Ways to store grape cuttings in winter and germinate in spring
Cuttings are an effective and quick way to propagate grapes. Any part of the stem, separated from the vine, under favorable conditions will give a rooting seedling. In this case, the varietal characteristics and useful properties of the mother plant are fully preserved.
How to harvest grape cuttings in autumn
The period of preparation of hidden cuttings (corms) begins with the fall of leaves, until the first frosts, until the bushes will not be covered. Overwintered vines weaken and are often damaged by frosts. Therefore, the survival rate of cuttings of autumn cuttings is higher than that of spring cuttings.
Tall, medium and tall bushes are used for cutting cuttings. Harvesting consists of well-frosted shoots in the fall pre-cutting.
Tips. If a crackling sound can be heard when lightly pressing on the internodes, it means the shoot has grown.
You should not harvest chubuka:
- From plants damaged by insects or disease;
- from a vine on which a display of flowers and a strong “regulation” of berries has been observed;
- from tired shoots with a large core and loose wood;
- from shoots with elongated internodes.
Shoots suitable for cuttings are located on the fruit arrow or on the surrogate twig. Cuttings are taken from the lower or middle part of the shoot, where carbohydrates are accumulated to a greater extent.
Signs of a well-frozen shoot, suitable for chub harvesting:
- Bright coloring of the bast inherent in the variety.
- Brown color on part of the leaves.
- The diameter of the stem is 7-12 mm.
- The ratio of the core diameter to the total chub diameter is less than 50%.
- High content of carbohydrates involved in the formation of auxins (growth hormones).
At home, the degree of maturity is determined by tearing off the starch by dipping the cut into a solution of iodine (1%) for 1-1.5 minutes. The more intense the coloring of the cut, the higher the degree of accumulation of sugars – the shoot is ready for cutting.
Important: You can not prepare the planting material in advance from the cuttings, which begin to wither – after three days it loses 5% of moisture – after five days – 10%.
The stem is cut below the lower eyelet with a sharp knife or razor. The upper oblique cut should be 1.5 to 2 cm above the eye. The direction of the oblique cut is the side opposite the eye.
Cuttings “with a crutch” are well rooted – a piece of two-year-old vine at the base. Cuttings from two-year-old wood with annual nodes in the upper part build up a powerful root system.
The cuttings are rid of tendrils, stems and unexpected places.
Chubules are treated with preparations that protect against fungal and bacterial diseases.
They are treated with 2% iron or copper sulfate and soaked for 30 minutes.
If cuttings are harvested in a dry year, they are soaked in a solution of SERMOSOL:
- at a water temperature above 15 ° C – soak for 2 hours;
- at water temperature of 10 °C for 3 hours;
- at water temperature of 5 ° C for 5 hours.
Chubules are dried in the shade and sent for storage.
Treatment with formalin:
- 200 ml of 40% formalin is dissolved in 10 liters of water.
- Then bunches of stock are dipped into the solution.
The treated pods are placed in the shade, covered with foil and left for 12 hours. Then ventilate for 3 hours and send them to storage.
How to prepare cuttings for storage
Cuttings are sent for storage on the day they are cut – chubules lose 2% moisture every day. They cannot be stored next to fruits – ethylene, development of buds, callus (wound tissue), roots, which were separated by ripened fruits. Chubs are collected in bundles of 50-100 pieces.
The best storage conditions are temperature 0 … +4ºC, relative humidity 75-80%.
Mistakes to avoid
During storage, the main thing is to minimize the loss of plastic substances, moisture, and fungal diseases.
Storage at optimum temperature accelerates callus and root formation and promotes disc growth.
Increasing the storage temperature to 10 ° C leads to increased respiration of cuttings, dehydration and excessive sugar consumption. The stock of nutrients is only enough for 3.5 months. Such cuttings lose their ability to root.
The degree of rooting depends on the characteristics of the variety or hybrid. In warm and humid environment, the following Moldavian grapes have good rooting ability at the level of 70-80%: Kesha, Kesha-1, Arkady, Moldavian glory, Crystal, Kishmish Zaporozhsky, Kishmish 342, Augustinus, Pleven-European standard, Codreanca, Moldova.
Methods of storage
In the basement a bunch of plugs buried in a slightly damp sand or fill with sawdust.
Excavate a ditch taking into account the length of the billets and add 25-30 cm to the free space above them. Wet the walls and floor with water. On the floor pour a layer of sand 3-4 cm and vertically install the strapping. On top of the cuttings are covered with a 5 cm layer of sand. Then fill with soil to the edge of the pit. With the onset of frosts, a mound of earth 30-40 cm in height is poured over the ditch. In winter, the pit is constantly covered with snow. At the edge of the trench make a grave for the outflow of water.
Bulgarian way of storage:
- The chubkas are harvested more than necessary.
- In the basement, they are placed vertically and immerse the lower ends in water or wet sand.
- The lower part of the plant is removed and the upper part with one eyelet is dried.
In the refrigerator, the bundles are stacked and wrapped in plastic wrap on all sides. The film is removed for airing at regular intervals.
Carbon dioxide is formed under the film, which partially preserves harmful microflora and conserves carbohydrate consumption for breathing.
When is germination time
20 days before planting, the forecastles are removed from storage and renewed sections – the lower one is made under the node perpendicular to the axis of the cuttings, the upper one – 2 cm above the eye, tilted in the opposite direction.
Roots break off faster in the furrow of the lower part of the chub. To the longitudinal bark injuries are added the prongs of the garden nose of one or two internodes. When the stem grows, two eyelets are angrily cut out at the lower end, if two eenders, the lower third.
How to properly
Pods with renewed cuttings are soaked for 1-6 days for two-thirds of the length in room temperature water. After a day, check the moisture content – make a fresh incision with a sharp knife in the upper part. If it is moist, the soak is ready, if not – soak for three days. Then check again. If the cut is dry, change the water and continue soaking for another three days.
In large gardens, cuttings after soaking are refilled in special greenhouses to start the process of rooting before the buds blossom. This is achieved by cooling the upper part of the segments and heating the lower part. If cuttings are planted without sport, the buds will blossom before the roots form. Such specimens can wither in insufficient, moist soil.
At home, the sport is replaced by stratification:
- Soil in a box, lengthwise.
- The floor or sawdust is filled with a layer of 1-2 cm. The strapping is installed vertically.
- The bases are covered with soil for 5-7 cm, fill with damp sawdust to the top and leave the top peephole open.
- The box is placed in a room with a temperature of +20 … +25 ° C for 14-20 days.
In the apartment is placed in long polyethylene bags with loosely tied the top edges. The bags are placed for 16-20 days in a cupboard at a temperature of +22 … +25 °C in daylight. The package is opened 3-4 times for airing. If the surface of the cuttings noticeably dries up, moisten it slightly.
At the lower ends of the cuttings, a gray-white swell is formed with point-tuberous root buds. The roots grow from 2 to 7 cm long. Green shoots 2-5 cm long grow from the top two eyes.
Root growth is accelerated when the roots are treated with growth stimulants for 12 to 16 hours:
- Heteroauxin-1-2 tablets per 1 L of water;
- Bee honey-1 tbsp. per 1 liter of water;
- Hyperauxin-1-2 tablets per 1 liter of water.
Solution temperature should be no higher than 17 ° C ambient air, and during stimulant treatment – no higher than +22 … +23 ° C.
Twice spraying with Gibbertin at a concentration of 25 mg/l increases shoot growth by 15-17%.
Under favorable conditions – temperature, humidity, availability of stimulants and nutrients, the rooting process of cuttings begins. Tissues (callus) heal, then roots form.
According to Radczewski.
Prepared cuttings are lowered into a glass, on the bottom of which a layer of cotton or foam rubber. On top of the cuttings are coated with paraffin to protect them from drying out. In the glass is poured water so that the top of the cotton or foam rubber is covered by 2 cm. The neck of the glasses is covered with film, holes are made and tubules are inserted. Next, the lowest possible temperature of +23 … +25 ° C at the top.
Roots are formed at the edge of the water farm, “paragraphs” slightly touching the water. The advantage of the method is that the cuttings do not rot without changing the water.
According to Puzenko.
At the sling cut off the lower eye and make several incisions in the lower part – such a technique stimulates root formation. The canvas slices are moistened with water and laid in a row on the chubki so that the ends are in the middle of the cloth.
Cuttings are placed on the other half of the canvas, closed at the edges, and the construction turns into a tube. Then the cuttings wrapped in cloth are wrapped in polyethylene film and stored in a warm place until rooted. They are opened for regular inspection, moistening.
In the filler
As a filler, use moist porous materials – a layer of sand, kneaded clay crumbs, old sawdust, from which the terry smell has disappeared. The filler is poured into the container, moistened and plastered.
They are also grown in containers in a substrate, the volume of which should be at least 0.5 liters. Under the containers, plastic bottles or paper bags from milk or juice are adapted.
The filler consists of equal parts of sand, sawdust and peat. Add a little loose soil. It is better to replace the sand with bloating sieves, perlite or vermiculite. The moisture content of the filler is determined by squeezing in your fist – individual droplets should stand out on the surface. The bottom of the boxes is punctured and a handful of crushed stone is poured – to avoid standing water. Before planting, the substrate is steamed in a water bath and cooled at room temperature.
What to do with sprouted cuttings?
Chubs that have entered the initial stage of vegetation and formed roots are planted in any container of cardboard or foil up to 30 cm high and 8 – 10 cm in diameter in an apartment or winter greenhouse. Homemade containers are installed in small boxes 15 to 20 cm high with slits or holes of 3 to 5 mm in the bottom. The bottom of the box is lined with soft paper.
Cylinders are filled with a layer of 4-5 cm of floor mix, slightly compacted, the cuttings or grape sire carefully inserted to the height of the floor, covered with the same mixture and watered with warm water.
- Lawn or forest soil;
- Mixed earth or peat;
- Coarse sand.
The components are taken equally.
Nets are fed with bird droppings and micronutrients, provide sufficient light.
Seedlings as necessary perevalivayut in boxes, film containers – 1 time in 7-10 days in January, February and March and 1 time in 5-7 days in April and May before planting in a permanent place.
The plant, pulled from the cuttings, leave 1-2 shoots, additional remove as they appear.
Growing grapes from twigs in home conditions
Two-eyed chibouk is taken out of the refrigerator and cut into pieces of 20 cm in length. The upper oblique cut is made 2 cm above the upper eye, the lower middle one is 0,5 cm below the eye. Immediately dipped in water and soaked for two days.
The next step is to remove the battery in one of the following species:
- The lower part of the shoot is wrapped in damp moss and placed in a bag.
- In a plastic cup is poured pre-brewed sawdust, chub is placed there. A polyethylene bag is put on it so that the moisture does not evaporate.
Cuttings are placed on the battery at 30 ° C. The top should be cool. Buds of roots and leaves form in 2-3 weeks. Cuttings can be planted in a container.
Plants are planted outdoors when the danger of frost has passed. Choose a bright place, protected from prevailing winds. The first two weeks of seedlings shade from the hot sun.
Steckling germination extends the growing season by 2-3 months. Seedlings with long growth are planted in the field – they have a viable root system and 8-12 leaves. Bushes develop faster, fruit formation occurs without delay, grapes reach full winter hardening in time.
Winter treatment of vineyards
Today is February 15 – the meeting of the Lord. Winter meets spring, and it’s time to root the harvested grapes.
Winter Harvesting of Vineyards.
In recent years, breeders have bred many varieties of this amazing culture. Now not only residents of the southern regions can enjoy fresh berries from the vine in the garden. There are many dessert varieties that also thrive in colder climates.
You can easily get a fruiting vine for your enjoyment because grapes are lightly rooted. There are many ways to do this. You can root it at different times of the year. But we’ll talk about rooting cuttings (vine growers call them chubkas) that have been harvested in the fall after the vines have been rolled up from protection for the winter.
Chubules for winter rooting are harvested from the fall
- When pruning, the feathers of the vines are chosen well-frosted, pencil-thick.
- The vine is cut into segments with 2-3, sometimes 4 buds.
- If I give only a few pieces, after labeling the varieties, I wrap them in slightly moistened newspaper and in a plastic bag. At the same time, I try to leave gaps for air circulation. Some people, before giving the cuttings for storage, cancel them for a day in water, then dry them and only then pack them.
- To reduce the evaporation of moisture from the cuttings during camping, dip them in melted wax. It is possible to cover with polyethylene. This is not necessary, but desirable.
- I store closer to the freezer in the refrigerator, but so that they do not freeze. This is practical and allows you to control the humidity of the package and the storage temperature.
Slices for schnitzel should not be kept outdoors for more than a day, especially in the heat. They begin to wake up and evaporate moisture.
Why is it better to prepare cuttings from the fall, and not from the vine, drawn outside in the spring? And all because the shoots dry out in winter, they freeze.
Shoots dry out in the winter.
They can also be rooted, but to do this, they must be in water for at least 3 days so that the turgor of the tabor is restored. The second reason it is better to rely on fall cuttings is the likelihood that the buds will freeze over the winter.
If severe frosts are not uncommon in their regions, it is better to choose and plant grape varieties for northern regions right away.
You can choose them in our catalog, which contains offers from the largest online stores. Look at the selection of grape varieties for the middle zone and northern regions.
Preparing cuttings for rooting
Before adapting grapes for roots, the chubules must be saturated with moisture. Since it contributes to the presence of at least 1.5-2 cm from the top and bottom of the cuttings to the buds, the cuts are refreshed with a sharp secretion and soaked for several days. This can be done in a bucket, jar, pool, bathtub. Preferably, the cuttings should be completely immersed in water. It is better when the water is good, melted or at least filtered or settled.
It is not bad, for example, “Heteroauxin” or other natural stimulants, such as flower honey, aloe juice or storage preparations “Epin”, “Zircon”, “Fumar” add to the water for soaking. If we soak clean water, it is advisable to change it regularly.
We can soak with clean water and only then hold the cuttings in “Heteroauxin”, “Humate”, “Rhizome” or a solution of honey. There is a different marker for each grape variety “Chubuk”.
I water every other day, sometimes every other day – you need to look at the condition of the cuttings, how much moisture they have lost. This can be felt by the folds on the surface of the bark. It is not recommended to keep cuttings in water for more than two days – you can suffocate.
After soaking, you can renew the cuts again and make longitudinal cuts of the bark from the bottom of the cuttings. The bottom cut is about 1 cm from the bud.
The cut is .
Very often the first callus appears there. Above the upper bud at a distance of about 3 cm I make a disc. This top cut is sometimes recommended for waxing. I don’t do that, but if I had a very valuable variety that absolutely must be preserved, then sealing the top cut would probably not be superfluous. And don’t forget to seal the top cut if you have a stem with an eyelet.
The first way: cuttings for rooting should be made with two or three buds. If there are more buds, it is better to cut such a vine into several parts – there will be more cuttings.
- Prepared cuttings I place in a container, preferably transparent, so you can watch how the roots grow. You need to add a little water, about 4 cm, and if it decreases, this level. The container should be chosen so that the second bud, from which the shoot grows, was above its edge.
- I scrape off the lower part of the cuttings to stimulate the formation of callus, which appears where the bark is damaged. Although there is still debate about the necessity of callus formation. Roots sometimes appear without them, and the presence of callus does not always mean the appearance of roots.
- You can also add “heteroauxin” to the rooting water. I change the water in the aquarium once a week and do not add anything else. It is necessary to change it. You can add activated charcoal or just a stick of charcoal, so that it was not too sour. You can make incisions on the bottom of the cuttings about 1 cm, in which you need to rub “Kornevin”.
It is good to put a container with cuttings on the battery.
In a few weeks on the cuttings, as a rule, leaves will already appear, a green summerling will grow. And in 3-4 weeks, the roots begin to germinate.
After 3 weeks.
A bunch of flowers may appear on the shoot. It looks like a small lamb. It should be held with manicure scissors or carefully cut off.
Sometimes it is recommended to put a cotton ball in the bottom of a container with water so that it dries up. I won’t do that. It seems to me that in this cotton ball the roots can accidentally get mixed up.
Roots on cuttings usually appear at the boundary of air and water. Sometimes right above the cuttings, sometimes from a bud in the water, and sometimes just above the water. An excessive amount of water does not allow the bud to breathe. Therefore, it is not recommended to pour too much water into the container.
The second way: you can abandon the procedure of germinating cuttings in water and plant the immigrated corm directly in loose light soil in separate containers. In this case, it is better to make the bottom cut slanted to make it easier to stick the cuttings in the ground. Then you need to make sure that the soil does not dry out.
Root cuttings can be made in separate containers.
But not always all cuttings are rooted. But under each of them is already allocated its own container, which in the spring takes up such a scarce space on the windowsill! And so the cuttings in the jar stand on their own, they do not take up space extra. Roots of the sprout – planted in the ground, and those that did not sprout, discarded.
Growing in water carries the opportunity to root cuttings that have already given green shoots, but they still have no roots, the leaves have nothing to eat. And if the end of the cuttings in water, through the water is played until the nutrients appear.
The third way: After soaking and cutting cuttings, they are inserted into swollen peat boards, which are wrapped in foil or a wet rag. Then all the cuttings together with the peat shells are placed in a plastic envelope, which is tied (to preserve moisture) in a cupboard and forgotten about for 3 weeks. The upper slices of cuttings, if they sprout in this way, need to be waxed.
After 3 weeks, the pellets are still moist, and mostly the roots are already sprouting from them.
Cut the pellet.
Such cuttings should be planted with scissors, cutting the net on the tablet. This should be done carefully so as not to damage the roots.
With this method of rooting cuttings, it is interesting that the roots have already appeared, but the leaves are not visible. In this way, you can get more compact seedlings, with an ungrown, unexpectedly green vine.
The fourth way: it is often used by aquarium owners. After soaking, the cuttings are placed on a foam bridge so that the cuttings are in the water under the foam by 2-3 cm. There should be a fan in the water, through which air escapes. This is how the bridge with the cuttings looks like.
Foam bridge in an aquarium
Ventilation is great for stimulating root germination (e.g., treated seeds). In addition, it is very easy to place water up to 25 degrees in the aquarium, which also stimulates root growth, while the air can be cooler over the water, this compensates for the development of the tops and roots.
The ventilation flow should not be too strong, so as not to overturn the foam bridge and not break the roots. You can do without the aquarium, replace it with a tray, and place an air filter on top. But the aquarium is good that allows you to watch what’s happening in the water.
Fifth method: a very old and successful Moldovan method. But it does not use a stem, but a whole vine, at least 60 cm. It is unfolded in several bends and stretched by a hemp rope, so that the ring does not break, and into a deep hole, so that one or two buds remain on the surface. Water. To ensure that the buds do not dry out, a small mound is poured from the ground.
In the fall, such planting develops a strong seedling, which the first grape can show the next year. Such a large vine has a very large supply of nutrients, which is enough for the development of roots, regardless of the strength of growth of the shoot. Along the entire length of such “cuttings” many roots are formed, and they again provide the apex buds with improved nutrition.
Directly into the ground without sprouting
- Cheboksary schooling is best placed on a hill with a slope to the south.
- The ground should be mulched with organics and sand. Such a floor warms up faster, and the germination of roots on the chub does not lag far behind the growth of buds heated in the sun.
- To slow the growth of discs, the cuttings are covered with loose soil.
- Cuttings are planted vertically and more than 30 cm long at an angle, so that the top bud is on top. Then the shoot grows evenly, without leaning.
Planting cuttings in a container
As soon as the roots grow by 0.5-2 cm, the cuttings should be planted. Otherwise, the roots develop, get tangled and are sure to be injured when planting.
I do planting in cut plastic bottles with drainage holes, which I fill with light soil. Such transparent containers allow you to monitor how well the root system of the seedlings has sprouted.
Under the roots of the cuttings I leave about 5-6 cm of soil. I pour the earth, put on the cuttings with sprouted roots and poured more earth, poured so that the soil was gently caught on the roots. Then I compact the floor and add to make the cuttings feel stable in the container. The depth of planting is about 7-10 cm. If the distance between the nodes of the cuttings is small, then it should be planted so that the upper eye of the sprout lies above the floor. There are varieties such as “Talisman”, where the distance between the eyes is very large. Then the stem is deepened by 10 centimeters.
Water the grapes very sparingly: a little about 100 ml of water per stem about once a week. Some recommend watering as soon as the ears “hang” and signal that they are not enough. Abundant watering is possible only when the soil temperature is at least +15 ° C and it is well permeable.
In a cold room, you can water every 2 or even 3 weeks. Rare spraying over the leaf can be added.
The root system of grape cuttings develops only in a very light, breathable soil with an acidity of 6.5-8. It is not recommended for plants purchased soil. The acidity indicated there does not always correspond to reality. It is better to choose a light leafy floor, washed sand and soaked coconut substrate for adjacent planting.
Beginning of growth
Sometimes it happens that from the bud one or even two or even three membranes do not develop. What to do? What number of shoots should be optimal for cuttings?
- The young root system of the cuttings cannot feed two normal vines, let alone more. It is necessary to leave one that is stronger or grows strictly.
- If the shoots developed from the top two buds, it is better to leave the top one, so it is more convenient to plant the seedling in a permanent place.
It is also necessary to monitor the temperature: if the seedlings are cold, the moisture evaporates less and causes rotting. In this case, it is better to water it after drying the floor. If irritation does occur, you need to dig up the seedling, inspect the roots and cut the lazy ones to live ones. Then powder it with ground charcoal, plant it in new, not too wet soil and put it in a warm place.
It happens that the roots are completely rotted, and the variety wanted to grow so much! What to do? The main thing is not to lose hope! It is necessary to refresh the cut on live tissue and resume when rooted in water.
Control the top, sometimes the edges of the leaves dry out, signals a root problem… It can be not only rot, but also too dense soil or overwatering, when the roots suffocate. If it’s humid in the country and there’s no way to water with “Cornevin” or “Radifarm,” you can try to help the plant by spraying it with megafol.