Grape varieties from America
Grapes from America appeared in the XVIII century. It has hybrids of different selection that are suitable for growth under different climatic conditions. Culture is resistant to frost and illness. America is used to eat fresh food and cook drinks.
Grape cultivation in America
Grapes in America are grown for cooking:
- dried fruits (kishmish and raisins);
- Wine products;
Culture is grown in:
- North Carolina;
Breeders remove different hybrids annually. More than 50 varieties are grown in California.
Description of the culture
Varieties that were imported in America did not take a root. They died of infections and mushrooms. To bring a stable and healthy vineyard with combined views from Europe and America.
America in Russia is grown without difficulty: it has resistance to diseases and low temperatures. This culture can withstan d-34 ° C
The most convenient conditions in the Russian Federation for the following American grape varieties:
A mediu m-sized culture, their leaves are large, pointed. The rabbit is mediu m-sized, the fruits are black, the flower is screwed.
Riparia takes root either in taps or in sandy. Culture needs a large number of fertilizers. The presence of lime in the country will lead to the extinction of the entire bush. The hybrid is resistant to different types of diseases. Riparia is early – ripening occurs in favor of up to 180 days under favorable climatic conditions.
Characteristics of the rutris variety:
- It is grown in the south and in the center of America;
- The growth area should be well lit;
- Information spreads out in a creeping way;
- Vines darken after a year of growth;
- The leaves are small.
The berries tasted grassy. The floor is suitable for sound and rocks.
The variety is good with hot, dry climate roots. This result of the selection is stable up to the cold: up t o-28 ° C.
Hybrids of the species are grown in the south, north and in the center of America. Vines are curly. The height of the shrub is average. The color of the one year old Vine is brown. The leaves are small. Hases can have different sizes, the berries are large, blue.
In contrast to other American varieties, Berladuri strikes roots in the ground with a high percentage of lime. It is resistant to phill loxes. New seedlings are difficult.
Varieties of Labruisk and Monticol
These varieties resemble Rupetris. The difference is a fleeing type Lianate. The survival of planting material is bad. In Russia, both types are used for vaccination.
The size of the vine is up to 27 cm. The color of the shoot is brown. The clusters are small, the fruits are black and round. The taste resembles strawberries.
These varieties are resistant to climatic conditions.
Plants and care
The harvest of planting material is carried out in spring. Drives are used for plants on which there are up to 7 eyes. The diameter of the vine is up to 1.1 cm. The length is up to 40 cm. The healthier of the seedling, the better the harvest.
Up to 8 kidneys remain in spring during the first cut. They are systematically loosened and watered within 2 months of plants. For the American selection, the most dangerous disease is the Oidium – you have to prevent the prevention.
When the climate is dry, mulch. During the flower, a small number of flowers are cut off: this increases the size of the clusters by 80%. The bushes are constantly examined in order to be able to recognize lesions with diseases or pests in good time.
Col d-resistant varieties
This group of American selection is the resistant to minus temperatures.
There are more than 25 types of grapes from America, including fast hybrids. All of them differ in cold resistance and inappropriate care conditions. The technical features of the landing are the same as in domestic varieties.
New Beseman grapes of the US selection
Krasokhina S.I., vniiviv her. ME AND. Potapenko, cand. S.-KH. n. Ganich v.a., vniiviv you. ME AND. Potapenko, Doctorand 346421, Baklanovsky Ave., 166, Vniwiv you. ME AND. Potapenko, Novocherkassk Rostov region, Russia
Bloodless varieties make up a special group under several thousand types of grape that are currently known worldwide. It is small, it has about 70 varieties, of which brown (white and black) and Sultanin are of the greatest importance. About 80 % of the world vineyards are occupied by a countless variety – a white oval network (synonyms: Sultanina, Thompson Sidlis, AK Kishmish, Bedon, Kishmish Safet, Indian Chis, Kishmish etc.).
The majority of the wel l-known Freezeman varieties are part of the type of vinifera L., which is characterized by low resistance to frost and instability compared to fungal diseases, the requirements for the sum of the active temperatures, a lower fruit coefficient at lower tribute.
In the past few decades in the world, interest in the freezer grapes has increased, and it is precisely the demand from consumers for consuming grapes for consumption in fresh products, in addition to dried products. This fact increases the relevance of the grape selection. In the intr a-specific (Vitis vinifera L.) World selection of bloodless varieties, a fairly large number of varieties were created, including large heads. However, these varieties are practically not suitable for cultivation in the northern regions of Russia, since they have severe climatic conditions, a lack of heat, low productivity and are badly damaged by fungal diseases.
The reliable and less dangerous (from the environment’s perspective) is the way to maintain high yields under disadvantageous growth conditions, the introduction of new grape varieties into the species productivity and plant quality.
Economic and economic calculations show that the rationally developed and district grapes for a certain economic zone should consist of a small number of diseases with the highest softization, valuable products of different purposes and various maturation periods. Every district grape variety of any direction of use should be economically profitable on the farm. It is known that there are no universal grape varieties in nature. According to IV. Michurin, even the best variety that was cultivated under certain conditions, has certain disadvantages, so that the district toilet should be continuously improved and updated.
One of the fastest and most effective ways to improve the toilet is introduction. In order to ensure the full realization of the genotypic potential of productivity of new varieties, it is necessary to study their behavior in specific cultivation zones.
We believe that the greatest interest in solving the problem of improving the type of grape plantations for the northern zone of industrial grapes of the Russian Federation is represented by varieties unstable unseeded varieties of the Vitis vinifera l species. Intermeditudinal Hessian hybrids can be well-established hybrids produced in the USA on the basis of the species Vitis Labrusca L. and made in the Russian Federation, with an early time ripening period, high resistance to frost, oidium and powdery mildew, good quality of Harvest and suitable for fresh consumption.
In the continuation of the prospect of growing varieties obtained with the species Vitis Labrusca L. Improvement of clothing of grape plantations on Don “On September 15, 2005, we conducted another survey of consumer taste preferences for unseeded grape varieties (closed tasting) Because children like very possible child varieties, two groups of people were very involved in the survey: Two groups of people were involved in the survey
The first group is the students of Don State Agrarian University, the specialty “Agronomy” and “Fruits and Vegetables and Viticulture”, the average age of 20 years, the number of respondents – 77 people.
The second group is children of primary school age, the average age is 11 years old, the number of respondents – 24 people.
Berries from six grape samples were presented for tasting: the district carriage of Russian (North X Kishmish Black Dawn) selection Vniiigispr named after I.v. michurin; Variety Pink Pearls (obtained from free pollination of the Madeleine Angevin variety) Selection of Kazakh Nipiv; Variety Dream (Chaush Pink Kishmish Black) selection from Odessa Shi, Ukraine; and the studied varieties with a Labruel aroma of Venus (Alden X NY 46000), Rilines Pink Sidlis (Ontario X Suffolk Pink) and Einset Sidlis (Fredonia X Canner) US selection. All presented varieties of the berries were about the same size and weight, except for the Russian brown. The table presents economic value, as well as some chemical and technological indicators, as well as the varieties studied.