Vegetables for beginners: the secrets of a vegetable harvest without seedlings and without a greenhouse
If you decide this year to suddenly change your habits and not just grow a lawn in the country, you still have time in April-May to sow some vegetables. Even if there are only a few beds and there is not even the simplest greenhouse, you have every chance of harvesting your harvest.
Do you start with beans or onions? Aubergine or asparagus? While the cultivation of what you like to cook is already a great idea, beginners should pay attention to how easy it will be to grow your favorite vegetables. Instead, it is best to grow plants that need little care, are ready to harvest in a short time and are practically free of pests and diseases.
Swiss chard, salad and potatoes in the vegetable garden
Which vegetables can a beginner grow without seedlings?
We have arranged vegetables according to the complexity of its cultivation: from easy to complex. But however, all types of vegetables can even be grown by a person who saw a shovel for the first time. That
- Carrot + beetroot
How many vegetables should be planted?
When you sow for the first time, you shouldn’t hunt quantities. Make a few small beds and sow the simplest vegetables: salad, radishes, carrots, plants onions. This brings variety to your country life and your menu. Remember: It is better to be proud of a small garden than to be annoyed by a big one!
One of the most common mistakes that beginners make is to plant too much – much more than anything could ever eat! Plan your plants in advance, start small and only build what you and your family will definitely eat.
3 rules for sowing and planting vegetables
- A place for vegetables is chosen as sunny as possible.
- Floors are fertile, garden is needed. If the soil is acidic (on this moss and sour steamers are often found), dolomite flour must be added to the packaging in accordance with the instructions.
- The beds are high. Most plants thrive best in 20-30 cm high beds.
Radishes in the garden
How to grow vegetables, general recommendations
- Choose a protected, sunny location for sowing. Exceptions to this rule are lettuce and some herbs that cannot hit roots in full sun and therefore best thrive in partial shade. Prepare the floor by removing weeds and add wel l-rotted compost or manure, and pave the surface with a rake.
- Only build the set for which you have space. If you don’t have a large garden, you can grow salad in pots.
- Do not plant the plants too close together and do not light up to dense plantings – always follow the recommendations for the plant distances on the seed bags.
- Discuss snails and snails with the help of special baits or preparations from the green.
- Water in droughts and on hot days. Pour the vegetable patch in the morning or in the evening when the heat subsides.
- Fas t-growing plants are usually not fertilized during growth. Mineral fertilizers are applied to the ground before sowing. This allows you to reduce the risk that the nitrate content in leafy vegetables increases above the legal limit. Before sowing, it makes sense to fill the floor with ash and complex mineral fertilizer.
- Hack fruits such as beets and carrots can be fed up to 3 times a season: the first time – after thinning, the second – after another 2 weeks, the third – at the end of July.
How to grow onions for vegetables and onions
When are onions planted?
From April 25 to May 5th. According to the folk calendar, onions are planted in the field when the leaves of the bird’s cherry begin to develop. How to grow onions from sticks: everything from plants to harvest
Plant onions in spring
How do you plant onions?
You have to choose a sunny place for onions. Plant the onions in rows so that the earth layer 2-3 cm above the “shoulders” of the onion. The distance between Lokovki – 5-8 cm, between the rows – 20-25 cm The floor during the rooting of the onions should not dry out.
How to grow salad
When is salad planted?
From mi d-April to the end of May. Can be sown several times.
How is salad planted?
The seeds are sown after 3-5 cm up to a depth of 0.5-1 cm, the rows are irrigated in front of the sowing. If 4-5 leaves have formed in the appeared drives, the salad is thinned out. Salad must be watered regularly for a good harvest.
Salad in the garden
How to grow chard or chard
When is Swiss chard?
At the end of April – early May. Swiss chard is considered a col d-resistant culture and can be sown outdoors at the end of April to early May. The higher the air temperature, the faster the seedlings appear.
How is chard sown?
Cold seeds are sown in 3-4 cm deep furrows with a distance of 3-4 cm between the seeds and between the rows of 20-30 cm.
Sämlingen are thinned out at the stage of 2 weeks.
How to grow radishes
Radish seeds are quite large, so they can be easily sowed and do not have to be thinned out. They are ready for harvest in a few weeks. Fresh organic fertilizers (manure, compost) in any form are contraindicated – the radish is empty inside. 10 secrets for the cultivation of sweet and dense radishes
When are radishes planted?
From the end of April to mi d-May.
How are radishes planted?
Beaut out the earth in the garden and pull it about 1 cm deep furrows, pour furrows, sow, sprinkle seeds, sprinkle with soil. Rising shoots can be dusted with ashes. Don’t sow radishes too thick! The juiciest and sweetest radish grows where it is not disturbed by weeding, loosening and thinning.
How to grow carrots
Sow for food for food early and ultr a-ruffs that mature in 45-60 days for winter storage – late ripening varieties. In addition, carrots are not only the traditional orange, but also yellow or purple. How to achieve a good carrot harvest
When planting carrots?
Carrot seeds will be sown for the early consumption at the end of April – in the May vacation. According to the folk calendar, carrots are planted when the hoof slattish blooms.
How are carrots planted?
Carrot seeds are quite small to distribute them evenly over the beds, the seeds are mixed with sand and sown in rows of 1.5–2 cm depth.
Carrots love to pour in the early stages of development.
Waiting for carrot sprouts takes quite a long time (at a temperature of +8 ° C they appear in 25–30 days). The first thinning of seedlings occurs at the stage of 1–2 true leaves, the second 15–20 days after the first. All carrot care boils down to timely weeding, loosening the row spacing, watering and top dressing – 2-3 times a season.
How to grow beets
Beets can be sown directly into shallow furrows in the ground and harvested within a few weeks. There are a large number of beet varieties with different groups of ripeness, shape, size and even color of root crops. Choose varieties with good resistance to disease and bolting (seed flowering) – this is an ideal choice for novice gardeners. Beets: how to get a good harvest
When are beets planted?
For early consumption at the end of April – and up to and including the first May bank holiday, for storage – on the second May bank holiday. Popular belief says that beet planting time comes when the aspen blossom.
How are beets planted?
Beets are sown in furrows with a distance of 5-10 cm between seeds and 30 cm between rows. With the advent of the 3-4. sheet is thinned out.
20+ Cold Hardy Vegetables: What To Plant First
Which vegetables grow well in the middle lane and north? What to plant in a place where there are no greenhouses and hotbeds? What do you plant in the garden in spring? There is only one answer to these questions – cold-resistant plants. They sprout even at low temperatures and survive brief frosts.
Did you know that some gardeners even sow radishes in winter? This cabbage grows well under the snow? Our pick of the toughest vegetables will help you learn more about popular and unknown crops.
The most cold-resistant vegetables to give away
This kale goes by many names: kale (or kale), kale (bruncol or grunkol), and finally just cabbage. This incredibly healthy curly-leaved vegetable holds the record for cold-hardy plants. It can withstand temperatures down t o-18 °C. Plus, frozen kale leaves become even softer and tastier.
Cabbage seeds germinate at a soil temperature of +4-5°C. The optimum temperature for seed germination and seedling development is +16-18°C.
As a rule, the seeds are sown in open ground in early May, deepening them into the ground by 1-2 centimeters. Depending on the variety, the first kale crop is cut 2-3 months after germination. The younger the leaves, the tastier they are.
Parsnips are not only frost-resistant, but also winter quietly under the snow. In early spring, he gives us the first fresh root crops. The main thing is to have time to dig up the roots before growth begins. In the second year, parsnips bloom while the roots lose their flavor.
Sow parsnips in early spring. The minimum temperature for seed germination is +2-3°C, the optimal temperature is +16-18°C. The seeds are firm, the first sprouts appear after about 20-25 days. Therefore, at least one of the methods of accelerating germination will not hurt. Young plants tolerate frosts down t o-5°C and mature plants down t o-8°C.
Parsnips thrive best in cool weather (+18-20°C) in well-moistened soil.
Radishes have always been planted before other vegetables. And right! Radish seeds begin to hatch at +2-4°C. And when the temperature is close to ideal (+ 15-17 ° C), the first shoots will appear 4-6 days after sowing. To speed up germination, the seeds should be soaked for 24 hours.
Redi’s souls are shor t-term frosts up t o-2-3 ° C. Adult plants are still hardy: they are not afraid of fros t-5-6 ° C. Radis prefers in general. The most delicious and juicy root plants are obtained in +16-20 ° C. At higher temperatures, the fruits become bitter and rough. And longer heat leads to shooting systems.
Radis is planted in winter, winter and early spring. Read more about the time of sowing and agricultural technology here: https://dachnye-sovety.ru/vyrashivanie-redisa-kak-kak–urozhaya/
Carrots are another col d-resistant culture that they always try to sow early at the end of April. And although the optimal temperature for germination of seeds is an area of +17 to 20 ° C, they also start in cold soil ( +4-5 ° C). Carrots usually appear on the 14th to 16th day after sowing. This process can be accelerated with a special processing of seeds.
Samples are sown in loose ground in grooves up to 3 centimeters deep. Ideally, carrots should be planted on the seeds to observe the distance between a match box between the “neighbors” along the groove. The work is careful, but then you don’t have to dilute yourself.
All onions are rather col d-resistant plants, but in spring black is planted on the beds before everyone else. As soon as the floor thaws and dries, the time of planting occurs. The minimum temperature at which the onions start to germinate is +5-10 ° C. In this weather it will be true to wait. But at 18-20 ° C the first feathers seem to be a week after plants. Sow onions in grooves up to a depth of 1-1.5 centimeters.
The spring of an adult plant easily tolerates frosts up t o-2 ° C, but dies with stronger frosts.
Several years of arches and onions are not afraid to reduce the temperature t o-5 ° C. Batun, Slyzun, Shnitt and other arches are not demanding at all, and in spring the Greens only increase at +5 ° C. No plant, but the dream of a gardener that has become true!
Cross salad is a very cold-resistant plant. It will even grow at +2-3 ° C, albeit slowly but true. Under optimal conditions (approx. +16-18 ° C), the Korus shows the miracles in the early age: it sprouts for 2-3 days. The plant tolerates the lack of light well. It is also grown without earth (on foam or cotton pads), so unpretentious croovas.
As a rule, the Croatians are eaten in the form of seedlings with the first dressed leaves. So it is more tasty and tender.
The fabulous vegetables of the beets tolerate well with cold and heat. Sow it very early – mi d-April – in early May. And in the presence of a greenhouse you can sow ripe varieties early in March. Seeds germinate at a temperature of +1-3 ° C, but the seedlings appear when they heat up to +5-6 ° C. C. Young seedlings of beets stand up t o-3-4 ° C.
Like radishes, beets are often planted in late summer (mi d-July). In autumn, plants can survive the temperature t o-5-6 ° C. However, root cultures that were confiscated by frost are poorly saved and are worse in taste.
The optimal temperature for the growth and development of beets is 15–20 ° C. Turnip often goes “to the arrow” in too cold or very hot summer.
A relative of the beets – brutsyva – also differs to the tolerance compared to low temperatures. The minimum germ temperature of the trouser seeds is +1-2 ° C, but of course this is not enough for quick and friendly shoots. But at +8-10 ° C, the depth flows on 4-5 days.
Seals tolerate shor t-term frosts t o-6-8 ° C. Adult rastia can also withstand such frosts, but the frozen pants, like a beet, reduce the severity.
So that the trough shows everything that it is capable of, it needs a daily temperature of about +25 ° C, night – about +17 ° C and soil, heated to 15 degrees.
Handle (arugula or scooter)
Therugula not only refers to col d-resistant, but also to early green cultures. It is appreciated for an unusual taste that turns every salad into an exquisite dish with Mediterranean cuisine.
In spring, the Rucola can be sown from the end of March. In order to always be with the harvest, the plants are recommended to spend every two weeks until the middle of the summer. Samples sprout at air temperature +9-10 ° C. The ideal conditions for obtaining good seedlings are considered +17-23 ° C.
The arugula is suitable for subcyriant plants. Sow seeds in October-November, if the thermometer column does not increase over zero. Sama are buried in the soil with 2 to 4 centimeters. The arugula needs space, it is coarse and smaller in crowns, so it is advisable to observe a gap of 8 to 10 centimeters between plants.
The seeds made of salad (or sheet) mustard are already pressed at a temperature of +1-3 ° C. And at +18–20 ° C it rises almost immediately – in 3 days. Seals are resistant to shor t-term frosts.
Blattsenf sowing takes place both in spring (April May) and in summer (July August). This plant lasts long daylight – it becomes colored in summer. Like Rucola, salads shoot with thickened plants. There should be at least 10-12 centimeters between the bushes.
The megapolous spinach grows at +2-3 ° C. This is not the minimum germ temperature under such conditions on fast seedlings. But in +15-20 ° C will appear ten days after the sowing of the first leaves. Incidentally, germination can be accelerated by soaking the seeds in water by 48 hours. Young seedlings take slightly shor t-term frosts up t o-6 ° C. For normal growth and development of spinach, you need a temperature of +15-18 ° C.
It is better to sow spinach in early spring and water. The lack of moisture and heat leads to premature flower.
The delicate leaves of the salad actually turned out to be ongoing soldiers. You can withstand a decrease in temperatur e-6 ° C.
When sowing, the seeds try not to deepen themselves into the ground (a maximum of 1 centimeter). In cool (+12 ° C) floor, the salad rises in 7-8 days. All salads are light and moisturizing. But you just don’t need any special warmth. At temperatures above 20 ° C or with strong shading, the plants bloom quickly and the leaves become bitter and completely unsuitable for use.
Peas does not require much warmth either. The temperature minimal to arouse its seeds- +1-2 ° C. There is enough +4-5 ° C for the normal development of seedlings and the formation of shoots and in the soil, up to +10 ° C, heated up, up to +10 ° C, Pea literally germs in 3-7 days.
Young Erbsenserbsen can survive a t-4 ° C-6 ° C. However, Frosts weaken the plants and significantly reduce their productivity.
Like peas, vegetable beans in the middle lane will be sown in the medium lane at the end of April and in the northern regions in early May. Their seeds germinate at a temperature of 4-8 ° C, and the seedlings stood up t o-6 ° C. Nevertheless, the longer cold load in growth of stems and leaves slows down. And the yield in frozen plants falls by 30%.
Parsley is also not afraid of cold. It can be sown with carrots at the same time. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 3-4 ° C. But due to the essential oils on the seed surface, parsley sprouts for a very long time. Even at optimal temperature (18-20 ° C), the first sprouts appear after two weeks. And the colder it is, the longer the seeds germinate. The germination can be accelerated by washing the seeds in warm water or soaking on a damp cloth.
Sämmen can easily tolerate frosts up t o-9 ° C. A full-fledged parsley shrub tolerates real frosts (-10-12 ° C). Both the roots and the leaves of parsley hibernate well under the snow. And with the beginning of spring, the summer residents are happy about the first edible green.
The constant companion of parsley – dill – works best in cool periods, since its pleasant temperature range + 16-17 ° C is. Even if the thermometer fluctuates between +5 ° C and +8 ° C, dill leaves slowly continue to grow. But in hot weather, this culture quickly loses its juiciness, coarsely, does not grow, but tries to release umbrellas faster.
Dill seeds also slowly germinate. Even at +12-15 ° C you can spend up to 20 days in the ground. Here, too, you cannot do without preparing preparation. Dill seeds are usually soaked for 2-3 days, whereby a mandatory water change is required every 6-8 hours. Then the seeds are dried and sown into the beds.
Swiss Swiss chard or Swiss chard is one of the early green cultures. It is recommended to plant it outdoors in the third April decade after the seeds have been soaked for a day. The minimum temperature for seed germination is +4-5 ° C. The sowing takes place at a depth of 2-2.5 centimeters.
Mag sprouts tolerate slight short frosts (up t o-3 ° C). The juiciest leafsticks and leaves are obtained at + 18-20 ° C.
Despite the fact that celery has good cold resistance, stem and root varieties are usually grown in Setzlingen. And all of this because celery grows for a long time – from 80 to 210 days. Seeds for seedlings begin to sow in February. For the appearance of friendly shoots, it is necessary to keep the temperature in the range of + 18-25 ° C. Until the appearance of the fourth real sheet, celery bolts are kept cool – at + 15-20 ° C.
Young seedlings can be planted in the ground if the average daily air temperature is not below + 10 ° C, under no circumstances. Sellerieskämen survive a t-4 ° C, but a longer exposure compared to low temperatures leads to bloom in the first year of life.
Adult plants are not afraid of shor t-term autumn frosts up t o-7 ° C, and with a lot of snow they hibernate in the ground and quickly give new green in spring.
The optimal temperature for growth and development of all celery is +15-22 ° C.
White cabbage and other cabbage species
Sämlings each of the many types of cabbage can survive short frosts. Cabbage sprouts are not afraid o f-3 ° C, Beijing, cauliflower or broccoli –2 ° C. Real, frozen seedlings result in a lower yield.
Cabbage souls are more often grown in greenhouses and greenhouses than at home on the windowsill. The reason is simple – the radiators bursting in front of heat in our houses do not allow young seedlings to grow. If a temperature of + 15-20 ° C is required for the rapid recording of seedlings, + 7-10 ° C are sufficient in the first days of life. Otherwise the plants stretch very much, and for cabbage this is a disaster. All cabbage plants need a lot of light, good ventilation and cool – depending on the species between 12 ° C and 24 ° C.
Ideal conditions for the formation of a good head +13-18 ° C. The heat slows down the growth of cabbage and prevents the formation of heads. In such a weather, the cabbage must be shed constantly in order to reduce the negative effects of high temperatures.
Adults of cabbage plants are resistant to frost up to 7 ° C, and late cracks can withstand up t o-9 ° C.
Color cabbage is less resistant compared to the cabbage head. It will no longer be frosts tha n-2 ° C. The cheapest temperature for its development is 15-18 ° C during the day and 10-12 ° C at night. In autumn at temperatures below +10 ° C, inflorescences develop slowly and at a temperature of +5 ° C will no longer grow.
The head of Beijing’s cabbage cable does not lose its taste, even after autumn frost a t-4-5 ° C and the green inflorescences of broccoli can survive frost up t o-7 ° C.
The requirements of potatoes on air and soil temperature depend on the phase of plant development. At a temperature of +5 ° C, the awakening of the kidneys in tubers already begins. However, the germs of seed potatoes in front of planting are desirable under warmer conditions (+12-15 ° C). Otherwise, the natural immunity of potatoes is reduced.
The tubers can be planted in the ground and heated up to +7-8 ° C. The higher the floor temperature, the faster the shoots appear. The seedlings of potatoes are hardly off t o-2 ° C. Die at lower temperatures.
At air temperatures +21-25 ° C (and floor +16-19 ° C), new tubers are formed intensively. Therefore, the biggest yields are always achieved in a moderately warm summer.
Büben are really gentle compared to carrots. However, it cannot be referred to as a thermophile culture either. Beetroil seeds begin to hurry at +4-6 ° C, but this is only a minimum germ temperature, ie seedlings do not appear 20 days ago after 20 days. It is recommended to sow the beets in the ground and heat heat to 6-8 degrees.
Young beets need a temperature of at least 15 ° C, cold and frost are destructive for them. But with the formation of 4-6 real beets, the beets reacts less painfully to the deterioration in the weather and tolerates them without consequences.
The list of col d-resistant plants turned out to be quite impressive. But still incomplete. Let me remind me of mult i-year plants that are waved to cold and well in the middle strip. This is known to us: