How did I grow mushrooms on my own suburban plot?
It’s hard to find someone who doesn’t love mushrooms. But wandering around the woods for hours looking for mushroom spots, not everyone has time. I wondered how I grow these favorites in the countryside, so I started looking for a solution. Turns out there are different ways to grow them. I’ll give valuable tips for planting and caring for the forest dwellers.
What kind of mushrooms can be grown?
Champignons and oyster mushrooms in the home today will not surprise anyone. You can easily find their mycelium on sale.
But I suggest that you pay attention to other species that live in the wild. They all reproduce with mycelium, fungus or mushrooms, and almost any of these mushrooms can be grown at home.
Agree, ceps are the tastiest and suitable for any culinary treatment – to decorate, fry, pickle, salt, dry. They grow under birches, pines, spruces, oaks. It is desirable that the pine grow in the countryside and be over 30 years old. I recommend planting in summer or in September. It is undesirable to do it in the afternoon. It is better to wait until dusk.
The first harvest, if you do everything correctly, you will get the next year. Then enjoy the porcini mushrooms no more than 5 years. Then you will have to repeat the whole procedure all over again. Do not even try to grow milkcocks under an apple tree – it will not work.
Based on the name, they can be found in Aspen groves. But in mixed coniferous forests I had to collect representatives of the flora with light-colored caps. At home, you can get a crop of redheads near hardwood trees such as aspen, birch or oak.
For their reproduction, it is desirable to have a birch tree on the garden plot. For the normal existence of this species, you need a living tree, which feeds the fungi with carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals and natural antibiotics.
You can try a simplified method of planting. When it rains, place young mushrooms under the birch and cover them with fallen leaves. Perhaps in this way it will be possible to form mycelium.
butter mushrooms, honey mushrooms
Good because they do not need live pine needles. To breed them, uproot a rotten stump in the woods and drag it to the cottage. Put it in the shade, cover it with moss and constantly “feed” the pets with wood. The first crop was harvested after four years.
They allow you to enjoy mushroom soup without waiting for the fall season, because they ripen in the spring. But if there are apple trees and other fruit trees in the garden, you can’t thin them out.
They are planted in the shade of trees with good ventilation. In the spring, this place should not be watered, otherwise the mushrooms will disappear. Determine that the mycelium has taken root, you can tell by the green-purple threads, which look like mold.
It is important to transplant the saffronia to the tree under which they grew – spruce or pine.
A great alternative for mushroom pickers who don’t have a suitable symbiotic tree in their dacha. You will need straw with a special substrate, manure or a compost heap to grow it.
Mycelium organized in a rotting piece of wood or on a stump allows for the largest yields compared to other cultivated relatives.
Planting options and their features
Let’s consider in more detail all the nuances of growing these forest dwellers on the plot. It takes place in three ways:
Each of them has specific differences in dealing with fruiting bodies.
Do not even try to collect spores that look like seeds of cultivated plants from this or that white fungus. They are deep in the cap and virtually inaccessible because of their microscopic size. I advise you to buy mushroom seedlings to grow mushrooms in the countryside, take whole caps and shred them.
This is done in this order:
- Individual caps are finely chopped with a knife (you can put them through a meat grinder).
- They are placed for 24 hours in rainwater with the addition of 2 tablespoons of sugar or yeast (I strongly recommend not using chlorinated water). During the infusion, the mass is stirred several times with a spoon.
- Near the trunk of the tree (the one under which the mushrooms grew), dig a hole about 30 cm deep.
- Into it they put the crushed “sprouts”.
- Forest substrate with overripe grass and leaves and wood dust is poured on top.
- The first watering with rainwater is made after 2 weeks.
You can use the caps of mushrooms collected in the woods and discarded as they become wormy, rotten or old. Wormy ones float when closed, and overripe caps contain only well-matured spores. Even if you can’t get new plant specimens from “seedlings,” at least fertilize the soil.
To get mycelium from a forest with fruiting bodies, go to the woods and cut out part of a huge cluster of mushrooms of one species and then plant it in your home. I have noticed that this method gives the highest survival rate, although it is the most difficult to do.
- About two weeks before you go to get mycelium, you prepare the substrate by mixing dust from an old stump with decomposed leaves and finished compost.
- You put the soil mixture in a bag, arm yourself with a shovel and go to the woods, making sure to take a bottle of water with you.
- You choose edible mushrooms.
- They begin to carefully clear the soil around the mycelium for about 10-15 cm.
- They burrow into the root system in the form of spider webs.
- It may be necessary to prune the roots of the tree if they are tightly intertwined with the mushroom web.
- Pull out the mycelium with a large clump of soil and place it in a bag with the prepared substrate.
- It is sprayed with water.
- Without stopping in the woods, they hurry home.
The time between digging and transplanting should be minimal.
Mycelium is planted in a new place as follows:
- Step back from the trunk of the tree about 40 cm.
- Remove the top layer of soil to 30 cm.
- Lining the bottom of the prepared substrate.
- Spread the fungus on top.
- Fill it with the same soil mixture.
- Sprinkle the mushroom bed with a small amount of water.
After 2-3 weeks, look under the leaves to check whether the mycelium has taken root.
Important! Inexperienced mushroom pickers have all chances to transplant inedible or even poisonous mushrooms. Therefore, first of all, contact a good specialist or arm yourself with special literature with clear photographs.
You don’t have to go far to get mycelium. It is sold in special farms. I ordered in the online store of a well-known garden center. Was not disappointed with the result. I recommend acting this way to those who first started growing mushrooms, as the survival rate in this case is much higher.
Growing products can be done in two ways:
In the first case, compost is used together with garden substrate. In the second case, a compost mush is made (the consistency approximately corresponds to sour cream) and Myzel is planted in it.
Important! If you do not have the necessary species of trees from the cottage forest, you can grow mushrooms with fruiting bodies by a wooden wall, oriented to the north.
It is necessary to work according to this scheme:
- The seeds are selected according to the properties of the soil in the given place. I advise to take with a reserve just in case.
- After receiving the package, store the mass in the refrigerator. 3 days before sowing, move it to a warm place. Healthy Mycelium smells like mushrooms and gradually increases in size.
- They move away from the tree about 0.5 m and begin to remove the top layer of soil, going deeper by 30 cm. The diameter depends on the size of the seed.
- Cover the bottom of the resulting depression with a 15 cm thick layer of a mixture of humus, wood dust, sawdust and ash.
- Sprinkle a thin layer of black earth.
- Spread mycelium on top, level it with your hands and press it down slightly.
- Cover with a floor mixture, cover with lazy leaves, water with something from a watering can.
The next and all regular watering is done after 2-3 weeks by sprinkling. More mycelium does not require any additional care.
Preparing the soil
Growing planting material is already half the job. For the cultivation of mushrooms, it is necessary to prepare special growth conditions:
I immediately found that this substrate is absolutely necessary to mix, adding forest floor. You can be limited to the decomposed organic residues from the garden.
- For cultivation of mushrooms I propose to use the following proportions: 20 kg of straw, 50 kg of last year’s horseradish, 12 kg of gypsum and lime, plus the decomposed weeds.
- The mass is compacted, poured with water and wrapped in foil.
- In this form left for 20 days.
- If the smell of ammonia disappears, the mixture is ready for planting.
Some species of fungi don’t need living organisms to take up residence on a piece of wood.
- They take a healthy trunk that is soaked in rainwater for 2-3 days.
- Then they spread it out on a tarp in a sunny spot to dry.
- In addition, it is cut at a distance of 10 cm holes with a diameter of 1 cm and a depth of 4 cm and placed in a staggered order.
- Seedlings are placed, the trunk of the tree is wrapped with polyethylene film, make holes for air access.
- They are brought into a humid basement (the temperature should fluctuate between 10 and 20 degrees). Do not be frightened if you see the appearance of white cobwebs – this is mycelium.
- When the air in the yard heats up to a temperature of more than 15 degrees, the tree trunk is “planted” outside. In partial shade, where there are no drafts, it is placed vertically in a hole and dug into the ground for about 30% of its length.
- A layer of ash is poured around it.
- During dry periods, the ground is watered. During the winter, the mycelium remains in the same place, isolated by leaves and compost.
I tried this potting mix. I have to say, quite successful. Sawdust, compost, garden soil, decomposed plants, crushed tree bark are mixed in equal parts.
Potassium dressing is added for disinfection. You can also use copper sulfate or boric acid. Water the mixture with a growth stimulant.
A great bedding for ceps and other forest mushrooms are their usual decomposed leaves, needles, wood dust and overripe moss. All these components are replaced by last year’s compost from the garden. And as a disinfectant, I recommend using wood ash.
For beginners, I advise you to start growing breeding mushrooms not in the dark, but by getting detailed instructions at the place where you buy mycelium. If you master the technology, you will be able to breed guests from the forest in other ways.
What is the best place on the site to choose?
For mushrooms to take root at home, I suggest you offer conditions that resemble your location in the woods if possible. Think about what type of wood you want, shade or partial shade, moisture level.
- Avoid chernozem in favor of forest substrate, which should be replaced regularly;
- Symptoms (ceps, porcini fungi) grow under a certain type of plant;
- Mycelium must be in close proximity to the desired tree;
- Try to place a plantation of wild mushrooms as far away from fruit trees as possible.
Having allocated a place for mushrooms, build a forest glade. I removed the fertile soil for 30 cm and replaced it with forest substrate. No fertilizer, only watering in particularly dry periods. In the spring, collect leaves from the neighboring forest and cover the plot with a layer of this mulch.
Forest mushrooms planted in the countryside, do not require such careful care as garden crops. But I still advise you to take some measures to improve the quality of life of the pets:
- Use irrigation, not flooding – you won’t find mushrooms in swamps. The surface should be moistened with rain or melt water. You can use a fountainhead.
- Root nutrition of the symbiont tree may be insufficient. In this case, pour dry compost, ashes or organic residues and then fill them with water.
- In spring, you can “wake up” the mycelium with growth activators – humates.
- In the fall, insulate the protective charms by covering them with a layer of fallen leaves, in winter – wrap more snow.
If you keep the mycelium in good condition, you will get a new crop next year.
Important: Mycelium should be insulated with compost for the winter. You can cover it with film or roofing material.
Honestly, the first time you put porcini mushrooms on the side it does not work. But if you do not get discouraged and gain enough experience in the first unsuccessful attempts to plant mycelium or mycelium, then growing ceps and other mushrooms in the countryside becomes an interesting activity with a nice bonus in the form of a delicious nutritious lunch. These mushrooms can not be bought in stores.
Mushroom growers will not get away from it. Growing mushrooms in the countryside
More often than not, our gardens are in the middle of a forest, or at least not far from it. And these forests are full of mushrooms. Except that it happens in the season, and there is no time to get out of it. It is understandable, picking mushrooms in the woods is a kind of hunting, and we – landowners, farmers, and homeowners – are very busy people, there is no time or energy to “hunt” anymore. Growing mushrooms at home is much easier than in safety – our mushrooms won’t leave us.
No time for the “hunt”? Raise mushrooms at home!
My own experience confirms that many wild fungi can be successfully bred in the garden.
Baum + mushroom = Love
White mushrooms, porcini, butter mushrooms, chives and other tasty mushrooms can grow only in cooperation with a living tree. The mushroom envelops the root hair and penetrates it. Tree roots dominated by the fungus are called mushroom roots or mycorrhiza, and the fungi they can give rise to are called mycorrhiza.
A particular fungus is often associated with a particular tree species. Trees whose roots are mastered by mycorrhizal fungi are less diseased and grow better. The mycelium supplies the tree root with water and soluble substances necessary for the tree. It spreads a considerable distance from the tree and often increases the suction surface of the tree’s roots.
Many tasty mushrooms only grow in community with a living tree of a certain species.
Here are just a few of the properties of mycorrhizal fungi that make them beneficial to the tree. Mycelium is able to dissolve mineral compounds of potassium, phosphorus and other elements that are not available to the roots of the tree. It penetrates into the upper layers of the forest floor and can regenerate after drying out during rainfall. From here, the tree gets the nitrogen compounds it needs. Mycorrhea fungi, with their antibiotics, protect the tree from parasitic fungi. The tree in turn supplies glucose and sugar to the mycorrhizal fungi. It is especially important that these sugars do not travel through the internal channels of the tree and fungi and are not accessible to the bacteria and molds present in the soil. The wood of the host stimulates the growth of the fungus in the absence of minerals from the soil. Therefore, for example, there are more white fungi under birch trees in poor sandy soil than in fertile soil.
To breed ceps, boletus, butter mushrooms or red mushrooms in the garden, you can sow mushroom spores under a tree already growing there. The safest way to create a plantation with such mushrooms on the plot is to transplant from a small tree with mushroom. But only one that was growing next to the mature birch on which the mushrooms were spotted. In the forest, you will form a mushroom blanket with all the trees of this species within a radius of several tens or even hundreds of meters. In a garden plot, you should try to create climatic conditions in which the trees planned for transplanting grew. Did you know that mushrooms can be transplanted in place with a tree?
The most reliable is transplanting a small pine tree with a granular buttercup (Suillus granulatus). This buttercup bears abundant fruit from May to late September. It prefers calcareous soil, which can be created by applying lime. The buttercup grows not only in the forest, but also on the edge of the forest in the Samosewa pine forest, where there are no other trees and almost no other mushrooms. The crossed pines on the property grow quickly. Under the pine in the photo, butter mushrooms appeared in the fourth year after transplanting. The story of this jaw is this. The pines in Samosewa in a former arable field had been liberally watered with granular oil beforehand. The pines, just under a foot in size, were planted in a vacant, sunny spot between lawn grass and berry bushes in the summer of 2000. The lawn was watered with a hose during dry weather. The first mushrooms appeared in the summer of 2004, but the crop was small. In 2005, the buttercup was fruiting all summer. In the summer of 2006, the first wave of fruiting came on May 9, the second – on the 30th, the holidays, and then butter mushrooms appeared regularly at intervals of three weeks until the end of September.
Oil on the lawn under a pine tree
Mushrooms hardly grew on the lawn, so they were harvested when the largest cap reached 10 cm in diameter.Each wave of fruit allowed us to fill a three-liter pot of mushroom soup with butter mushrooms by half. The maximum number of butter mushrooms from one wave of harvest in 2008 was 84 pieces. And at the end of July 2009, 135 butter mushrooms were harvested. Cases of successful transplanting of small herringbones with mushrooms are known since pre-revolutionary times. In the autumn of 2006 we transplanted several small pines from plots where camelina (Lactarius deliciosus) was abundant in fruit. In September 2008, we collected the first mushrooms under these pines.
Orange white mushrooms (Leccinum auranticum) growing under aspen and birch trees can also be transplanted to the garden, as they bear fruit under very young trees. One of the pictures shows a boletus dug up with an aspen tree. The aspen has successfully taken root in the garden, but the mushrooms have yet to appear.
Porcini mushrooms dug together with an aspen mushroom
Unfortunately, brown-headed and dark-headed porcini ( Leccinum vulpinum ) and porcini ( Boletus edulis ) prefer to grow under old trees, so after replanting trees with mycorrhizal ceps you need to wait at least 15 years. To grow them in the garden, it is better to prepare seeds with spores (spores are the “seeds” of mushrooms). This is possible only if there are suitable trees on the homestead or garden plot. For the white mushroom – birch, oak or spruce. Aspen mushrooms need a neighborhood with pine or spruce.
Such jelly mushrooms prefer to grow under mature trees. Planting mushroom spores on tree roots is based on preparing an aqueous suspension containing many billions of spores. Strong dilution of such a suspension with water before watering the tree roots again makes fungal root formation quite probable. The method was tested at one of the dacha plots in the village of Usovo and at a dacha on the bank of the Volga near the town of Kalyazin. Concentrated suspension of white mushroom spores was prepared as follows. We collected several dozens of mature boletus mushrooms, mostly wormy ones. We chose only those mushrooms that grow under the birch. Terry tissue (hymenophore) was separated with a knife from the stalks and fleshy parts of the caps, which do not contain spurs. Terry mushrooms we twisted through a meat grinder.
Preparation for sowing porcini mushrooms
Then the resulting mass was diluted in a basin with boiled water. For 1 liter of mass we added 2 liters of water, a teaspoon of ordinary dry baker’s yeast. The mixture was mixed thoroughly and for a long time. The mixture was poured into a jar and left for a week. During this time, the heavy spores sank to the bottom, and pieces of mushroom pulp floated to the surface. The presence of yeast speeds up the separation of the spores from the mushroom pulp. Yeast is also necessary for successful germination of the spores after sowing.
After a week, the floating mass and water were drained off, leaving a layer of suspension with the spores in the jar. The viability of the spores after one month of storage was checked by inoculating them on filter paper with nutrient medium. Preparation of fungal spore suspension
To sow the ceps, a tablespoon of suspension and a tablespoon of potato starch were added to 10 liters of water. In 2006, this mixture was watered once a week, under which the ceps were never seen, within a radius of up to 3 m from the tree trunks. Care for the mushrooms planted in the homestead during the dry and hot period of spring and summer was reduced to daily light watering of the rootstock circle when the mushrooms were not yet growing. The duration of watering is 10-20 minutes per day. Mineral fertilizers should not be added to the soil, this can negatively affect the development of mycelium.
One year later, a white fungus was found under one of the birch trees in the USOW. Two years later more than a dozen porcini mushrooms were collected. At a dacha near Kalyazin, the first ceps grew in 2009. Chickpeas were also sown. They did not grow in USOVO, but this year they appeared on the Volga.
These simulants – with orange caps – can be replanted
Remember that porcini mushrooms and chickweed are in a competitive relationship, so it is better to sow their chickweed in different areas away from each other.
Some information about mushrooms
Most often grow ceps, boletus, and butter mushrooms on the plot. In our catalog, which brings together the offers of large gardening online stores, you can choose mycorium substrate, which will allow you to grow these and other edible mushrooms in the country. Choose the mushrooms you want to grow.
The white mushroom, Boletus edulis) grows on oak, birch or spruce. The oak form has a slightly whitish light brown cap, the birch form has a light brown cap, and the spruce form has a brown cap.
The porcini mushroom grows on birch, oak or spruce
The tastiest and most nutritious edible mushroom that you do not need. It is also not necessary to drain the water after cooking. It is very loved by forest animals. It makes a very tasty soup with potatoes and butter. Porcini mushrooms can be stored in the freezer. To dry mushrooms, cut them into small slices and make sure they do not stick together. Dry the mushrooms slowly, at first at +50 degrees on the stove, in the oven or in the air flow from the heat gun. At the end of drying, you need to raise the temperature to +60 degrees for 1-2 hours. In Russia, ceps are usually dried in a Russian oven or oven at a higher temperature. Dried porcini mushrooms have a special pleasant smell, which varies depending on the drying temperature. The red openok (Leccinum aurantiacum). This mushroom with red scales on the stalk grows on the roots in symbiosis with aspen. Another form grows under pine – with black scales on the stalk.
Podrujdok grows in symbiosis with aspen.
An excellent edible mushroom. It turns out to be beautiful, tasty, and good when cooked. Compared to ceps, it gives a darker color to brine or broth in soup. Can be stored in the freezer. The mushroom grows quickly and for a long time. If you don’t notice signs of worminess, try to pick only large mushrooms with stems.
Carrot-top (Lactarius deliciosus). The carrot is a tasty edible mushroom. The milk juice of the carrot has no bitterness. It has a pleasant taste. It can be eaten raw in salads, easily tipped. Pickled rusks are especially good. Oilseed Grain (Suillus granulatus). Olenita is a tubular mushroom. Tubular layer (hymenophorus) is yellow, fused to the stalk and sometimes rises lengthwise. On the tubes stand out transparent reddish droplets of milky juice. The milky juice of the buttercup stained its hands during cooking. The dried juice forms a brown coating on the tube layer. The pulp of the mushroom does not change color on the break. The grainy butter mushroom has a mushroomy smell and a pleasant, slightly sweet taste. It grows under a pine tree. It bears fruit from May to October. Unlike the common butter mushroom (Suillus Luteus), the granular butter mushroom does not have a ring on the stalk. The common buttercup is less suitable for growing in the garden because it bears fruit only in the fall.
Yeroil is a tube mushroom.
An excellent edible mushroom that does not need to be cooked, and there is no need to remove the broth. It makes a delicious soup. These mushrooms can be stored in the freezer. The butterworm is a worm. Try to pick small mushrooms before it happens.
The cap of the grainy butter mushroom is fleshy and firm. First convex-conical, then hemispherical. The cap of chinch mushrooms is flat or bent upward edges. In the garden, it grows up to 12 cm in diameter and remains dense and unusual. The cap is light brown or yellow clay (ochre). Some mushroom lovers remove the sticky skin from the caps, using glue needles and grasses. This procedure is important when processing common butter mushrooms. Granulated butter mushrooms have less of a sticky film on the surface of the cap, so you can simply rinse them in water without removing the skin.
Delicious mushroom recipes with butter mushrooms
- Potato soup with fresh butter mushrooms
- 500-700 grams of fresh masliks,
- 3 potatoes (500g),
- 1 Tbsp. spoon of butter (30g),
- 1 carrot (100 g),
- 1 onion (100 g),
- 0.5 tablespoon. A tablespoon of salt (20 g),
- Wheat flour (1 tablespoon), 1 tablespoon,
- Pepper, Dill.
- Salted butter
The mushrooms on the website are fascinating. Good luck to you, mushroom eaters! Fedor Karpov, Ph.