How to effectively improve soil structure?
A well-maintained garden is not only about regular maintenance, but also about the good condition of the soil itself. Take care of it by seeding it in time for the first spring. Learn effective ways to improve soil structure after winter!
Sandy soil requires a lot of work. Its loose structure does not allow it to retain the water that feeds too fast flowing, which is in the deeper layers. Therefore, plant roots rot and the soil itself becomes dry. The advantage of sandy soil is its ability to warm up quickly, making it an ideal substrate for plants from warm climates.
How to improve the structure of sandy soil?
Alternating compost and fertilizer increases its absorptive capacity, that is, its ability to receive both water and essential macronutrients. Also use ground clay. To do this, lay a small layer (about 5 cm) directly on the plot, and then dig over to a spade depth. You can also mix clay with organic fertilizer and add it to the soil only in this form.
Clay soil (although properly moistened) is usually hypoxic, causing young flower roots, ornamental trees or shrubs to rot. The advantage of clay soil is that nutrients are impermeable – once in the soil, they combine with soil particles and reach freshly salinated plants.
How to improve the structure of clay soil?
First, this requires loosening the structure. To do this, add coarse sand, fine gravel and compost (or decomposed manure, or peat); you will get the best results by mixing the mineral part with the organic in a ratio of 1:2. Spread the mixture prepared over the plot (about 10 cm in a single layer) and mix thoroughly to a depth of at least 20 cm.
How to use organic fertilizer?
One of the most effective ways to improve soil structure is to regularly apply organic fertilizers. Compost, manure, and peat are valuable sources of humus, essential for maintaining optimal oxygenation and moisture levels.
If you want to improve the substrate for planting certain kinds of plants (e.g. rhododendrons, puffins), sprinkle them with a special fertilizer in early spring or in the spring and summer, following the instructions in the leaflet.
Unlike artificial fertilizers, compost can be used regularly (even once a month) without risk of backing up. A dose of 5 kg/m² is usually sufficient to take valuable nutrients into the deeper layers of the soil. Remember that compost is not only a pre-winter preparation, but also swept away kitchen scraps, weeds and plant debris from garden paths. By taking care of a variety of ingredients, you’re providing the soil with the full range of macronutrients plants need for proper growth and development.
Manure is a great alternative to compost. Store-bought composted manure should be applied in early spring or fall at a rate of 4 kg/m² and then turned over. Only use it in autumn, however, as the plant roots will be damaged by too high a concentration of minerals.
Peat is also a good solution, although it does not contain enough components for intensive soil nutrition compared to compost or fertilizer. So use it with the addition of mineral fertilizers – preferably multi-component universal fertilizers such as Azofoska, Polyfoska, Florovit, Fructus.
What about soil acidity?
Before you start spring work in the garden and on the plot, you need to check the level of soil acidity. The vast majority of plants grow best in neutral (pH 6.6 to 7.2) or slightly acidic (pH 5.6 to 6.5) soil.
What can I do if it is acidic?
Soil acidity can be corrected with calcium fertilizer (e.g. ground chalk or dolomite). Sprinkle it in a thin layer on the soil and then dig it in gently.
How do you check acidity? See the article “Does your garden look like a desert? Check the acidity of your soil! “
Proper soil preparation – in the garden and on the property – is a key factor in the health of freshly grown plants. Knowing the maintenance procedures that improve substrate structure will create the best conditions for their growth, so you can enjoy not only a beautiful garden, but also a bountiful harvest.
10 useful tips for improving old soil on the plot and in the greenhouse over the year
Soils are dynamic and diverse natural systems at the intersection of land, air, water and life. Improving old soil and using it sustainably is one of the major challenges we face in the 21st century after a period of spontaneous land ownership. We offer basic secrets to help you improve your old ground on your property.
You may be surprised to learn this only in the late 19th century. Soil scientists recognized that soils are natural bodies of size, shape and history. Just as a pond is made up of water, fish, plants and other organisms, soil is a holistic system containing rocks, roots, animal remains and other debris. And like other bodies, soil systems have complex functions that outnumber their parts. It’s not easy to scatter five bags of granular fertilizer on an old site and fold your hands. But to act according to common sense, let’s first understand the intricacies of soil.
what the floor is
The floor consists of five components:
- organic matter,
- living organisms,
- and water.
Minerals are divided into three classes by size – clay, silt, and sand; the percentage of particles is called soil structure. Soil mineralogy is varied. For example, clay can shrink and swell tightly when wet and dry, even toppling over buildings. Through sand really goes everything that the primary owner brings to the site.
Soil organic matter is the remains of plants, animals and microbes in various stages of decomposition; it is the most important ingredient. In fact, the percentage of organic matter is one of the best indicators of agricultural soil quality.
Only soil scientists can tell you what the soil on your property is missing.
What is old soil
Soils range from young to very, very old. Perhaps the oldest soils on Earth are in Australia, where some areas are millions of years old thanks to stable surface forms. With each landslide, volcanic eruption, or glacial retreat, new soils are born.
Soils change over time due to a variety of biological, chemical, and physical processes. Soil aging on a site is mainly influenced by leaching of nutrients and changes in plant communities.
Soil scientists have learned to predict the current stage of these processes by having five key pieces of information about soil history-the five factors of soil formation-climate, organisms, topography, parent material, and time. The International Union of Soil Scientists has developed a system called the World Reference Base, which includes 32 soil reference groups (http://www.fao.org/home/search/en/?q=soil). Experts in your area can help assess the quality and characteristics of the floor.
Provide soil samples for analysis
How soil lives
Soil is home to many small, medium and large organisms, including mammals, birds, insects and protists. But the greatest biodiversity is represented by soil microbes – bacteria, fungi and archaea. A teaspoon of fertile soil can contain a billion bacteria. Soil microbiologists are using advanced molecular techniques to understand the diversity and function of soil microbes. This is an exciting area of research that often finds new ways to improve old floors.
How bacteria improve soil
To improve soil fertility, advanced gardeners use biological products such as Ecomic Harvest from Biotech Union. The live microorganisms in its composition contribute to the active breakdown of organic matter, the accumulation of nutrients and the supply of essential nutrients to plants. Enzymes and microorganisms contained in the biological product have a positive impact on the soil structure and increase its water and air permeability to a depth of 80 cm.
Biological product “Ekomik Harvest”
By the way, the biological product “Ekomik Harvest” starts the process of self-cleaning of the soil from pesticide residues. It is a liquid containing live bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Bacillus, as well as a complex of biologically active substances and enzymes that can break down complex organic matter, including cellulose and fiber, and make them available for absorption by plants.
Lactobacillus are anaerobic microorganisms that develop in the deeper layers of the soil and are able to “transport” micronutrients needed by plants. In addition, they produce substances that have antibiotic action and inhibit the development of pathogens.
Once in the soil spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are activated and have a stimulating effect on plant growth and the activity of natural soil microflora.
How to use organic products to improve old soil
In the spring a week before planting and in the autumn after harvesting, treat the soil with the productive biopreparation Ekomik. To do this, dissolve 100 ml of the drug in 10 liters of warm water and water the soil at the rate of 3 liters per 1 m 2. In the greenhouse using a solution of the same concentration, but already use 1 liter per 1 m 2 , and the walls are sprayed from the ceiling.After treatment loosen the soil so it was saturated with oxygen.
Processing Ekomik productively accelerates the formation of humus – a nutrient layer of soil.
Top 5 secrets how to improve old soil
1. The right idea for improving old soil on a plot is to first have the soil analyzed by experts. You should know the type of soil on the plot, the acidity and other parameters. The soil analysis gives information about the level of nutrients. Then use the recommendations of experts and proceed according to the plan. Depending on the results of the soil analysis, you will know which elements and how much to add.
2. Replace the top layer of soil where you plan to plant new plants.
3. Add properly and improve soil structure.
4. use organic products with sex fungi and microorganisms.
5. Plant surprise plants.
Syderates saturate the soil with nitrogen
Secret 6: Add organic parts to improve old soil
Even if you only add a thick layer of compost or good quality manure among the plants in the spring, it will help you experience the joy of gardening.
You can improve old soil by getting the nutrients that plants need to thrive.
In a nutshell: the basic plant nutrients are nitrogen (s), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). You can see these three values separated by a dash (NPK) on the fertilizer package. The amount of each nutrient shows the percentage.
Nitrogen (c) promotes strong leaf and stem growth and dark green color, which is desirable for broccoli, cabbage, greens and lettuce, and herbs. To increase available nitrogen, add a standing fertilizer to the soil and apply flood, fish or bone meal.
Phosphorus (P) promotes root growth and early plant development, including flowering and fruit development and seed formation; this is important for cucumbers, peppers, pumpkins and tomatoes, all edibles that develop after flower pollination. Add (high rate) bone meal or (slow-release) phosphate to increase phosphorus.
Potassium (K) promotes plant root strength, disease and stress, and improves fruit flavor. It is critical for carrots, radishes, beets, onions and garlic. Add siderates, compost, and wood ash to increase potassium.
Ekamik Garbat helps quickly prepare compost for a good harvest. To do this, lay loose layers of kitchen waste, fallen leaves, tops from beds, etc., shred large components and pour the layers with humus. At the same time, water each layer (20-30 cm) with a solution of the drug at the rate of 5 liters per 1 m 2. To prepare the solution you need to dissolve 100 ml of the biological preparation of ecumatic waste in 10 l of warm water. Cover the compound with a film and leave it for 1.5-3 months. Oxygen in such a loose pile accelerates the decomposition of organic matter, and soon you will get an excellent source of nutrients and useful microflora for food systems.
Spread the organic matter you choose to cover the floor surface to a depth of at least 6-10 cm.
You can dig over the organics or just leave them as mulch on the surface. Let the worms dig in themselves!
Compost is the perfect soil improver
Secret 7: What natural ingredients do you add to the soil?
- Plant material: leaves, straw, grass clippings. You can mulch plants or compost.
- Bark, wood chips: from the bark of various trees. Improve soil structure. Coarse mulch.
- Compost: decomposed plant materials. Large natural fertilizer. Can also lower the pH level of the soil.
- Blattumus: Decomposing leaves that add nutrients and improve soil structure.
- Lime: Increases the pH of acidic soil and helps loosen toned floor.
- Turfgrass: A good fertilizer. Use composted fallow and add it to the soil well before planting. Do not use fresh manure, as it can damage plants and cause disease.
- Siderates: Plant rye or oats in the fall and plow in the spring.
- Coconut fiber: Mulch helps the soil retain water.
- Spice: Put it in compost before adding it to the garden. Don’t use obscene sawdust because you’re depriving the soil of nitrogen and therefore depriving plants of this important nutrient.
Secret 8: What grows on special soil and how to improve it
Sandy soil: Root vegetables, onions and asparagus grow well on sandy soil. To improve sandy soil for growing other vegetables, add humus or reserved manure, peat moss or sawdust with a little nitrogen.
Silty Hemp: If you have silty soil, add coarse sand (not fine river sand), fine gravel and compost or well-decomposed horsehair mixed with fresh straw.
Tonal (or heavy) floors: Well-cultivated tonal floors prefer cabbage, beans, peas and leafy plants. To improve a tonal floor, add gypsum in the fall or winter and let it work. Add compost to make it more workable, but not too much. Mix 3 inches of organic matter, such as leaves, with the soil. Do this in the winter before the soil freezes. Contrary to popular belief, adding sand to healthy soil only results in hard and compacted soil.
Lehm: Ideal for growing fruits and vegetables and supports almost all plants.
To improve old soil, you keep adding organic matter each season while preparing planting beds. It’s tolerable; it can take a few working hours for the soil to become fertile and loamy.
Ash helps with excess acidity fairly quickly.
Secret 9: Another type of farming with an ancient motif is to equip raised beds
Use raised beds more often so the wet, cold soil dries out and warms up faster. By the way, in boxes and high beds it is easier to replace the soil every 4-5 years, replace the top layer and add organics. Use paths and paths, walk on them in the spring and do not compact the floor unnecessarily.
Arranging warm beds promotes the harvesting of early plants
Secret 10: Care for the floor in the greenhouse
Every 2-3 years, remove the old floor layer at the bayonet of a spade in the greenhouse (you can spread it along the beds and beds or lay it under the fruit trees). In early spring, it is necessary to disinfect the soil and sprinkle it against viruses with “phytolavin” against “apothecary” viruses. Three weeks after treatment, add a live plant preparation to the soil.
Three weeks after greenhouse sanitization, add organic active ingredients to the soil. Choose complex preparations containing live cultures of microorganisms and biologically active substances.
One opportunity to take care of the soil on the plot is to get rid of weeds in time – before planting. It is necessary to easily disturb the floor surface in the pen and then insulate with opaque dark materials (tension bond, sheet of cardboard). As soon as weed emergence grows, remove it with a compound. Do not over-dig the floor, as this will simply bring the weed seeds to the surface.” width=”” height=”” />
Every four years it is recommended to replace the floor in the greenhouse
One possibility for tending the ground on the plot is to get rid of weeds in time – before planting. It is necessary to easily disturb the floor surface in the pen, and then insulate with opaque dark materials (tension bonding, cardboard sheet). As soon as a weed emerges, remove it with a compound. Do not dig over the floor, as this will simply bring the weed seeds to the surface.
This method is good for annual weeds, but perennial weeds don’t give up so easily, so weed regularly. Needless to say, the use of herbicides should be justified for special reasons: urgently need to clear the area around the fence, suffer from negligent neighbors or plan to just “bring beauty” and not grow plants.