, and for transportation and storage.
Preparing fruit trees for winter
In September, it is desirable to carry out all activities to prepare fruit trees for winter, you can begin to overhaul the bark and crown. Trim off withered branches, dead areas, lichen, moss, wounds and growths on the bark suitable for pruning and treatment. Paint with garden or old oil paint in light colors.
Also, remove all possible traps and hunting belts – paper – in pruning and tolerable cloth, dry and store until spring.
Fall tree pruning.
Even in the first days of November, you still have time painlessly for trees and shrubs to cut out dry, sick and mechanically damaged shoots, twigs and unnecessary shoots, carefully treat the places of small cuts with a solution of copper sulfate and more lubricate the areas with a layer of Gartenvar or old oil.
Remember to make cuts from branches only above the bud, directed outward from the bush.
In grafted trees, grafting spools should be loosened and replaced with taller grafting pins. In November, it is advisable to prepare cuttings for spring work with cuttings.
White teeth on tree trunks
White trimming of trunks is carried out in dry, sunny weather. The purpose of this campaign is to protect against dormant pests and prevent early spring sunfire. For this purpose, you can use ready-made, store-bought garden whitewash, or prepare 3 pounds of lime with 500 grams of copper sulfate per bucket of water.
Water the plants in the winter.
If the garden needs to be watered in September, conduct a local soil moisture test. To do this, dig a narrow hole 40 centimeters deep, extract from it a handful of wonka and press it into the palm of your hand. If the clump does not crumble, watering cannot be started or stopped.
No one has cancelled the necessary dosage watering of plants in winter, especially in conditions of too dry autumn. Seeds that have produced a late harvest of fruit are all sown. Needle watering.
Water, the temperature of which should be 5 degrees above the air temperature, with intervals of 12 to 15 liters per hour, so that the depth of moisture penetration reaches at least 1 meter, is recommended.
Autumn Fertilizing and Fertilizing
An important step is the autumn fertilization and pears. Under each tree, at least 5 kilograms of organic matter per square meter should be applied. Up to 10 grams – potassium mineral fertilizers; 40 grams of superphosphate, which provide fruit trees together with sufficient moisture with everything necessary for wintering, in which they retain autonomous strength for the future harvest.
Very important! Do not include in the autumn fertilizing nitrogen mineral fertilizers, which, as everyone knows, activate the processes of active growth at this time of year, which reduces the hardware supply of garden plants.
Of the well-known organic fertilizers in the autumn dressing used deoxidizer in the ratio: 1:10; Compost for trees from 1 to 7 years of age at the rate of: 1.5-2.0 kilograms per square meter of the trunk circumference and 2-3 kilograms for older trees; Ash at the rate of: 100 grams per bucket of water; Humus: half a bucket per square meter.
Remains important for mineral fertilizers, except for nitrogen. It is carried out in four holes with watering solution at the rate of four buckets of the specified solution per square meter of the trunk circumference:
- Trees under 10 years of growth – 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and 1 tablespoon of sodium chloride;
- Trees over 10 years of growth – 4 tablespoons of superphosphate and 2 tablespoons of potassium chloride per bucket of water;
- Cherry and plum trees – 3 tablespoons of superphosphate and 2 tablespoons of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
Berry bushes – currants and gooseberries – need top dressing, which is advisable to combine with loosening the soil of the basal contour and inter-row and preserve the root system of bushes.
To fertilize garden strawberries and strawberries along the furrows in advance with a helicopter with a helicopter, a water infusion of mulch in a ratio of 1:15 or bird droppings: 1:30 with a small amount of ash. In more detail about the types of fall feeding of berries we have already talked about in a previous article.
All types of grapes need not only spring treatment, NPO and proper care in the fall. Grapes prefer slurry, suitable for autumn digging in the range of 6 kilograms per square meter.
Protecting plants against diseases and pests in the fall
October is Laust month. And don’t pile up the fallen leaves, but in dry weather, while they are dry and light, hurry to collect them and burn them in special iron containers.
Fallen leaves, when naturally fermented, become excellent winter habitats for numerous garden pests, including naked snails. Even as a covering material or to obtain humus, it is not recommended to use them lately, as both pathogens and possibly harmful chemicals accumulate in the leaves during the season.
Spraying of fruit trees and berry bushes
Spraying fruit trees and berry bushes with an aqueous solution of a mixture of mineral fertilizers: 500 grams of urea and 700 grams of potassium chloride in September will protect against fungal diseases and pests: spider nets and aphids.
Some gardeners treat plants for winter against garden plant diseases and pests in late October. After the fall of dry and low leaves and in white weather, such treatment is advisable, especially with obvious signs of mold on the bark and branches of plants.
In this case, treatment with 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid is effective. Against common fungal and viral diseases of pears, for the prevention of cherry trees and apple orchards (coke, mildew and scab), treat the crown and the base of the contour with a concentrated aqueous solution of urea – 1 kg per 10 liters of water, aqueous solution – 1 kg per 10 kg. Everything is clear, it is destroyed. All survey pests in the ground and on the crown of trees.
What is necessary and can be planted in the fall?
Winter crops are planted on garden beds in September, the teeth of which are deepened by about 6-8 centimeters, turn the head up with a layer of humus. Transplanting and planting strawberries in the fall. We can not ignore the queen of the garden – the autumn planting of roses – a great solution for the residents of the southern regions.
Plantings of parsley, lettuce, dill, basil and cilantro for greens should be covered with a mini fan of nonwoven (spunboda), so that they continue to enjoy their green vitamin harvest. Crops such as calendula, cosmea and lupine can be sown in November.
Planting fruit trees such as apple, cherry, pear, plum, quince and berry shrubs – gooseberries, currants of all kinds, raspberries – also remains relevant in October. With proper agrotechnics, all seedlings have time to root, and proper insulation in the form of tablets of height from 30 to 40 centimeters, it is possible to pass winter hardening without frost.
Fall flower protection measures – pruning and placement
By early November, there is still an opportunity to prepare perennial flower plants for winter and properly prune their soil. Apart from aconites, phlox and echinacea, which can be cut to 10 centimetres at the ground level, other perennials can have their stumps cut back to 3-4 centimetres.
Gladiolus bulbs are dug in dry weather in late September, only to shake them off and dry in cross ventilation for a month, given the likelihood of early frosts. In October, dahlias and gladioluses are dug up and prepared for proper storage; tulips and hyacinths are planted in prepared flower beds.
Perennial flowers are carefully prepared for winter in all respects: they are covered with humus or mature peat. Hydrangea, rose, rhododendron are insulated with a protective film, having previously cleaned them from withered leaves and inflorescences with sharp scissors or garden shears.
It is very important not to rush the rose, as this is best done only when the air temperature is stable a-8 degrees C.
How to prepare shrubs for the cold?
Also in insulation for the winter period fruit-bearing berry bushes, whose trunks are also covered with straw, dung, spruce branches, and before covering, the branches are naturally bent to the ground. In regions with abundant winter snowfalls, raspberry stems are tied and ducked to the ground, so that they do not break under the weight of drifts.
It is useful to water currants, gooseberries and garden strawberries (strawberries) with hot water, which helps these plants usually survive frosts and wait for rescue from snow cover. Many berry shrubs need fall pruning.
The vines are released from the supporting stakes, cut off the immature part and not fallen leaves, and on the ground gently lay a trench prepared in advance in dry weather. The first 20-centimeter layer of backfill is dry humus, then garden soil. In many regions of our large country, it is necessary to cover grapes for the winter.
In November, when frosts are still weak, and the soil is still loose, there is still time to repeat loosening near the trunk to a depth of 20 centimeters, so that the winter larvae of garden pests die in the cold on the surface.
Preparing the soil for spring
Those who, for whatever reason, still had time to dig the soil in the garden in late October, have the opportunity to simultaneously dig and add organic fertilizers such as manure, ash, peat and compost in combination with mineral additives to the soil.
It is very important to apply fertilizer in the fall only for future plantings of nightshade crops.
The beds designed and prepared for growing vegetables, it is desirable to cover with foil. In this case, thanks to melting snow, the soil is better fertilized and heated. From late September to early November, you need to have time to make a proportional amount of quicklime or dolomite flour to balance the acidity of the soil.
Final fall garden work
November is the finish line for fall garden preparations, which, depending on the weather, may even set the stage. At best, it will give way for gardeners during the first week. Because of this, your actions should be carefully considered, choosing the most important things, from leaf removal to pruning trees and shrubs.
You can also cover fruit trees up to 50-100 centimeters in height with roofing felt or tie their trunks with unsuitable nylon stockings to protect them from frost and gnawing pests on the tree bark. If you tie the trunks of apple and pear trees with the paws of conifers and cover them with needles, even rabbits won’t risk eating them.
November is the best time to work on the lawn. Mowed grass will no longer have time to grow and freeze, and newly sprouted “bare heads” will not suffer from pests.
Preparation of artificial ponds in the garden should not be delayed beyond November. First, it should be released from the water, if there is no fish overwintering there. In this case, most of it is drained, and on the bottom put either tree trunks or plastic bottles for freezing. Ponds and reservoirs are cleared of fallen leaves, and ornamental plants in pots are placed appropriately for winter camping. If fish live in deep man-made ponds, they usually overwinter under a thick layer of ice. Do not forget to fix in an upright position a high tube, which receives much-needed air in such conditions.
What else can be done in November? You can take measures for snow retention, distributing small branches in the leeward areas of the plot, to which trees and tall shrubs led, conduct prevention with copper sulfate or paprika bush, dried corn stalks and other improvised safe methods.
Every gardener at their site is a group leader, agronomist and unselfish conscientious worker and knows better than the author of this article what needs to be done and at what time. We only hope that some of our tips will be “spoons for dinner” to supplement their agricultural knowledge with our discreet advice. Have a successful winter preparation and winterization, behind which you will surely have a great harvest waiting for you for your hard work!
Preparing fruit trees and shrubs for winter: schedule of works from August to November
Successful wintering – the main condition for the yield of the orchard. Mitigate the winter sun, temperature fluctuations and the appetite of pests – just a miracle. However, if you prepare your orchard properly for winter, you can increase its resilience.
August: Fertilizing fruit trees and shrubs
Fertilise trees and shrubs in August with fertilisers containing phosphorous and potassium. These elements help increase the winter hardiness of all plant parts. You can use superphosphate, double superphosphate, potassium sulfate and take the dose recommended on the package. However, trees respond better to non-risky fertilization (spraying leaves with a weak solution). It is better to use lightly soluble fertilizers. There are very few of them among phosphorus fertilizers – and perhaps the best for the purpose is potassium monophosphate, it contains both components necessary for preparation for winter.
Root system of fruit-trees withstands temperature decrease to 16°C; dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks have frost-resistance limit by several degrees higher. Under snow, the temperature does not fall to such values, but frosts without snow are very dangerous. Trees affected by frosts do not die immediately.
They begin to bloom in the spring (although all slower and slower than healthy ones), they may even bloom and die in the summer. After you find that the tree has been in development, you can still hope that the roots are not completely damaged. Irrigation and treatment with stimulants with root-forming properties (“Zircon”, “Cornervin”, “Heteroauxin”, NV-101) will help bring it back to life.
August-September: General cleaning of the garden
Rub the crops in a timely manner; don’t leave dry, diseased, pre-curved fruit on the trees – these are disease-causing agents.
Clean the trunks of old bark and lichen. Trees over 6-8 years old need this, with the top layers of bark beginning to peel off and die off. This is a natural process for every tree and you don’t have to be afraid of it. You can clean the bark with metal brushes and a tool to remove the grass between the panels (a sharp angle is practical for working on hard areas).
Work carefully and remove only the outer layers of brown and black. Live bark has a delicate light green color. Remove braids at the same time. They are not harmful to the tree itself, but they serve as protection for pests and pathogens.
To get rid of the scythes, you can spray the trunks with iron sulfate. Hearing will turn the scythes brown, but you still have to remove them manually from the surface of the bark. In late October – early November, it is better to do spraying, as the solution can damage the green leaves.
September-November: difficulties and mulch
If you have young apple trees of valuable varieties grafted on strong rootstock and pear trees, you can harden the root system – this will increase resistance to snow frosts. Squeeze the rootstock out of the tree trunk in September to a depth of 3-5 cm and expose the top of the large roots. Harvest and store it dried in a non-dark room. Harden the soil by giving it a light frost.
Through hardening, the roots will gradually become accustomed to low temperatures and more successfully survive the dangerous time before the snow falls. The root system of apple trees grafted on semi-dwarf and seedlings from frosts is protected by mulching the floor with dry loose materials. This operation will be done in November.
October: Moisture – watering is free (start to center).
The garden is thoroughly watered during the leaf fall. The root system consumes moisture until the floor is frozen. If the fall is rainy, no watering is necessary, but if the precipitation stays frozen for a long time, the plants may suffer. Watering depends on the age of the plant: the soil at a depth of 40 cm (for trees) and 20-30 cm (for shrubs) throughout the crown projection should be moist.
Approximate volume of water is 40-50 liters per tree from 4-6 years old. Watering can be done by sprinkling each plant in portions and waiting for the water to soak into the ground, but it is better to stretch it over several days.
Irrigate not only the fuselage area (by the way, water should not run down the trunk), but also the entire area under the tree crown: the most active absorbing roots are located exactly on its periphery. To prevent water from running off, an earthen roll surrounding the circumference of the trunk with a radius of 70 cm (for trees up to 5 years old) and 1.5-2 (older) is constructed.
October: Protection against rodents
Make sure you provide protection against rodents. To do this, tie a spruce branch (needles) or craft paper, parchment, reed mats, bamboo mats, umbrella, auditoriums and building sites around the trunk (the section from the floor to the first big branch). Or even old tights. It is important to remove the protection in time in the spring, otherwise the bark underneath it can be observed. And it is best to use special plastic nets – they are free to let air in.
At the end of October – beginning of November: Exterior spraying
Be sure to carry out fall spraying against fungal infections, even if there are no signs of disease. This is a very effective and environmentally friendly measure: highly concentrated disinfectant solutions can be used after leaf fall without scorching the leaves or getting on the fruit. Treatment is carried out with copper sulfate (3-5% solution-300-500 grams of sulfate per 10 liters of water). Copper sulfate dissolves poorly, so it is best to dilute it in a small volume of hot water, and then bring the volume of the solution to the required volume. Before whitewashing and installing plant protection, spray against rodents.
November, February – March: Whitewashing.
The bright spring sun, and especially the rays reflected off the snow, causes sunburn on young plants. It causes the most damage to trees between 5 and 10 and 12 years old. To protect against burns and frost bites, you use a garden brew, which is applied to the trunk and bases of skeletal branches twice: in November and in February, in March. You can use a special latex-based tree paint – it will not wash off by autumn rains. Apply whitewash or paint only on dry bark and not during the rainy season.