How to make grapes from cuttings
Growing grapes from seeds at home does not always give good results, and seedlings purchased in nurseries or markets can be of poor quality. The best option for those who want to get healthy planting material is propagation by cuttings. Plants obtained in this way take root well, but their preparation and care for them require compliance with certain rules. How to grow grapes from cuttings, so that the seedlings gave a lot of green leaves and a generous harvest?
How to grow grapes from cuttings?
The first and most important stage of growing grapes is the preparation of cuttings, or, as they are called by experienced gardeners, chibooks. It is best to do this in the fall, before the first frosts, when the plants completely shed their leaves. Branches used for subsequent propagation are best taken from the middle of the bush – they should be as straight as possible, without curved forms, the optimal thickness is 7-10 mm.
Cuttings – an effective way to grow grapes
Particular attention should be paid to branches that bear large fruits. It is not recommended to use for harvesting sick or withered bushes and the so-called stumpy branches with a thickness of more than 12 mm. The procedure is carried out on a cloudy day or early in the morning, before the sun comes out, using clean, sharp pruning shears.
- All leaves, excess shoots, tendrils and other parts are removed from the shoots, leaving only 3-4 buds.
- The vine is cut into shoots up to 60 cm long, the bottom cut is made diagonally a few centimeters above the bud.
- At the bottom of the resulting cuttings, you need to make 3 notches about three centimeters long, so that the shoots can better root.
- Label the shoots (with a marker, use price tags, labels, etc.), then tie them up and soak them in water for 24 hours.
- Treat the shoots with a solution of copper sulfate a (5%) to prevent mildew, dry and store until spring. Treat cuttings with wax or paraffin in cuts to prevent moisture loss.
Grape cuttings should be stored at a low temperature, no higher than 5-6 degrees.
Grape cuttings can be stored in different ways. If the sprouts are few, you can store them in the refrigerator – make a container from two plastic bottles and put them in the bottom drawer, where vegetables usually lie. When stored in the basement, the material is sprinkled with fresh sawdust, river sand or moss – it has good antimicrobial properties, prevents the appearance of pathogens and fungal spores.
Another way to store it is a ditch dug on the plot. The place should be dry, but at the same time protected from direct sunlight. It is necessary to dig a trench about 50 cm deep, place chibuki there, cover with earth and make drainage grooves.
When storing grape cuttings, you need to make sure that the liquid does not evaporate.
The temperature should be kept at 5-6 ° C, but no higher, as sprouts are expected to germinate earlier. The plant material should be inspected from time to time for mildew and the cuts should be dried from time to time so that they are on the other side. Varieties suitable for cuttings should be green with cuttings without defective, lazy or withered areas.
Important: Cuttings are an inexpensive and effective way of growing grapes, but it has a significant drawback. You have to wait long enough for fruiting, as mature bushes will give a harvest only the next year.
Grapes for cuttings
Start preparing grapes for planting in the middle or end of February. First of all, they should be carefully inspected to check the cuttings. If liquid is leaking from them, the shoots will probably not germinate, as absolutely dry branches. Only such cuttings with a green cut, without blackness and mold, on which moisture appears after pressing, are suitable for further germination.
Rooted cuttings grow and develop better
In order to speed up the emergence of roots and the development of seedlings, they should be rooted by one of the available methods after they have been kept in warm water for two days, changing the water every day. Aloe juice, honey or a special growth agent can be added to the water. Some experienced grape growers say that Chubuki cannot sprout without this procedure, so neglecting it is not recommended.
With the right procedure, the roots appear in two weeks.
Table 1. Possibilities of rootstock grapes.
In water (sport).
In peat tablets
What are peat pills and how to use them for propagation of seedlings and sprouts, you can learn by reading a special article on our website.
Understory – a difficult but very effective possibility of root pruning
Grapes should be used in one place with good light and make sure that the underside is constantly moistened. After about two weeks, it is necessary to inspect the shoots – on them should appear growth, from which then appear roots. If there is no change, then the cuttings should remain 2 maximum 3 weeks.
Warning. For growing vineyards in the middle belt, it is better to choose local varieties – some cultural varieties growing in the south are more sullen and require special conditions.
The best varieties for central Russia
Planting in a temporary place
After the roots grow to 0.5-2 cm in length, they need to be transplanted to a temporary place, otherwise, when planting in the open ground, the roots get tangled and can be easily injured. To do this, you need to bring large plastic bottles or buckets and make a few holes at the bottom to drain the moisture. The soil mixture can consist of leaf soil, sand and humus. The optimum acidity is 6.5-8 pH. Cuttings should be planted so that the upper eyelet lies above the ground, the depth of the bottom is about 7-10 cm.
Before planting in the ground, the cuttings are placed in large containers for some time
Water the seeds very carefully, so that the young roots do not rot. The temperature should be high enough (at least 15 ° C) – moisture in these conditions normally evaporates and does not stagnate. The average frequency of watering is once a week, pouring no more than 100 ml of water on each bush. It is necessary to water in a cool room, if the plants are easily traced on the leaves and buds, which signals a lack of moisture.
Tip: If rot does appear, you can try to save the seedlings. To do this, the spoiled part is cut down to living tissues and put in water, and after the appearance of new roots on the face, repeat the process.
Video – growing seedlings from grape cuttings
Plants in the open ground
Plant grape cuttings should be planted in May or early summer if the risk of late frosts persists. It is better for the plants to choose a well-lit place, which was closed from the wind, and designs on the southern side of the plot – the more light and heat, the faster the bunches will appear. Nearby there should be a support, to which the grapes cling with antennae – a fence, a network or a special grid.
Sprouted cuttings are transferred to an open place in spring or autumn.
The main requirements for the soil are low acidity and normal respiratory activity. It is important that there is no stagnant water on the construction site, otherwise it must be prepared for planting high beds. The process of planting cuttings is simple, but requires compliance with a number of conditions.
Table 2: Instructions for planting grape cuttings at the construction site.
Root of grape cuttings
Author: Vinogradminsk | December 12, 2019 | Comments (0) | 68021
What is the most important thing for good grape seedlings? Getting a good varietal rootstock. Hollow, healthy, and one that will produce berries from that bush that you personally enjoy.
Propagating a seedling from cuttings or even a bush at once is more interesting than time-consuming. Let’s put it this way: You don’t want to germinate a cuttings too much so that they don’t want to grow.
Cuttings are the chub of a grapevine that, under favorable conditions of development, can form a new system.
Root of grape cuttings
Attention varies among grape varieties and the timing of rooting is different, sometimes to a large extent all the recommendations offered here are averaged and in most cases suitable.
In recent years, many amateur gardeners have practiced growing seedlings at home to produce rootstock grapes. This method of grape propagation is not always so simple, but in practice it is quite good. Seedlings (chuboks) – sheltered, with well-frozen annual vines – are harvested in autumn during the foliage of grapes. The cuttings are then placed in the refrigerator for winter storage in sand in the basement or in polyethylene shavings.
When does the rooting of grape cuttings begin?
Rooting of cuttings begins in the middle, and best of all in late February. There are several reasons for this.
Like any other plant, grapes have periods of development, in winter it is a dormant period. There is no need to disrupt the natural process.
– The rest period is divided into deep (organic) and forced deep. In deep rest, which lasts until mid-winter, the vine is less sensitive to frost. At this time, even an increase in temperature and the creation of favorable conditions can cause the buds to awaken and blossom. From the middle of winter, the plant begins to wake up and goes into forced dormancy, which allows it to maintain a favorable temperature until spring arrives.
– In winter, the daylight hours are very short, and grapes like a lot of light, dine in winter without additional light, becoming thin, weakly pulled and pale green.
– Grapes are a fast-growing plant. If you start rooting too early and provide proper care, the shoots will go in waves under the covers, you will have to keep them busy, pinch the growth point or limit growth by other methods, which will have a negative effect on the delicate young plant.
Based on this, the best time to start rooting grape cuttings is the middle to end of February, the daylight hours are longer. Roots will appear by the end of March – beginning of May. There will be normal, healthy seedlings with a well-developed root system and shoots, and you can do without additional light and take care of the growth of the plant, and not limit it.
Preparing cuttings for rooting
For more successful rooting of cuttings, it is advisable to carry out some preparatory operations.
Cuttings from the “Overwest” variety vine are cut with a secateurs just before planting. Their length can vary (from 10 to 40 cm), depending on the way the planting material is cultivated.
Before planting, the cuttings are checked for safety for the eyes and their freshness. The freshness of cuttings is determined by the appearance of a drop of moisture on the cut when pressed with a knife. If you remove a strip of bark with a sharp knife, the tissue under it should be green. When cut through the eyelet, the central bud should not darken or turn black. Only healthy cuttings are suitable for planting.
For better rooting before planting, renew the operations. For disinfection it is advisable to keep the cuttings in a solution of iron (300 g per 10 liters of water) or copper sulfate (100 g per 10 liters). Potassium permanganate (2-3 g per 10 L) is also suitable.
Soaking cuttings before rooting
When the cuttings are dry, they are soaked before starting rooting. Rooting is one step in the preparation of cuttings.
During a longer winter storage period, the cuttings will lose some moisture; to make up for this loss, the cuttings should be soaked in clean water for 2-3 days and in some cases up to 5 days in clean water, depending on the condition of the cuttings. This is done to increase the life span of the cuttings. Soaking is done either by total immersion in water or by lowering the lower end. The water in the container should be changed to fresh water once a day.
Breaking out and blinding the lower eyelets
Of the other techniques that accelerate rooting, the furrowing and blinding of the lower eyelets of cuttings deserve attention. The essence of furrowing is to apply longitudinal wounds to one or two lower internodes, which improves the flow of nutrients to the wounded areas and activates cell activity. For this purpose, the handle is extended with the lower end along the file teeth cut on both sides. The wounds should be shallow so that the wood of the file does not stick. Alternatively, multiple scratches are made with the point of a knife or secateurs. This method of furrowing is more labor-intensive and is suitable for a small number of cuttings.
Blindly remove the lower eye of the cuttings, which improves root formation – this recommendation can be found in most literature sources.
However, based on our years of experience, we do not recommend this process. In some cases, the upper buds do not open (e.g. due to dry air in urban apartments), and then we are left with a “reserve” in the form of a lower bud that is given the opportunity to grow.
Mounding and blinding of the eyes is carried out just before planting the cuttings.
Root growth stimulants
Soaking in solutions of stimulants such as “Heteroauxin”, “Epin”, “Immunotsitofit”, “Novosil”, “Humisol” and others will give good results. The amount of the drug and the time of the bottom are specified in the instructions, which must be observed.
Stimulants in the form of powder, such as “kornevin”, it is recommended to use in the form of a solution. Docking the cuttings can greatly slow down or even stop the development of the buds.
Of natural stimulants of root formation, natural honey is often recommended, one tablespoon of honey per 10 liters of water. However, in our experiment honey did not show itself in the best way, the blood formation was worse than in the control sample.
Cuttings treated with stimulants should be planted on the same day.
Preparing cuttings for rooting video
Rooting methods for grapevine cuttings
The success of growing grapes from cuttings depends on the timeliness of preparation, freshness and quality of cuttings, proper storage before planting and care after planting. There are several well-established ways of rooting grape cuttings.
Rooting in substrate
The lower cut is made just below the node, and the upper cut 3-4 cm above the node. Then a furrow is drawn, aimed at the wounded areas cause hormones, which facilitates rooting. Cuttings can be treated with growth stimulants (rooting agent, heterauxin, sodium humate, etc.).
For rooting, it is best to use plastic beverage bottles. Containers with cuttings are placed on a pallet, closer to the light and keeping the substrate moist.
As a substrate, use clean rough cuts of conifers, coconut shavings, river sand and fine gravel, forest sphagnum moss and cotton fluff are well-proven. Fine sawdust is not used under the saw, as it quickly gets sour.
After the cuttings take roots, they are carefully shaken out and placed in other containers or soil to finish the cuttings. The new substrate should contain large amounts of river sand. Before planting rooted cuttings, the substrate is well watered with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Well presented and the method of horizontal rooting in the substrate – the bottom of the cuttings are placed in moss or other substrate, then in a bag and into the closet. There is a recommendation to use a natural cloth. But in this case it is quite difficult to maintain normal humidity, the cloth either dries out or fades.
Rooting in water
It is possible to root cuttings in water. This method is simpler, but less reliable.
It is desirable to use rainwater, meltwater or, in the extreme, under the tap, but leave it standing.
The cuttings are cut and welded as usual, but the bottom cut is made 2-3 cm from the RNGE node and placed in a container with a small amount of water so that the bottom node is on the border of water and air. The jar (container) is taken out into the light. Water temperature should not exceed 22-26 ° C, otherwise callus will appear quickly, but the roots are not formed, and the stem will die.
Water in the jar becomes acidified over time, so you must periodically, once a week, change the water to fresh water. The temperature of fresh water should also be between 22-26 °C. C. You can put a few pieces of charcoal in a glass of water, this will easily retain the acidity of the water.
It is not necessary to keep the plant in the water for a long time. As soon as the roots reach a length of 1-2 cm, they are immediately transplanted into a container with soil. Watering and care as always.
To improve the quality of root cuttings, a sporulation process is often used. Its essence is to maintain a higher temperature in the rootstock while cooling the eyelets. With the simplest and most affordable options for the design of grape wakes with their own hands from improvised means you can get acquainted with in our separate article.
Strengthening grape cuttings video
Preparation of a mixture for waxing cuttings
During rooting of grape cuttings, the top eye and internodes are paraffinized to prevent drainage of the cuttings and to slightly delay bud blossoming. Pure paraffin is not suitable for this, as it holds well and quickly falls off.
For waxing cuttings it is better to use mixtures:
- Paraffin and petroleum jelly – 9: 1
- Paraffin and bitumen – 3-4: 1
- Paraffin and garden varnish 3: 1
The components are heated in a water or sand bath and mixed until a homogeneous mass.
Cuttings dried for 2 seconds are dipped into the mixture heated to 70°C, after which the paraffinized part of the cuttings can be immersed in cold water for quick coloring of the mixture.
Planting rooted cuttings in soil
The soil mixture is marsh soil, humus and river sand in equal volumes. Read more about preparing soil for rooted cuttings.
As a rule, after 15-20 days you can notice the first signs of root formation. The bark at the bottom of the cuttings will begin to crack, and root tubercles will appear under it, and the bud will be able to fully unfold, but by this time it will have already resolved and only stimulate further root development.
Next, we take a convenient container, a plastic bottle with a cut and holes in the bottom for water drainage, or just a plastic lid. A liter container for the normal development of seedlings is quite enough, with the height of the container plays an important role, the roots go down, so a high and narrow container is preferable to a low and wide. We fill the container with soil for seedlings and plant our cuttings to a depth of 5-7 cm, slightly compacting the soil from above.
The first watering can be made abundant, later watering should be moderate and not frequent, so as not to cause excessive rotting of the roots.
Planted cuttings are placed on pallets or boxes, put in a bright, warm place and be sure to cover with film (build a primitive microframe).
In containers, seedlings are left until planting in the ground.
Care for planted seedlings
During the growing season, fertilize 3-4 times diluted uterine candle (1 liter of fresh uterine candle per bucket). Of mineral fertilizers, it is better to use Kemira or Urozhay, but very little to cause rapid growth of plants. At the beginning of August, watering is reduced and refuse to fertilize, so that the vine will better mature.
If 9-10 leaves appear on the plant, their top should be pruned to stop the growth and allow the disc and buds to better mature. This pruning is done 2-3 times during the growing season. To prevent the growing instep from falling, it is tied to a vertical support. This can be a thin wooden rod, 6 mm wire, etc. All stems, except for one, the lowest one, should be broken out at the beginning of their growth. Over the summer, such a plant grows up to 1.5-2.0 m in height and has an excellent root crown.
Thus, the grown seedlings take root long before winter and easily endure wintering with minimal protection.
Before planting grapes in the ground, it is recommended to conduct its hardening, the essence of which is to regularly place young seedlings under the open sunlight and gradually increase the time of their stay outside. However, this method is time-consuming and does not always bring the desired result. The easiest way is to cover the seedlings after planting with a double layer of thin roll fleece (leaving a layer after a week) or a single layer if there is a thicker roll cloth) for covering). This covering helps the young seedlings adapt more easily after transplanting and adjust to conditions in the field.
When should seedlings be planted permanently
In most cases, planting vegetating seedlings in prepared pits is carried out from the first maidecade (without the risk of spring frosts) until June, and it is desirable not to destroy the soil clods to maintain fragility.
In summer, it is necessary to take good care of young grapes, it is important that the bush has a good root system and several well matured buds, otherwise the seedling will not survive the winter.