Growing seedlings at home step by step

How to sow vegetables in seedlings – tells in detail and shows for beginners

Self-cultivation of seedlings often scares beginner gardeners and vegetable growers. The most important fears are usually related to lack of experience and fear of failure. Ironically, the abundance of information can sometimes also play a bad role, as beginners can be difficult to navigate which way is better for them to choose.

Self-cultivation of seedlings is very exciting

Self propagating seedlings – it’s very exciting

Experienced gardeners through experimentation and mistakes determine the best options for growing each crop. Often on this subject there are disputes. Someone picks all without exception, the other never does this, or does it only with tomatoes, some are “in love” with peat in one way, others can not stand it in spirit. We offer beginners the best option for seedlings, which does not involve going into the intricacies of the process, but they can take the first step to growing their own seedlings of the four most popular summer crops – tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and cucumbers.

How to calculate sowing time

The first difficulty newcomers face: How do you know when to sow your seedlings? To calculate the timing, you need to know three key parameters.

  • for tomatoes, peppers and eggplants – 45-65 days, depending on the type of plant;
  • for cucumber-20-25 days.
  • Tomatoes and cucumber-5-7 days,
  • Eggplant-6-8 days,
  • Pepper-12-15 days.

The third mandatory parameter is the approximate date of planting in the ground or greenhouse of the entire crop, which depends on the climatic characteristics of the region. This can be found out by experienced gardeners living in the neighborhood.

These are the main indicators, knowing which you can determine the sacrificial period. And how exactly this happens, in all the details described in the article when to sow vegetables for seedlings. Obligatory.

Sowing tomatoes

We will need seeds, soil for seedlings, clean containers for sowing with drainage holes and trays, water, plastic bag or food film. If you’re a beginner gardener, don’t take any chances – buy reliable seeds from a good o f-defined gardening business and ready y-soil (balanced, disinfected, clean of weed seeds).

All ready to sow tomatoes

All ready for sowing tomatoes

You don’t have to soak good tomato seeds – you can sow them dry.

First choice

For sowing followed by picking, take a low bowl with drainage holes, fill the bottom, compact, flatten and sprinkle. Spread out the seeds and lightly cover them compactly with the bottom. The thickness of the top layer of the bottom should be about 1 cm.

Sow followed by picking

Sowing followed by picking

The second variant

We sow immediately into separate containers, so that later they do not pick (plants). The volume of the cup should be at least 250 ml. Pour the bottom up to half, compact them, sprinkle and sow 2 seeds, sprinkle.

Sow in separate containers

Sow in separate containers.

After the emergence of seedlings, the excess (weaker) should be accumulated on the ground, leaving only one plant. When the seedlings grow up, half a cup should be added to the cups and gradually bring it almost to the top. Tomatoes differ from peppers and eggplants in their ability to form roots along the entire length of the stem. If you pour soil into plant containers, you will form a strong root system in your seedlings. Be sure to sign the plants.

Set up a greenhouse. Put the containers in a plastic bag or cover them with cling film or a transparent lid and put them in a warm place. The optimal temperature for tomato seeds to germinate is +24 … +28 °С. Open every day for a short time – and ventilate. Until the emergence of seedlings, the level of light does not matter, after germination, protection is removed, and the seedlings adapt to the light.

Place the crops in a person and put in a warm place

Plant the crop and put it in a warm place.

Sowing peppers.

Paprika seeds are characterized by a hard shell, so it is advisable to soak them before sowing. To do this, take a small container and a cotton pad or a small piece of cloth. Lay out the seeds, cover, moisten with water, drain the excess (the seeds should not sink).

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Pepper seeds germinate

Pepper seeds germinate.

Cover with a lid or put in a bag and place in a warm place. The optimal temperature for germination is +25 … +28 °С. Container with seeds can be placed on the radiator, putting something for insulation, such as a board or a small stack of newspapers or magazines.

Every day open the lid, ventilate and check the seeds. As soon as you notice white roots appearing, the seeds should be planted. No matter what experienced gardeners say, peppers do not like transplanting, so it is recommended to grow them immediately in individual containers.

Pepper seeds begin to sprout

Pepper seeds have begun to sprout

Pour the soil in a glass with drainage holes, compact it. With a finger or a stick, make a hole 1-1,5 cm deep. It is advisable to make centimeter marks on one floor in advance.

Dip the seeds and fill with the same storey, you can roll it. Good soil should be wet enough, but not stick together in a lump. Slightly sprinkle the seeds in the projection, it is functional to use a sprout for this.

Sprouted seeds immediately planted in individual containers

We poured the seeds directly into individual containers.

We cover the crop with film or a lid and put it in the light. Note that you should not allow overcooling, so direct ventilation is not allowed. It is also advisable to put on the window sill a kind of insulation – old newspapers in several layers, bubble wrap, etc. After the emergence of sprouts protection removed.

The seedlings should not overcool, so you need to put a warming ball on the window

The seedlings should not overcool, so you need to put insulation on the window ball

Seedling eggplant

Eggplants also do not like transplanting, so it is recommended to do the same with them as with peppers. This means germinating the seeds in a warm place after the emergence of roots in separate cups, and then cover the crop from the moment the sprouts appear. After protection, remove it and put it in the light.

Germinated eggplant seeds should be planted in individual containers

Seeds of the sprouted plant are planted in separate containers

Sowing cucumbers

Cucumbers are sown later than all other seedlings, since they are initially very heat-loving and therefore planted in the ground quite late. Secondly, their sprouting period is much shorter than that of tomatoes and peppers. The root system of cucumber is quite fragile and even reacts painfully to hilling, especially in inexperienced hands. Therefore, it makes a lot of sense to sow cucumbers for seedlings in torp pots (break out in the ground) or thin disposable containers, which are then easy to cut, take out and impossible to throw away.

Cucumbers are better sown in peat pots

It is better to sow cucumbers in door pots.

Soaking good cucumber seeds makes no sense, and even less so with pickled seeds. They have an unnatural color, so the manufacturer makes it clear that the seeds have been fully trained to the hem, disinfected and fertilized. If you soak them, rinse out all the good stuff.

Stored seeds have an unnatural color

Soaked seeds have an unnatural color

Fill the pots with the bottom, seal it and sprinkle it. Make a hole 1,5-2 cm deep, put the seeds and sprinkle. Arrange a greenhouse and put it in a warm place with a temperature of +26 … +28 °С. After the emergence of seedlings, we remove the cover and adjust to the light.

Experienced gardeners use other ways of sowing seeds for seedlings, but it is better to start with simple options. Sometimes it is not quite clear what is meant when you read the description of the process. Therefore, we recommend watching a video to show in detail all the nuances of sowing.

It should be emphasized once again that if you are a beginner gardener, you should not immediately deal with the intricacies of preliminary preparation of dubious or self-assembled seeds, and the drawing up of soil mixtures for seedlings is better to take care of. At first, it is better to choose fresh seeds from a reliable manufacturer, and in the second turn, ready high-quality soil.

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Tomato, pepper, eggplant and cucumber sprouts

Sprouts of tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and cucumbers

Peat “Lama” of the company “Bogatyr” has a balanced composition and contains a special complex mineral water self-fertilizer, so that you do not have to choose and buy preparations for fertilizing seedlings. This soil is slightly moistened, as it has a special wetting agent, this is undoubtedly a plus for peat-soil mixes (confirmed by gardeners).

Floor heroes company Lama Peat balanced one

Bogatyr” from the company “Lama Peat” has a balanced composition and contains a complex mineral fertilizer and the drug “Bakofit”.

In addition, the composition of “Bogatyr” already includes the drug “Bakofit”, which suppresses the development of pathogens. This allows you to avoid plant diseases and not to treat them. We wish you good luck in growing self-growing seedlings. Let your plants be healthy and abundant!

Thank you to Lama Peat Company for help in making this video.

How to grow seedlings at home – a detailed guide

How to take seedlings

Hello, toilers of the garden! Today we will talk about how to grow seedlings at home. Drawing on the experience of several generations of our family of farmers, I will tell you when it is better to sow seeds and transplant to the open ground, as well as what boxes should be chosen.

To take advantage of the article, right away I give you the sowing calendar, which shows the favorable and unfavorable days for 2019.

Month Type of work Cheap days Unfavorable days
January Saws for tomato, pepper, black onion, petunia, begonia sprouts 1, 10, 15, 16, 19, 20, 29 5, 6, 12, 21
February We’re sowing tomatoes, paprika, petunia, and eggplants, chrysanthemums, and carnations 1, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17 3, 4, 20
March Early in the month, finish planting seedlings and then transplant them from regular crates into a single container 7, 14, 16, 19 и 21 3, 5, 31
April Seedling care: Gießen, supplementary light treatment if needed; After the 20th, plant in the ground (depending on the weather) 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 18 5
Can Planting seedlings in the field 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 18, 28 20, 29, 30
June Sämlings in the field, feeding 4, 5, 6, 12, 13 3, 11, 25
July Late crops 3, 11, 17, 30 2, 28

Which plants are grown as sprouts

The method of growing the crop: from seeds or sprouts is determined by the growing season (i.e., time from sowing to fruit formation), heat requirements, and climatic properties of the region.

Seamen are grown in the conditions of the middle belt:

  • Most crops with long ripening periods (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, watermelons, melons, pumpkins);
  • Strawberries from seed when the variety does not produce whiskers;
  • Early cabbage;
  • several biennial crops to produce crops or flowers in one year (violets, some onions);
  • some spicy herbs;
  • Flowers with small seeds (violets, petunias, snapdragons, portulacas).

Sowing seeds for sprouts

The time of sowing seeds for seedlings depends on the properties of the variety, the place of their further cultivation (greenhouse or open ground), the plot and even the living conditions.

For example, it makes no sense to sow tomatoes early, when there is little space for seedlings at home, dark – the plants will stretch out and it will be difficult to transplant them. In this case, planting in the open ground is necessary.

Tip: If you do not want to get large tomatoes in the early stages, it is enough to plant a minimum number of seedlings, and in the summer to fill the plantation with stepchildren. The stepchild retains all the properties of the mother plant, including the hybrid.

The stepchildren should be grown before the garden residents. Late varieties are usually planted earlier than their early “counterparts”, but you also need to consider your own needs and, above all, the advice on the seed package.

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To take advantage of the advice on the package, buy seeds adapted to your region.

It is also worth reading the lunar calendar for the current year: the phases of the moon largely determine the weather, and this is objective information, unlike the horoscope.

You can use a countdown to determine the point of absurdity from the planting date (see figure).

Table for determining the time of sowing vegetables in seedlings

Planting dates for flowers.

Flower sprouting time

Preparing the soil

Each plant has its own “favorite” soil composition and type. But there are general rules on how to prepare good soil for seedlings.

soil preparation

  1. The soil must be fertile.
  2. Minerals and organic matter should be balanced and available for recording.
  3. In loose soil, oxygen gets to the roots, which ensures their good growth.
  4. The acid-alkaline balance of the medium must be maintained. In seämlingen it is usually between 6.5 and 7.0.
  5. All roots, metal particles and other unnecessary objects should be removed from the soil.
  6. The soil must be treated against pests.

Which container to choose

Traditionally, crates and individual pots were traditionally designated for seedlings. But now it has become popular to use other forgotten old and modern growing techniques. Let’s look at each method.

What to grow seedlings


Advantages: Boxes can be easily and compactly placed on a window or table, very practical to water and feed the plants.

Cons: The roots of the plants are intertwined, which makes transplanting difficult.


Advantages: Space saving, planting, easy to use (especially in the removable top or palette versions), the roots do not converge.

Cons: Plants don’t always have enough space.

Cassettes for seedlings

Pots with peat

Advantages: We don’t need to replant, we give the seedlings extra nutrients, the walls let the water in and the air out.

Disadvantages: If it is watered too often, the walls are covered with mold, and due to the lack of moisture the soil dries out and moves away from the walls.

Polyethylene (“diapers”)

Advantages: Saves space, culls weak plants immediately, easy to transplant.

Disadvantages: Slow growth compared to the potted method.

The snail’s way.

A snail’s track is a spiral-shaped polyethylene strip in which toilet paper, soil, and seeds are placed.

Sections in a snail

After sowing, the snail is tied up with a rubber band and placed in a tray that is watered throughout its growth.

Advantages: Weak sprouts are immediately visible, it is possible to shove them, saves space and soil.

Cons: Plant roots are close together, which means they can become intertwined.

Peat tablets.

Pros: Peat supplies the sprouts with nutrients.

Disadvantages: Slow growth compared to the potted method.

Egg shells.

Mostly used for growing cucumbers. It is not necessary to wash the shells before using them, but it is definitely worth drying them.

Advantages: No root injury when planted in the soil, additional source of calcium.

Cons: You have to be careful to keep the soil moist.

Seedlings in a shell

Full growth cycle from Setzlingen: from sowing to plants in the field

Seed preparation

Seed preparation involves several steps.

  • Checking the correct amount and expiration date

It is advisable to do this a little earlier than anticipated sowing so that you have time to restock.

  • Checking for germination

Part of the seeds from each bag is placed on a damp cloth and germinated. After a few days (each crop has its own germination time), calculate what percentage gave sprouts.

If the percentage of germination is less than 50%, then such seeds should either not be used at all, or the stock should be increased, with adjustments for stewards.

  • Selection and calibration

Selecting equally large seeds results in a predictable and richer crop. This is why some gardeners, especially those who only collect plant material from their own plot, place great emphasis on calibration.

If the seeds are small and take a long time to compare by hand, seed selection can be done as follows: 5 minutes in a 3% (cucumbers) or 5% (tomatoes, eggplants, peppers) soak and anything that floats is soaked to the surface without regret.

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Soaked are rinsed under running water, dried, and used as directed. If you wish, you can choose the largest of them.

Important note: only fresh cucumber seeds can be checked in this way, since after lying for a long time, they dry out and melt, despite their good quality. Peas, beans and corn are soaked in ordinary cold water.

  • disinfecting

All seeds, except those handled by an agricultural company (this is indicated on the package), must be disinfected. In most cases, contaminated material is the cause of plant diseases.

There are two ways to disinfect: by heating and baking in a solution of potassium humus. Heat the seeds in a thermos of hot water for the recommended number of minutes, and then move them to cold water for a few minutes.

This method has two disadvantages: some seeds lose their ability to germinate, and the temperature must be strictly maintained for a certain period of time.

Heating mode for some crops: cabbage – 20 minutes at 52 – 54 °C, eggplant – 25 minutes at 50 – 52 °C, tomato – 30 minutes at 50 – 52 °C.

Disinfection with potassium permanganate is carried out in 1% solution (tomatoes) for 45 minutes, or in 2% solution (peppers, cabbage, melons) for 20 minutes.

The disadvantages of the method include the need to carefully monitor the proportions of the solution, which is quite difficult to do at home.

It is more convenient to conduct disinfection by any method by placing the seeds in a gauze or chintz bag.

  • Soaking in water

Soaking speeds up the germination of slow-growing plants, such as carrots and peppers. But all others can also be immersed in water for better germination.

Peas, beans are enough to put only a couple of hours, tomatoes, cucumbers and cabbage need about 12, and carrots – up to 1.5 days. Water during a long soaking should be changed, the seeds should be stirred. You can also use a growth stimulant solution (aloe juice, epin, humate, etc.).

After soaking, the seeds can be sown in the ground immediately, but it is more effective to germinate them first. To do this, they are spread out on a damp cloth at room or slightly higher temperature and stored until the sprouts appear. Now you can choose the hardiest ones and carefully plant them in the prepared soil. And you can increase the cold-resistance with the help of vernalization.

pine seeds

This is called hardening the seeds at a low positive or zero temperature. Sprouted seeds (just wait for the first sprouts) are placed in the refrigerator or in the snow for a certain time. For example, cabbage is kept at 0 – 3 degrees for 10-15 days.

Vernalization can be done for cabbage, celery, onions, carrots, parsley, chrysanthemums, and is not recommended for beets, cabbage, turnips, radishes, swede.


Each vegetable or flower has its own requirements for the time and conditions of planting. The container is filled with prepared soil, tamped, leaving a little space on top, abundantly watered and placed a seed. The larger it is, the thicker the layer of soil over it should be.

Some small seeds (such as petunias) are not covered at all. After sowing, cover the container with polyethylene and put it in a warm place until it germinates. Some seeds germinate in any light, others (petunias, ageratum, sainfoin) require diffused light, and some (verbena, phlox) require complete darkness.

Sowing seeds for seedlings


Pickering is the transplanting of a plant into a larger container for the development of the root system. Thus, the young sprout not only receives more nutrients, but also slightly reduces growth, that is, it stops stretching out. The gardener also gets an opportunity to inspect the roots, remove the rotten ones and generally conduct a window sill inspection and get rid of weak specimens.

Seedling selection

Picking cannot be done, the seeds are immediately sown in separate pots. Some plants, such as eggplant, zucchini, pumpkins, melons, watermelons, do not like the “move” and can become ill. Pepper rooting after harvest varies from gardener to gardener. But most vegetables respond to the procedure with a better harvest.

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As for root pruning, opinions differ on this matter. Some advise pruning the root by a third so that lateral roots appear, while others advise against it.

pepper picking

Most often, seedlings are nested with a small clump of soil, without disturbing the root system. This method is called transplanting. Repeated transplanting is allowed for tomatoes, as they give a good harvest.

  • Tomatoes: 10 to 15 days;
  • Paprika: 15 to 20 days;
  • Cucumber: 5 to 7 days;
  • White cabbage: 7 to 8 days;
  • Broccoli cabbage: 9 to 10 days.


The plant often lacks nutrition. For a long time in the pot, it has time to withdraw its reserves and needs new nutrition.

Seedling fertilizer

The use of a complex fertilizer is not always justified, because one of its components may already be in the ground, and the excess is as harmful as the lack. Therefore, it is more often recommended to use fertilizer.

To notice what exactly the system is lacking, you can use such signs:

  • Phosphorus – the trunk darkens, the leaves curl and fall off;
  • Potassium – white spots appear on the lower leaves, the upper leaves either do not grow at all, or very small and covered with rust.
  • Nitrogen – lower leaves turn yellow, plant slows growth.

Along with industrial preparations for nutrition use and folk (onion shells, ash, iodine, coffee grounds, eggshells).


Turn off seedlings of vegetables and flowers that take a long time to mature. These are tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, pumpkins, pumpkins, cabbage.

Gradually adapt the plants to changes in conditions: first reduce the temperature in the house, then ventilate them without structures and, finally, take them outdoors for a few hours in the spring. They also gradually get used to the sun and open for a few lights.

Planting in the open ground or greenhouse

In order for the plants to take root well, they need to be properly planted. In this case, not only the timing is important, but also the weather and the technology of transplanting itself.

Planting seedlings in the soil

The floor on the ridges or in the greenhouse is prepared in autumn: it is dug over the bayonet of the shovel, remove the roots. In spring, organic fertilizers (manure, peat or humus) are sprinkled on the surface and again recompiled. A good preparation is also a fall planting of green manure.

If it is sunny outside, the plants are transplanted closer to the evening, and in cloudy weather – in the morning.

To ensure that the clod of soil does not collapse a few days before transplanting, the soil in the pot is not watered and moistened for an hour and a half. Then the seedlings come out of the container a little with the floor and the roots are not bare.

Planting technology is slightly different for different plants.

When tomatoes grow and elongate, they need to be planted deeper in the ground to stimulate the growth of additional roots and reduce the load on the trunk.

Replanting of tomatoes

The pictures show two options for transplanting them. Additional hilling (for tomatoes and peppers) is practiced.

But in cabbage, the root neck should not be deepened on no account. Its roots are very delicate. Therefore, when planting in the soil, the floor to the plant should be carefully sprinkled with a fine handful, and then ruffle.

Correctly transplanting cabbage

Cucumbers are planted to the same depth as in the pot, and after a few days, when white dots appear on the stem, cover with earth to the extent of the cotyledon leaves to get additional roots.

The hole for this should be first during the break.

cucumber planting

After transplanting, it is recommended to cover a little more with earth or peat, so that the floor is not cracked. It is recommended to cover or shade Novoselov in the heat.

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