How to grow grapes in northern regions. Growing grapes in northern regions, really?
How to grow grapes in northern regions. Growing grapes in northern regions, really?
In a few years, frost in this way disrupts the vitality of the grape, which develops even from the spare buds, and the bush completely dies. When selecting a site for planting a vineyard, it should be taken into account that heavy soils are slow to develop in clay ditches. Flowering and ripening are delayed, and the vines mature worse. Sandy soils warm up better. This promotes the earliest ripening of grapes, but such soils freeze deeper in winter. Very prone, poor, podzolic support soils require not only reclamation, but also increase their fertility. Fertilizers can change their water-air regime and physical and chemical properties, increasing their fertility. The application of mineral fertilizers, especially potassium fertilizers, should be regarded as a method to improve frost and winter-hardiness of grape varieties. On heavy cold soils, vine culture should be carried out on rootstocks, which are less demanding to the soil. Hybrids with Amur grape (purple, brown) can be used as rootstocks.
Creating favorable conditions
Creation of favorable microclimatic conditions in the vineyard, joint planting of grape bushes and fruit trees, dense plantings and use of portable shields for snow retention contribute to better preservation of bushes from frost damage. To accelerate berry ripening and shoot ripening, coin ripening and pruning of fruit shoots should be applied. Greening operations should be combined with works on shaping bushes. The varietal composition of grape plantations is as follows: Syan Malengra, Black sweet, Russian Concord, Boitur, Northern white, Michurinsky cinnamon, Malengra early, Madeleine An-Jevin, Shalav white, Pink, Muscat, Astakhan early, Saperavi, Muscat white. Development of the north-eastern regions of the RSFSR: Tambov, Saratov, Kuibyshev and Voronezh regions. Protection of vineyards from frosts in the northern regions of viticulture. In these areas, low critical temperatures are a constant phenomenon. Michurinsk At the end of October, temperatures can drop to 25° C, in November to 29° C and even to 35° C. Even covering bushes with a layer of soil of 35-40 cm cannot protect them from frosts. Dry autumns and the usually snowless beginning of winter cause deep frosts in the soil. At present, the following methods are recommended to protect vineyards from winter frosts:
- (a) grafting on winter-hardy rootstocks;
- b) deep planting of rootstock seedlings;
- c) deepening of root system by rolling;
- d) planting bushes in a ditch;
- e) autumn watering of vineyards;
- f) covering bushes for winter;
- g) removal of formations well adapted to protection.
Grafting onto hardy rootstock. Long-term observations have shown that varieties Malengr early, Black sweet, No 135, Russian Concord easily freeze under the existing methods of grape protection and, above all, their root system is damaged. Meanwhile, varieties bred by I.V. Michurin, Buitur, Korinka, Arktik, seedlings of wild Amur grapes winter well without shelter.
Bianca grapes in the Moscow region. Characteristics and description of the variety Bianca
Bred from the maternal vine Villar blanc x Chasselas Bouvier.
Refers to technical varieties of grapes.
Appearance: Medium-sized or smaller bunches, usually weighing about 90-130 grams, but can reach 230 grams in some areas. The bunches are cylindrical in shape. The density of berries per bunch is moderate. The berries themselves are medium-sized or smaller than medium, sometimes small. The skin is thin.
Color: Green with golden-yellow glow.
Flavor: Harmonious. The flesh is very juicy.
Acidity: 7-9 g/l.
Maturation: it ripens early, belongs to the early maturing varieties.
Resistance to diseases and pests: the variety is resistant to major enemies of vineyards – Oidium, powdery mildew, grey mould. It may be affected by phylloxera. It is considered a fairly strong variety, but gardeners talk about decreasing resistance to complex diseases over time. But this is not unique to this variety.
Shrub: Outwardly, the variety is a low-growing liana with dark, medium-sized leaves that are slightly dissected. The Bianca grape matures well, with regular fruit buds. The bush has average growth strength, but the vines are strongly mature and develop.
The berries can hang on the bushes for a long time and without loss, which increases the sugar content. Therefore, Bianca is often used to make sweet, fortified and dessert wines.
It is popular and grown in Russia (including the Moscow region), Ukraine, Belarus and Germany.
Northern black grapes. PERSPECTIVE VARIETIES FOR WINEMAKING AND JUICING FROM THE NORTH
Sometimes and planting inexperienced colleagues choose something of the best grape varieties, but known, such as the neighbor’s. Or vice versa, depending on your character and your preferences, pay attention to inherited novelties. Sometimes you look for information on special blogs, websites, and forums that concentrate grape ratings from neighboring regions, and that’s the right way to go. The experience of enthusiasts who grow grapes in risky farming areas helps them in choosing wine varieties. We, too, would like to help you and share our experience in choosing “techies,” especially in our northern vineyard. Over the period of our viticulture (2002-2018), 187 varieties and hybrid forms (GF) have been tested on our property. These included Amur hybrids, European interspecific hybrids, classic varieties and French-American hybrids. In fall 2017, 110 varieties were retained. A number of fairly reliable grape varieties that grow for more than 5-10 years and bear fruit, by trial and error method, were selected gradually. We have grown fond of wine (technical) sorts of grapes and there are more of them in the collection, not only because they are interesting for the wine itself and the process of production, but primarily because they take root in our conditions better and therefore are more promising. They are unpretentious and, as a rule, resistant to diseases with minimal treatment in the north. The vast majority of technical grape varieties are undemanding, i.e. self-fruiting and due to good pollination bear fruit even in adverse weather. After ripening, grapes do not crack, can hang on the bush for a long time, sometimes even harmonize the taste and accumulate sugar. Therefore, there are fewer problems with them than with table grape varieties.
Close grape varieties for Siberia. Suitable varieties for Siberia
In Siberia, the climatic summer is short, so grapes of early and super ripe ripening are required. It must also be fairly frost-resistant.
Heat-resistant grapes, in turn, are divided into shelter grapes, which must be removed from the support and insulated, and stable shelter grapes, which are not afraid of frost as well. Below you will find a description of the varieties that can be grown in Siberia.
The following varieties of grapes are best suited for cold regions:
- Crystal. This technical variety is a hybrid of Hungarian universal and Amur grapes. It withstands frosts up to – 29 ° C, and ripens in mid or late August.
- Aleshenkin 328. Variety with early maturity – up to 120 days. The berries are light yellow, round in shape, weighing about 5 g. Sort tolerates frosts – 26 ° C, but requires protection for the winter. Breed it best in a greenhouse.
- Isabella pink or Lydia. With table technology with medium wear. The maturation of the shoots is good, the bush is slightly thickened. Flowers spiral, wispy, loose medium-sized, conical or cylindrical shape. The berries are small, round, dark pink or red, with a strawberry flavor. Sort transportable, resistant to mildew and oidium. Frost resistance from – 23 ° C to – 26 ° C.
- Muromtsy. Parents: North, Victory. Stolovaya early maturity date – 110 days. The bush is very tall and flowers are bisexual. Clusters large, conical, berries large, oval, weighing three to five grams, harmonious taste, dark purple color. Frost-resistant to – 26 ° C. It has a resistance to frost. In cool weather, it is possible to survive wet detachment of berries.
- Tukai. Super-early table variety with high productivity, berries ripen in 90-95 days. The bush is very tall, the bunches are large, up to 800 g, cylindrical, with one wing. The berries are round, about 3 g, white with nutmeg. Bear withstands frosts as low a s-25°C.
- Zarnitsa. The parent pair of this table, very early grape variety is Talisman and Paradise sultanas. Bushes are strong, survival rate of cuttings is high. The bunches are conical, large, weighing up to 1.5 kg, not susceptible to peeling. The berries are yellow, oval shape, weighing up to 10 g after 105-110 days. Sort tolerates frosts to – 23 ° C. It has a good transportability and foliage.
- Codrianka. This is an early table variety with high productivity. The bush is more powerful, the bunches can reach weight of 1.5 kg. The lilac berries weighing about 8 g mature within 110-118 days, with a simple, sour taste. Variety can withstand freezing temperatures down to – 23 °C. susceptible to spikes.
- Pearl Saba. A medium-early table variety bred in Hungary. The berries are of medium size conical or cylindrical-conical shape, weighing 100-117 g. Berries are yellow-green, round, medium-sized, with a musky flavor, containing 1-2 seeds. Maturation period 113-115 days, sugar content 14-18 g. Affects with mildew and oidium, sometimes peeling. Crosses frosts to – 22 ° C.
- Alpha. This late variety is used as a technical or for decorative landscaping. The bushes are more powerful, the rooting ability of cuttings is good. Berries weigh about 3 g, purple, sour-sour taste. Variety survives severe frosts down t o-35 °C.
- Thumbelina. Super-early winter-y-Tough, medium-growing variety of spherical breeding. Oval berries of medium size, weighing 2-3 g, dark blue, pleasant to taste, sugar content of 21% to 22%. Each berry has 2-3 medium-sized seeds. The yield is average. It withstands frosts down to – 32 ° C.
- Pleasure. Medium to high table variety, ripens on 110-120 days. Large conical or shapeless bunches with a weight of 0.5-2 kg. The berries are oval, large, weighing about 6 g. The color of the fruit is white with amber shading, brownish-brown in the sun. The flesh is firm, crisp, harmonious, sugar content of 19% to 26%. Recommended for cultivation in a high environment. Joy is resistant to scab, tolerates low temperatures down to – 25 ° C.
- Maiden. Decorative species used for landscape design, arches, fences, various buildings. Unpretentious and frost-resistant.
Frost-resistant grapes. Technical frost-resistant varieties of grapes – the list of the best and their description
The main difference between technical varieties is their use in winemaking and cooking. In fresh form, as a rule, the berries are not used, but there are exceptions. Such “universals” are the most popular in modern breeding, and if they are also frozen, then such varieties should be planted on your plot. It is from such species that the best wine is obtained, and it is also used in cooking. It is also worth paying attention to the variety Enthusiast Muscat.
Frost-resistant varieties of grapes.
Review of technical uncovered varieties of grapes:
- Isabel. Perhaps the most popular variety of blue grape. It is used for making wines on home and industrial scales. It is unpretentious in its care. The ripening period is 150-180 days, the yield is about 70 hundredweight per hectare. Resistant to the characteristic diseases, it is necessary to expose and thin the shoots. How to make homemade wine from Isabella yourself is described in detail in the article on the link. Suitable for growing in the suburbs.
- Platovsky. Distinguished by an enviable frost resistance – d o-UP to 30 degrees. Small pink berries have a pleasant taste. The ripening period is 110 – 115 days, the fruits do not tolerate transportation because of the thin skin. Learn more about the Platovsky variety and see what it looks like here.
- Alpha. Rather intended for landscaping than for harvesting. Medium maturity (135 – 140 days). Withstands a cold snap d o-38 degrees, is characterized by decorative leaves and good sheltering ability.
- Possibility Technical variety of black grapes with good gustatory qualities. berries with a dense peel-transportability is good. Early ripening and high yields. Due to the well-developed taste can be used fresh.
- Marketing. A new generation hybrid that combines excellent flavor characteristics and resistance to external threats. Keeps cold to o-38 degrees, high. Sugar content of berries up to 26%, acidity 2.9 g/l.
- Lydia. Variety of family Isabella. Characterized by frost-resistance to o o-25 degrees. A high-growing variety commonly used for landscaping and arbors. See more photos of the Lydia variety at this link.
- Saperavi Northern. A highly productive hardy variety. Small blue berries with dense skin and juicy flesh. The period of maturity is 140 days.
Large-fruited grape varieties. White
White varieties of grape actually have a light green color. In addition, the color of the color depends not only on the variety, but also on growing conditions. The intensity of fruit spotting is particularly affected by sunlight. To increase its effect, many grape varieties have some leaves removed during fruit ripening. In carrying out this procedure, be aware that too early thinning can lead to sunburn and complete or partial harvesting on the berries.
More than half of all grape varieties have white berries. These include:
- White Wonder;
- The long-awaited;
- Moscow White;
European grape varieties. Classic European grape varieties
All grape varieties are divided into table grapes and technical grapes. But there is another group of varieties – classics. This includes old, time-tested varieties. They are not as tall as the new varieties, less resistant to disease and frost-resistant, but they have a unique taste and beauty of berries.
Pearl Saba is the best known of the classic table varieties. It is sometimes called cup dende, permlin saba, perle de caba, porela chabanska, etc. Seeds of unknown origin, bred in Hungary.
The variety is full bred. Rabbits of medium size, medium density. The skin is thin, easily torn. The flesh is juicy with a very pleasant nutmeg. There are no more than 1-2 seeds in the berry.
It is considered a very early grape variety, because it ripens between 1 and 15 August, and sometimes ripens in late June. The growth of bushes is medium. The grape is affected by mildew and oidium, but does not suffer from grey rot, as the crop ripens earlier.
The berries are very tasty and loved by birds, bees and wasps. The stem length of the vine is medium. The variety is appreciated for its very early ripening and high taste of berries.
Queen of the Vineyard
Synonyms: Queen of Vinnitsa, Curnus early, Amber, Shelestkerhek, Rein de Vin.
The grape variety Betrak. The berry is large, rounded to oval. The color of berries amber-golden. The flesh is dense, with faint nutmeg. The berries have 1-2 seeds. Ripening of the queen is early to mid-August. The growth of shoots is strong, but they ripen well. Yield is very high, necessarily requires rationing of inflorescences. Usually allowed to shoot a bunch.
The variety must be protected from oidium and mildew. Berries can rot and crack, so during the ripening of the crop, stop watering. This variety must be protected.
Italian, Muscat Italiana, edible 65, Goldoni, also known as Muscat Italiana. Considered one of the best late grape varieties. The variety is complete. The bunches are branched, loose. Its berries are large, oval or egg-shaped and golden amber. The skin is tough, thick, so that the harvest is very transportable. The berries are fleshy, high flavor, with a unique nutmeg aroma.
Very rare variety. Late blooming. Ripens in late September. The yield is very high, and the shoots mature well.
Unfortunately, the variety is not resistant to diseases: Mildu, oidium, gray column – all of them give surprises for the harvest. The variety is appreciated for its high productivity, transportability and suitability for long-term storage, as well as for its large bunches and large berries with muscat citron flavor.
French table variety. Degree of blackness. The clusters are large, loose. The berries are very large, oval or flattened, juicy; the skin is thick, crisp; the taste is generally pleasant.
It is considered a late variety because it ripens in September. The variety must be covered for the winter, and requires protection from mildew and Oidium.
Appreciated for its beautiful large clusters and berries.
Muscat of Hamburg.
An English table variety. Known by synonyms: Muscat de Hamburg, Muscat black Alexandria, Tamayo Nyagra Hamburg, Hamburger Misham and other Unrestricted varieties; Clusters large, loose. The berries are medium to large in size, blue with a thick skin. The flesh is fleshy-gray.
Famous for its original nutmeg. Average growth rate of shrubs. Need protection against mildew and oidium, grey rot ….
The grapes are transportable and can be stored for up to three months. But initially the variety is prized for its high taste qualities. Its berries are used to make aromatic compotes, juices, jams and marinades, which have an original taste.
Recently, the opinion that viticulture is a privilege of the southern regions has lost its persuasiveness. Grapes are stretching their canes farther north every year, confirming their status as a frost-resistant berry. However, what attracts gardeners in grapes and makes them prescribe the berry to their plots in the Black Earth Region, Non-Black Earth Region, Moscow Region, the Baltics, the southern regions of Siberia and the Urals? Firstly, the previously mentioned frost-resistance, in the fight against which grapes win, but crops traditional for the northern regions are defeated. Secondly, fast fruiting. Thirdly, a rapid increase in the volume of the harvest. But the mere intention of getting a large crop of grapes will not be enough. For this, lovers of sunny berries need to know what kind of grapes can love the northern climate and what rules should be adhered to when planting a bush in the north.
What northern grape lovers rely on when choosing a crop.
There are several notes.
First, the previously mentioned frost resistance, in the fight against which grapes win, but lose traditional crops for the northern regions.
Second, fast fruiting.
The third is the rapid increase in the volume of the harvest. But the desire for a large crop of grapes alone will not be enough.
What you need to consider when buying grapes.
To do this, lovers of sunny berries need to know what varieties of grapes can love the northern climate and what rules should be followed when planting bushes in the north.
What grape varieties will please northern regions?
Despite the fact that grapes are the berry of the sun, some varieties can withstand severe frosts. Let’s pay attention to the standard varieties of grapes (most of them are very frost-resistant), which every self-respecting gardener should have on his plot.
The grape variety ‘Laura’.
Weight of one bunch reaches more than fifteen hundred grams, weight of one berry – from ten to twelve grams. The fruits are milky-white in color and have the shape of an oval. It withstands frosts up to minus twenty-three degrees. Less susceptible to disease, ripens early.
Codreanca’ grape variety
Weight of bunches – about ten hundred grams or more, the weight of a single berry – seven to nine grams. The fruits are oval, dark purple in color. This variety ripens after the grape ‘Laura’ and is also resistant to frost (up to minus 23 degrees) and disease. The flesh of the berry is crisp and dense. Characterized by high productivity.
Luchistyi’ grape variety
The bunches of ‘Radiant’ weigh fifteen hundred grams or more, the weight of the berry is three to four grams. The fruits are pink, oval, seedless. When it comes to choosing raisins, it comes first because of its taste and consumer qualities, despite its low frost resistance. It ripens in about one hundred and fifteen to one hundred and twenty-five days.
The grape variety ‘Talisman’ (formerly known as ‘Kesha-1’).
The bunches of this grape variety are very large, so their weight reaches twenty hundred grams or more, the weight of one berry is twelve-sixteen grams. With proper care, the weight of the berry can increase to twenty to twenty-five grams. The fruits are white, round. Withstands frosts up to minus twenty-five degrees. Resistant to rot and mildew. Has an early-medium ripening period of one hundred and twenty-seven to one hundred and thirty-five days.
What are the advantages of the above varieties.
Such a starter set will also give you an incomplete set of a decent annual harvest of juicy berries and the right to call yourself a winemaker.
How to properly plant a grape bush to put down roots in the north?
If we have chosen grape varieties for northern regions, then immediately after the purchase the question arises how to plant the vineyard. Do you want to copy the way of planting grapes, typical for the southern regions (it is most often described in the literature)? Then nothing good will grow from a freshly planted bush. In the way of planting a decisive role is played by sex and climatic conditions, which determine which of the two main ways you have to use to enjoy the harvested juicy berries every year.
First method of planting.
Is your plot located in southern regions or in a steppe climate zone where winters have little snow and groundwater flows far below the ground surface? Then the method of planting grapes in a hole or ditch is right for you.
The second method of planting.
The second option is planting a bush with grapes on ridges. It bears abundant fruit in deciduous and mixed forests. In winter in these regions there are heavy snowfalls, snow masses are abundant and stable, and in summer there is a shortage of heat, and groundwater is on the surface of the ground.
Planting a grape bush in a hole or ditch
It cannot be said that this method is used only in the southern regions. Planting in a ditch or pit has its own, albeit not popular, distribution in the north of Russia. But the grape bush is more likely to bear fruit when planted on ridges. The main advantage is that a bush planted in bunches warms up faster at the roots than a bush planted in a ditch or pit. This directly affects the rate at which the crop ripens. In the north, where every ray of sunshine is priceless, this factor will be crucial when planting grapes.
Grape bush plants on the ridge.
Another enemy of planting in a ditch or pit is the proximity of groundwater to the surface of the ground, which leads to excess water. Here, too, is saved by planting on ridges, in which drainage pipes are stretched between the bushes. During installation, the pipe is placed on stone or rubble. A part of the pipe is covered with a roofing felt and the ground is poured on it.
What should be the floor near the bed?
The composition of the soil should allow water and heat to easily and quickly penetrate to the roots of the bush, which gives them the necessary nutrients and promotes early fruit formation. Therefore, the best soil composition for a ridge is a complex that is combined in a one-to-one ratio. You will need: 1) a mixture of fine gravel and coarse sand; 2) clay and organic humus; 3) the content of five hundred grams of potassium sulfate per square meter of mixture; 4) you should also not forget about three hundred grams of superphosphate. Remember that this composition of soil is not an absolute truth.
Under what conditions it is possible to make a bed.
It is also possible to make a dam from the available soil on the plot, provided that the grapes will be planted on the dam. Don’t forget the drainage pipes! Use them for watering and feeding the bush, which will save you from unnecessary costs, since the necessary solution with liquid fertilizer is sent directly to the roots of the bush.
Where to plant a grape bush?
The location of the bush on your plot also affects productivity. Keep in mind that grapes are a berry of historically southern regions, and every bit of sunlight affects the quality and quantity of fruit you can find. Plant the bush, if possible, on a southern slope. If this is not possible, choose a location that receives sunlight all day. The direction of the rows should be from south to north. The necessary distance between the rows is two and a half to three hundred centimeters. The distance between bushes in the row also affects the fruit system. The bushes should be planted about two hundred and fifty centimeters apart.
If you now know all the subtleties of implementing viticulture in the north, you will easily be able to plant a grape garden and win the title of Winemaker of the North. With the right selection of grape varieties and adherence to planting rules, success in your viticulture endeavor is assured!