The vast majority of grape varieties are very susceptible to temperature changes. The exceptions are frost-resistant and non-frost-resistant varieties. A striking representative of such varieties is the uncovered Marinovsky grape, which can withstand temperatures up to 30 degrees.
Marinovsky was bred by crossing several varieties for many years. The result is an unpretentious grape that does not require frequent feeding, is not picky about the composition of the soil, likes moisture, but is resistant to dryness. The taste qualities are excellent, and despite the fact that the berries are small, they are stored for a long time and can be transported over long distances. The Marinowski variety is officially classified as a wine variety, but most local gardeners grow them for food.
Variety description and features
The uncovered variety of grapes Marinovsky was bred as a result of scientific work of the breeders of NVNIISKh. Potapenko I. I.
Several quite opposite varieties of grapes – July and Amur – were used in breeding the hybrid. Fortunately, Marinovsky inherited from its parents an excellent frost resistance. For this reason, it is actively grown in the middle and northern strip, also in the Moscow suburbs.
Note: according to the description, the Marinovsky grape is a representative of centenarians. Without special care, the culture grows on a personal plot for several decades and brings a harvest every year.
Features of the variety in the table:
|Purpose of the hybrid||For the production of wine drinks|
|Sugar concentration||19 – 20%|
|Grape acidity||4 – 5 g/l|
|Freeze-thaw resistance||Withstands temperatures up to 30 °C|
|Berry||Deep blue to black color|
|Fruit weight||Can vary from 4 to 6 grams|
|Cluster weight||Can vary from 280g to 0.5kg|
The large and medium sized leaves sacrifice shade and are able to keep cool on hot days. There are vaulted denticles around the edges of the leaves, which widen greatly at the base.
The young shoots have an unusual color, red, which also gives the grape a decorative appearance. It is often used to plant arbors, porches and balconies.
Brushes are conical, large in size. They have perfectly developed lobes (1-2 pieces). The average weight of each bunch is 280-300 grams, but there are exceptions.
Note: The culture easily responds to feeding and regular watering. With proper care and good weather conditions, the weight of the bunch can reach 500 g – 1 kg.
The berries grow very close to each other. The usual size of the fruit is 14 mm by 12 mm. The taste is simple but quite harmonious, leaving a pleasant aftertaste of nutmeg. The skin is quite dense, inside is a juicy flesh with small stones. The resulting juice comes out uncolored.
The concentration of sugars in the fruit, regardless of weather conditions and plant nutrition, is 19-21%. In frequent home gardens, more often than not, Marinovsky grapes are not grown for wine production, but for consumption fresh and in the form of juices. However, winemakers easily make from it dry white and pink table wines of very high quality.
Interesting: Of all the resistant and frost-resistant varieties, the best is the Isabella variety. The crop tolerates frosts up to o-40 degrees Celsius.
The unpretentiousness of the plant makes it easy to care for it, but not a few standard manipulations. It is easy to plant a vineyard in the suburbs or another region of the middle zone.
A distinctive feature of all hybrids is propagation by seedlings. It is recommended to buy planting material in proven nurseries, since the indicators of resistance to their diseases are not very high. When buying from dubious sellers, the probability of acquiring seedlings increases significantly.
Planting is carried out according to a standard scheme. It is recommended to prepare the soil in advance.
- Dig a hole for a grape seedling in the fall, the size – 60×60 cm. The root system of the plant should be freely located in the ditch. The most favorable soil – fertile with medium acidity. If the tone is high, the soil is mixed with sand.
- At the bottom of the hole evenly distribute organic fertilizers and top it with a layer of soil.
- With the onset of spring, the culture is planted when the soil warms up (the air temperature holds at least +19 ° C). Usually the best time is late April to mid-May.
- The seedling is carefully lowered into the hole and covered with soil, slightly digging.
- After planting, the vineyard should be abundantly watered.
In care, Marinovsky grapes are unpretentious. He does not need fertilizers, abundant watering and excessive moisture. Pruning the branches and preventive measures against diseases and pests are necessary components of care.
Disease prevention of this perennial grape variety. Average resistance to scab and gray rot is noted. Also it is necessary to fight against oidium (a fungal disease).
- One of the most effective ways to combat powdery mildew is to apply sulfur to the soil. This substance is sprinkled on the ovaries, vines, leaves and necessarily the soil near the bushes. You can even make baths for bunches of colloidal sulfur and completely immerse them in the solution.
- In the spring, with the onset of heat, the plant should be sprayed with special fungicides. They can be purchased at the market or in any specialized store.
- In autumn, it is recommended to treat plants with a solution of copper or iron sulfate (3-5%).
As for pests, the berries are practically immune to attack by birds and insects, thanks to their hard skin.
Care of grapes. Bushes develop and grow very quickly, their size can reach 2 meters. In addition, grapevines are prone to overloading.
- In spring, shoots are cut back 4-6 eyes. If planned pruning is carried out in autumn, at least 8 shoots are obtained in case of damage.
- After the formation of the ovary, the bushes should be carefully inspected. Additional ovary should be removed, otherwise the harvest will be sparse.
- It is recommended to cut young fruits in the summer, so that all the nutrients go to the berries.
- Regularly remove dry and damaged leaves, shoots. All collected waste should be collected and burned or composted.
A mandatory component of nutrition is rationing the number of bunches. This is due to the fact that the Marinovsky variety can overload the fruit. In viticulture, it is recommended to cut 3-5 ocelli. The characteristic feature of the shoots is a good performance.
Important! If the culture is grown for decorative purposes, then pruning should be carried out with this main factor in mind. First of all, vines from grapes should be freed from doors and windows and remove all unnecessary and annoying shoots.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The hybrid form has a large number of prevailing advantages, as Marinovsky has been well-loved among grapes for many years. Let’s consider the main advantages:
- Unpretentiousness in care. Even a beginner can breed Marinovsky grapes. To cultivate it, you need to make a minimum of time, physical and financial expenses.
- Vines are characterized by excellent fruiting indicators. In addition, weather conditions do not affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
- Thanks to the dense shell of berries, it is possible to keep the brushes for a long time and take out transport in large routes.
- Low concentration of sugar in the fruit.
As for the disadvantages, they are not defined in the grape, except for the lack of resistance to some diseases. In addition, you should know that only adult bushes of Marinovsky grapes have excellent indicators of frost resistance. Young seedlings need to be covered for the winter.
Marinovsky grapes – it is an unpretentious plant, which is under the power to grow and beginner grower. Excellent individual qualities make it demanded in the domestic market.
Growing Marinovsky grapes
Marinovsky grape is considered an unpretentious variety. The most important elements of care for him are pruning and disease prevention. It is suitable for lovers of berries with a harmonious sour-sweet taste. It is ideal for making homemade wines.
Growing Marinovsky grapes
The parent is July and Amur grapes. These species have contrasting properties, which led to the high resistance of culture d o-30 ° C. It does not need to be covered for the winter, hence the name of the grape – uncovered. Temperature changes can slow down the rate of bunches hardening.
Marinovsky grapes are undemanding to the ground, loves water, but easily tolerates its lack, does not need constant feeding. The bunches are long preserved and transported without damage. The yield is high: up to 10 kg per bush. Wine variety, but often grown for food in fresh form.
Description of the bush and vine
The bush has high dense dark green foliage and grows quickly. Because of this property, it is often used to decorate the garden. The vine has a high fecundity, which often creates a load on the bush.
To avoid reducing the number of berries, gardeners recommend pruning the shoots, leaving about 5 eyes. This reduces the number of bunches, but increases the size of berries.
The bunches are medium-sized, cylindrical shape, the berries are densely arranged. Mass reaches 220-310 g. The grapes are small, with a diameter of 12 mm. Their form is round and faceted. The skin is firm and the flesh is juicy.
Caloric value is about 650 kcal/kg. Marin grapes are rich in glucose, which is quickly digested, helps blood circulation and lowers cholesterol. The acidity reaches 5 g per 1 liter.
According to the description, Marinovsky grapes are sustainably propagated by seedlings, which can be bought from proven nurseries, as they are prone to diseases and there is a risk of buying a diseased specimen.
The planting process takes place according to the following scheme:
- A hole of at least 60 × 60 cm is dug to freely place the roots. Ideally, productive soil with a medium level of acidity is used, but sandy soil will do. If the content of clay is high, it is recommended to mix the soil with sand. The procedure is carried out in autumn.
- Introducing a layer of organic fertilizers, covered with a layer of soil.
- After the spring heat (temperature not less than 19 ° C), plant seedlings in the prepared recesses. They are covered with earth and tamped.
- Water each bush with a bucket of warm water when the soil dries out.
The first 2 points involve preparing the soil in the fall for direct planting in the spring.
The temperature affects the timing of berry ripening.
Marinovsky variety has a medium ripening period. This process takes from 135 to 150 days. The harvest is obtained in autumn from late September to mid-October. It depends on the air temperature (the higher it is, the faster the ripening of fruits).
The variety does not require frequent feeding. Watering with a lot of water is not necessary because of the top roots close to the ground. The elimination of excess moisture is also not required.
Mandatory conditions: timely pruning and regular prevention of diseases. Despite the frost resistance, young seedlings need to be covered for the winter.
Western sweet wheatgrass
This subspecies grows quickly, reaching 2 m in height, and is prone to overloading. Therefore, regular pruning is necessary. This occurs in the spring or autumn. In the first case, the shoots are cut off, leaving 4 to 6 eyes. In the second case, about 7 ocelli are saved, as some of them can be damaged by the cold.
If there is an excess of bunches on the vine, they are trimmed a little so that there is enough nutrients for the ripening of large and sweet berries. To do this, the young fruiting vines are cut back in the summer. At the end of summer, remove excess live and dry leaves to ensure that the sun has access to the lower layers of the bush.
diseases and pests
The Marinovsky variety is resistant to mild and gray rot. Practically not subject to mechanical damage from birds and insects, thanks to the dense skin. The main threat to the crop can be oidium or powdery mildew.
The following measures can reduce the likelihood of seedling disease:
- Spraying the bushes in early spring with fungicides (“Azophos”, “Skor”);
- Spraying with soil sulfur on the leaves, vines and soil around the bush;
- Treatment of plants in the fall 3-5. A solution of copper or iron sulfate.
The disease is fungal and prefers grape varieties. It is not easy to remove oidium: its pathogen dies only at low temperatures, so prevention should be carried out systematically. Inspection, removal of dead shoots and leaves will help improve the condition of the seedling.