How to cut grapes in Siberia
Grapes are a southern plant. Thanks to the work of breeders who have succeeded in developing fros t-resistant varieties, this plant is successfully grown in Siberia and other regions with a rough climate. The right vine cut in Siberia is important so that the harvest is generous.
Reb cut in Siberia
Why a autumn cut is necessary
The grape cut in Siberia in autumn is an important event. In the northern regions, it is not advisable to lift the cut for spring. The vine is bound to bundle before the winter.
In spring, when the air temperature becomes positive, a greenhouse effect begins under the waterproof roof. If the grapes have not been circumcised, unknown leaves, buds and dead shoots begin to lazy. Since all branches were collected in a bundle, healthy branches are also affected by the fungus.
Most of the time such a bush dies, it is difficult to revive it, so you have to grow grape bushes again or wait a bit to wake up the underground buds.
Cutting in autumn avoids such problems, and the bushes take up much less space after cutting, it is easier to cover them. Cutting grapes in Siberia has a number of characteristics, it differs significantly from cutting in the southern regions.
Due to the rough climate, the vine does not always have time to ripen to help the plant, the cut takes place in two steps:
- Lighting decorative strip.
- Last autumn cut.
It is necessary to free the bush of excess drives, branches and a certain amount of leaves. Offer sunlight access to the branches so that you have time to ripen properly before the cold weather starts. This event will take place in autumn after the first frosts from September 15th to 25th.
The first pruning is particularly necessary if the summer is relatively cold or varieties are grown with poor maturation of the vines.
After the harvest, the tip of the grape shrub is cut off, green shoots and stepchildren are removed. Then the branches are loosened by the trellis and carefully pushed into the corridor. After that, it is necessary to carefully examine the plant and to remove the crooked and weak branches, antennas and remaining stepchildren and remove withered leaves from the bottom of the bush.
Such a cut is carried out at seedlings that are older than three years. Only the tip is cut off for on e-yea r-old bushes, and stepchildren and tips are removed for tw o-year seedlings.
In the case of fros t-resistant varieties, it makes no sense to cut into two stages. The vine and the harvest have time to mature well so that the cut takes place at once after the harvest. This is the period from September 20 to October 15th.
Leaves must be removed before the cut.
The second phase of trimming the bushes takes place after the first frost when the su b-temperatures have killed the leaves. During this time, the movement of the nutrients stops, the ideal time to prepare the vines for winter.
Start with the last cut and remove all damaged leaves from the bushes. If the process was carried out from top to bottom in the first phase of trimming, the movement takes place in the second phase from bottom to top. Fruit members and branches are cut off. After the grape bushes are cut and freed from leaves, the branches are bound to bundle and intercepted in several places with a soft wire.
In this form, bundles are laid on the substrate. A wood beam, spruce paws can be a substrate. This stage is important because the vine is not in contact with the ground. Otherwise, the vine can be nourished by moisture from the soil and become moldy. After the first frosts, a significant rise in temperature often occurs during the day, and this is enough for mold to spread.
On the top, the tied vines are covered with a spruce, crates, roofing, polyethylene film and other moisture-wicking materials. However, protection from such materials is temporary.
When they cover grapes
You need to cover the plants during the period when the average daily temperature is maintained withi n-5 ° C, in other words, when the ground is already frozen and it is simply not possible to glue a shovel. Then the grapes are covered with warming materials: upper pockets, pockets with tyrs, dry foliage, etc., and on top they are covered with moisture-proof materials.
Do not forget that the kidneys on grape bushes can withstand frosts down t o-17 ° C, but plant roots can be affected b y-8 ° C. Therefore, the roots must also pay due attention. Snow is a good protection.
The thicker the snow layer in the region, the thinner the insulation layer is needed for protection. The thing is that one centimeter of snow can keep the temperature of 1 ° C. If there is a lot of snow in the region, there is enough to cover the plants with waterproof material.
How to remove grapes for the winter in Siberia. landing
Methods of cultivating grapes in Siberia developed several decades, determining new crop cultivation technologies and carrying out a comprehensive selection of seedlings.
The place for the vineyard is selected without shading and dry, without stagnant water. Each shade leads to a weakening of the ripening of the berries. Bushes are planted near the south side of the buildings, in case it is possible to monitor the landing in winter.
If in winter the clusters are left without observation, it is impractical to plant seedlings near the wall of the house, since the snow cover is low there.
Deciding how to plant grapes in Siberia, you cannot neglect the developed and tested methods. The agrotechnology of viticulture created for traditional areas of growth is not suitable for the Siberian region. Only one landing method is used here – i n-Tepth.
Important! The first task of the vineyard is to grow good roots and save them from freezing.
Grapes in Siberia due to an overcast nature are usually carried out in prepared trenches or boxes. How to properly plant a grapevine is the main problem in the cultivation of this plant. The ditch performs only one function – provides protection from the common cold. They are 40-60 cm wide and 20-30 cm deep.
The boxes are the same trenches, only they do not deepen into the ground, but above the surface. Their walls are insulated with a layer of clay to protect against frosts. In boxes, vegetation begins 10-12 days earlier.
A hole for planting a seedling is dug with a depth of 80 cm. It is not made on fertile lands, such a landing is used only on thin soils. 10 cm Brudelstein is filled at the bottom of the pit, filled with soil mixed with humus, sand and peat. The seedling does not immediately fall asleep in full height. Do this gradually, increasing the escape and roots at the same time.
Grapes in Siberia are planted according to the scheme of 2.5×2.0 m. The roots grow vigorously and need a large stream area and the vine in good lighting.
For planting, seedlings are made from the sprout of early southern varieties and the stock of hardy Amur or American grapes. With such a seedling, the softest part of the vine, the roots, is protected from frost. Hardy varieties can be propagated by self-rooted cuttings.
Important! The best time for planting grape seedlings is June 5-15, when the earth warms up to + 18 ° C.
In April-May, with high positive air temperatures, the ground is still frozen. And the planted seedling freezes in development.
Growing fruit grapes in Siberia for beginners begins with choosing a suitable variety that is easy to care for. It can be a Riddle, Russball, Delight.
Descriptions of grape varieties that do not require deep knowledge can be found in many books written by the founders of northern viticulture. For example, in the book “Northern Viticulture of Russia” Shatilova F.I.
The planting and care is carried out according to a certain established system, from which you can neither get a healthy and strong plant nor a good harvest.
Pruning in Siberia. Grapes: preparing for the winter after Gornaulov
Winter will ask severely
I read an article by Yu P. Nikitin “Preparing and protecting a vineyard for the winter”, published in No. 38 of the Kuznetsk Estate. Now the hot period begins to winterize the vineyards, and many newcomers are wondering: how to do it, what is needed for this? Therefore, I consider it necessary to expand the scope of this article and dwell on it in more detail. So, pruning and protecting grapes in northern conditions.
As you know, you need to prune the grapes before protecting them. What is the purpose of pruning? After all, many other crops grow and bear fruit without pruning.
If the grapes are not pruned, they feel self-sufficient, and why expand the number of competitors in their habitat? Nothing. Therefore, without pruning, she practically does not bear fruit. When the grapes are cut, the instinct of self-preservation and motherhood activates in him and he begins to lay flower buds.
Pruning in Siberia is done only in the fall. If the bunches are not pruned in the autumn, but in the spring, when covering the sleeves and vines, they must be tied into a bundle, and in this bundle both ripe and dead vines after frost, which a great supply of moisture, are found together .
In spring, when the sun gets warmer and the temperature inside the grape warehouse rises above +5 degrees Celsius, mold and rot begin to form in a humid environment, one of the sources of this humid environment are also unripe vines as not removed green leaves. As a result, even healthy mature vines are affected, when removing the protection from the bunches a rather bleak picture emerges: all or most of the vines and pods are covered with a grey, black, sometimes green coating with completely rotted buds. And everything will have to start all over again, in case at least some living buds remain at the base of the bush, or wait until the underground buds warm up and wake up. As a rule, anyone who sees such an image of a grape bush in spring thinks that the grapes are extinct, and the real reason is that they have rotted.
Pruned vines take up 2-3 times less volume than unpruned vines and are easier to cover for the winter. Pruning a grape bush in our country, compared to the South, has significant differences in both the timing and amount of pruning.
In the south, the vine cut takes place at the end of the vegetation period when the grapes ripen well on a long vine. In our country, the vine does not always have time to mature before the first frost. And the early autumn frosts destroy the green leaves and green shoots of the grape shrub.
Therefore, the main task of the winemaker in autumn is to create conditions for accelerated maturation of the wood before the vines are protected for winter. And it is necessary to cut the grape bush into two steps: First after the harvest or a slight frost that has partially damaged the leaves, a preliminary or brightening cut is carried out in the second half of September. Its purpose is to dilute the bush and clean its base and generally – open the branches and shoots for the effect of the sun.
Particularly brightening cut is required when growing varieties with poor maturation of the vine or after a cool summer. Before implementation, it is necessary to remove the harvest from the bushes and remove weeds near the bushes. First, the completely immature (green) part of the shoots in the upper part of the plants and stepchildren is cut off, and then the bushes are carefully removed from the trellis and placed on the floor – towards the gang.
Remove the completely green part of the shoots from the bush, which obviously has no time to tire before the protection time for the winter (except for young plants). They also cut off all remaining stepchildren, antennas, heavily twisted shoots and also remove the main part of the leaves in the lower part of the bush (which is outdated and does not provide food to the bush). So they “open” the shrub, clear it and then give all remaining branches and drives access to the sunlight. It is not recommended to completely cut off the young plants of the first two years of life in autumn, it is sufficient to remove the tip and the top and stepchildren in the second year of life. Then place in a ditch or a box and close it with a film under the arches before freezing. The leaves remain green and the vegetation period takes another two weeks or more up to a hard frost. In grape bushes with poor maturation of the vine (baklanovsky, kodryanka, etc.), it is advisable to carry out a preliminary cut in a more complete volume, to remove frui t-bearing connections and only leave branches and drives for fruit formation. Replacement and rejuvenation without tips, but with leaves.
How to prepare grapes for winter in Siberia. Grapes – preparation for the winter, the first year
How the grapes of the first year are prepared for the winter will depend on growth and yield in the future. Therefore, gardeners pay special attention to this topic.
Autumn top dressing of grapes in the winter of the first year
In the second half of the summer, fertilization with nitrogen fertilizer must be set. Nitrogen promotes plant growth, which prevents its shoots from being mature.
In order to support the maturation of the shoots, you must use potassium fertilizer (potassium magnesia, potassium sulfate, wood ash). In addition, phosphate fertilizers also prepare the grapes well for the winter.
Cut the grapes of the first year for the winter
The right grape cut is very important in the first year of life because it is used to form a future bush. In the following years there is a correction cut.
A stemless fan formation of a bush according to the Guyot method is considered the most suitable for grapes. To follow this method, in the first year it is necessary to grow a strong shoot. In mid-October it is cut off, leaving two eyes from the ground level. The entire immature part must be removed. A sign of wood aging is its brown color. In spring, fruit shoots grow from the overwintering eyes of the mature vine.
How to cover the first year’s grapes for the winter
Grapes that have to survive the first winter must be covered. Shelter is carried out in late October – early November. During this time, the vine still retains its elasticity and can be laid without any problems.
First, a trench is dug into which the grape shoots are placed. They are pinned to the bottom and sprinkled with earth on top. They also build an additional shelter from any material (foil, roofing felt, tarpaulin) or spruce branches.
Protection of annual grapes for the winter. Do I need to cover young grapes for the winter?
Experienced winegrowers always recommend overwintering – with the exception of those climate zones in which there are no minus temperatures in winter. The harsher the winter, the more carefully you need to prepare a winter shelter for young grapes. In order to best protect the vineyard with young seedlings from the cold, you need to take care to create a reliable full shelter that protects all the mother liquor.
The most dangerous thing that can happen to a vine is icing. Only shelter can save him. Do not be afraid that frosts will be much weaker than predicted, and a well-covered plant will be in greenhouse conditions (which is fraught with premature bud breakage).
The design of the shelter being created assumes the possibility of artificial ventilation, when air with a minus or coolness comes out of a cocoon created by blankets, foils and other things with the risk of creating a greenhouse effect during heating temperature is taken in from the outside and warm air is released. This procedure avoids rot and the appearance of early kidneys.
When the region’s climate allows grapes to go into winter unprotected or with minimal protection, but frosts suddenly break out, there are methods that would rightly be called anti-crisis. The first is to gently bend the lashes to the surface of the soil, fix them with clips and pour a sufficient layer of soil over the plant. You should get a hip formation down the length of the vine. If the temperature drops sharply to critically, and such an earthen tent cannot fully protect the young grapes, it is advisable to save the vine at night with the help of fires grown next to the bushes. Such a measure can only be used for the southern regions, where frosts are rare and, when they occur, last no more than 1-2 days.
The correct construction of the shelter, taking into account the climatic features of the area, allows the grapes not to freeze in the strongest frosts and after the onset of spring to begin a full entry into the new fertile season.