Grape treatment against pests and diseases in spring
Grapes are a prolific tree grown in many countries. All over the world, work is carried out to improve the taste qualities of its berries and increase yields. However, this is pointless if the plant is unhealthy. The treatment of grapes in the spring from pests and diseases will help to avoid pathological conditions of the culture.
The need for vine treatments in the spring
Treatment of feathers is necessary to prevent diseases, pests are not insignificant activity.
It is easier to prevent a problem than then to spend a lot of effort and time on its elimination.
If the culture was treated in the spring, it does not mean that summer manipulations are not needed. However, preventive measures reduce the risk of diseases, pests and increase the amount of harvest.
Treatments can be carried out with:
- Watering the soil around the bush with subsequent loosening (13-15 cm), mulching with peat or compost.
You can use folk recipes, biological preparations and chemical means.
The use of the first two options is appropriate only for preventive purposes or when the grapes are slightly affected by diseases and pests.
In the neglected state, chemical preparations can not do without.
Most often grapes are affected by fungal diseases that affect the berry vine. Spores survive the winter on plant debris.
Taking care of grapes
In addition, they do not die at low or high temperatures. As soon as optimal conditions are created, the fungus begins its life. Some of the common and most dangerous include:
- Downy Mildew (powdery mildew) – Oil spots appear on the greens on Lesiste. They soon spread. It occurs because of high humidity. When the disease begins, the grapes die.
- Muddy mildew (oidium) – the main symptom: a gray scum on the aerial part of the tree. The lesion causes the berries to crack, exposing the knuckles.
- Anthracnose – brown spots appear. As a result, the greens die off and fall off.
- Black rot – the cause of the disease penetrates during flowering in the form of necrosis, destroying the fruit. This is very dangerous for grapes, without taking any measures it will die in 2-3 days.
- Gray rot – most often affects young shoots and vines. It occurs due to the density of planting.
- Bitter rot – in the cracks of berries in contact with the ground, appears black and ash fungus. Wine from such berries acquires a bitter taste.
- Black spot disease (Marsonina) – appears in early summer with dark spots on the foliage, darkening of berries, rotting of the wood.
A predisposing factor to the disease is care. If the disease can be cured, it is necessary to reconsider the conditions of cultivation in the future.
However, varieties resistant to the listed lesions have been bred.
Insects wait out the cold in fallen leaves and thickened plantings. Pests in sporadic numbers will not harm grapes. However, they multiply quickly without destroying the bush. Affected trees will be weakened, leading to disease.
The most dangerous pests are:
- The phylloxera is a microscopic insect that resembles a dark aphid. It lives on the surface of the ground and sucks the sap from the rhizome, which provokes the development of bacteriosis and fungi. The pest is difficult to eradicate, so protection is essential.
- The marble beetle is a large beetle (up to 3 cm) with a dark brown color. The larvae are especially dangerous, infecting roots up to 300 cm.
- The leafminer is a caterpillar that feeds on buds and berries. Insect infestation can be noticed by cobwebs on young shoots of a tree.
- Vine moth is a greenish-blue flying insect that breeds in conditions of high humidity. The larvae of the pest feed on buds and leaves.
- Cicadas are jumping butterflies that feed on plant juices. This provokes weakening and the spread of viral and fungal infections. In just one season, one pest can destroy all the plants in a garden. Settles in plant debris, thickened plantings.
- Spider mite is a microscopic insect. Barely visible to the naked eye. The pest sucks the sap from young twigs, leaves. Active life begins in dry weather with a lack of moisture. Affected trees shed their leaves and wither away. Spider mite can be recognized by thin webs between leaves, tufts and flat plaques on the underside of leaf plates.
- Wasps – they pollinate during flowering but eventually become pests. They feed on berries, which interferes with picking and spoils the fruit.
- Snails and snails – eat vegetables, negatively affect photosynthesis. Appear when there is an excess of moisture.
To get rid of these pests can be quite difficult. In most cases, it is necessary to use poisonous preparations, which is not very good for the fruit tree.
The order of spring treatment of grapes, the rules of application of medicines
Usually grapes are covered for the winter. In the spring, when the temperature stabilizes, the tree is gradually opened, the branches are tied up. After the cover is completely dismantled, preparations for the coming season begin:
- Treat with fungicides after wintering (in central Russia – 1-15 April, in the south – in March). After a couple of weeks, the manipulation is repeated.
- The second spraying is carried out in the second half of May before flowering. Insecticides are used against insects, and fungicides against diseases. If the tree has been infested with parasites, the treatment should be repeated after 10-12 days.
- The last spraying is done after flowering with contact insecticides and fungicides.
Treatment is prohibited during the formation of buds. During the summer, if lesions are detected, treatment measures are carried out. In the fall, finishing is carried out after the fall of leaves.
How to treat grapes in the spring from diseases and pests: 32 best preparations
|Medicine, folk recipe||culinary recipes||diseases, insects||treatment|
|Abiga Summit||40g/10L.||Downy mildew, powdery mildew, bitter rot, Marsonine.||In all phases.|
|Albit||3ml/10L.||powdery mildew.||– Before flowering. – During fruit formation.|
|Bactophyte||10ml/10l.||At all stages with the intervals of 1.5-2 weeks.|
|Bordeaux liquid||3-4%.||Irregular mildew.||Watering before and during bud formation.|
|но||0.15.||Oidium.||Triple spraying during the growing season at 10-12 day intervals.|
|sumpf||0.5-0.75.||Mildew, Marson.||Spraying in all phases.|
|cumulus .||6-8||powdery mildew.||Treatment when symptoms of the disease appear. Minimum interval between sprays is 10-12 days.|
|Kuprokat .||5-6||Mildew.||Irrigation during the growing season.|
|Kuprolux .||25-30 ml per 10 L.||Spraying in all phases.|
|Medea .||0.8-1.2.||True mold, rot, and marsonae.||At least 1-1.5 weeks when symptoms of the disease appear.|
|Homage .||15-20g/10l.||Mildew.||– When symptoms are determined at least 10 days before flowering.|
– At bud stage.
– Before the bouquet fruit closes.
– Continue at intervals of 10-14 days.
– In case of spot formation during emergence or for prevention 1.5 weeks before flowering.
– After the petals have fallen off.
– Upon appearance of berries.
– Before berry picking on grapes.
– The beginning of fruit staining.
– 3 weeks after the first treatment.
Recommended for use after the rains.
– During leaf blossoming.
– After bud wilting.
5 Folk remedies for vine treatment before diseases and pests in spring
50 g of crushed heads pour 0.5 liters of water.
Allow to infuse for several hours.
Bring the volume to 1 liter.
– A few days before flowering.
Newcomers do not pay attention to spring protection. This is a big mistake. Preventive measures not only reduce the likelihood of pests and various diseases, but also make plants more resistant to adverse environmental conditions.
When using all means, it is necessary to strictly observe the dosage. Otherwise, not only will they not help, but they can cause harm, especially chemical preparations.
How, when and what to treat grapes from diseases and pests
Grapes are more common around the world than any other crop. There are more than 10,000 varieties of this wonderful plant with fragrant, delicious berries, most of which are used to make wines and cognacs. In addition, grapes are used in the kitchen, medicine and cosmetics. Man has often been the cause of vineyard death, but the crop has always had other enemies – diseases and pests.
Why grapes need to be treated
Bacteria, fungi and pests can worsen the taste of berries, reduce the entire long-awaited harvest and even the entire plant, and sometimes even destroy it. It’s always easier to prevent a disease than to fight it later. To combat grape diseases and pests, preventive vine treatments are necessary. And if a specific problem is detected, then, of course, urgent measures are taken to eliminate it.
The most harmful diseases of grapes are mildew or false mold and oidium or true mold. This “dusty pair” of fungal diseases affects leaves, shoots, inflorescences and berries, and they are especially dangerous for the sweetest European grape varieties.
Photo Gallery: What plants are affected by mildew and oidium
Grapes affected by mildew have light yellow spots on the top of the leaves. Berries affected by mildew are covered with a white powdery coating
Fungal diseases such as anthracnose, various types of rotting, spotting, fusariosis and others are also fungal diseases. With the help of wind, the spores are carried long distances, fall to the surface of the plants, germinate and produce new spores. It is quite difficult to stop an outbreak of infection.
Many bacterial diseases are difficult to treat and can lead to the death of the bush. The most common are bacterial spot formation, necrosis, and cancer.
Some diseases are caused by insects that live on the leaves and trunks of trees. The most dangerous of these are aphids, grapevine, creeper worms and spider mites. The spider mite is visible as red-red balls on the veins on the underside of the leaf and very obviously suppresses the growth of young shoots.
Therefore, preventive treatment of plants is in the first place.
In the middle of the 19th century, many grape varieties died completely from Reblaus (a pest introduced from North America). For example, the varieties used to make the famous madera disappeared. Now the wine is made from other varieties.Newpix.ru – a positive online magazine
When and how to spray grapes
Prophylactic grapes are sprayed regularly, beginning when grapes open in the spring and ending when they are prepared to be protected for the winter. Spraying is not carried out in rainy weather, as well as on a bright sunny day, it is necessary to observe the recommended concentrations of solutions and timely treatment. When using chemicals, precautions and packaging of the drug should be observed according to the instructions.
Spring treatment of grapes
Primary treatment of grapes is carried out in spring, when temperature rises above 4-6 O C, just after opening of the vine, just before bud blossoming. Previously dry and diseased branches, as well as remnants of last year’s leaves, are removed from the plants. Simultaneously with the vine, the soil around the rhizome is treated, and a weak one percent solution of iron sulfate is used (a three percent solution is allowed if possible more often). In addition to protection against diseases and pests, iron sulfate delays the opening of buds, which helps to protect plants from spring frosts, their folding and moss control, as well as being a good leaf fertilizer.
Video: First treatment of grapes in spring after opening
Many people treat grapes with iron sulfate only in the fall, and in the spring treat the plants with a three percent solution of copper sulfate. The first thing to do is to spray the bushes that suffered last year. The next treatment with fungicides (from Latin Funus “pils” + Latin Caedo “kill” – chemical or biological substances to combat fungal diseases) is carried out immediately after the opening of eyes, when the offspring still have 3-4 leaves. You can add treatment with carbophos to awakened insects ().
French scientist Pierre-Marie Alexis Migliarde invented Bordeaux liquid, specifically to combat fungal diseases of grapes. It is now used as a universal fungicide for other crops.agronomu.com
If necessary, the treatment is repeated after 10 days.
The last spring treatment is carried out 1-2 weeks before flowering. Under no circumstances should be injected during flowering, extraneous odors drive away insects, and the vine is left without pollinators.
Treating grapes in summer
Since grapes can be affected by diseases throughout the season, it is recommended to treat against fungal diseases in the summer during the ripening period of the harvest. At this time, the vine can be treated with sulfur-containing products. Sulfur is only effective at temperatures above 18 degrees Celsius, and it is the sulfur preparations that help against the more persistent true mold.
The closer the time of berry picking, the less one wants to use poisons in the struggle for the harvest. At this time, I constantly spray plantations with potassium protector (5 g per 10 liters of water) at intervals of 1 – 2 weeks. I also use a solution of soda (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) with 50 g of liquid soap and 5-10 drops of iodine. This composition noticeably improves the taste of berries and helps to fight weeds.
Reliably included in my list of environmentally friendly means to combat diseases of various plants Fitosporin-M Universal. I use it three times a season to spray grapes against diseases and increase the yield. It is very convenient to use, I use a paste. By making a concentrate, I use it all season without wasting extra time.”
It has also been noticed that mildew develops faster if grapes are not watered on hot sunny days, although moisture is one of the conditions for the development of fungal diseases. Apparently, the weakening of plants from moisture in the soil contributed to the development of the disease.
Video: Treatment of grapes against diseases during fruiting oidium, mildea, anthracnose
Grape treatment in autumn
In the fall, after the fall of leaves and pruning of the vine, after collecting the juicy fruits of the sunny berry, you should proceed to the last treatment of plants against diseases and pests. This treatment prepares the plants for winter and allows your grapes to be strong and healthy next year. This treatment is done with iron and copper sulfate (3-5%).
Video: Final winter protection treatment
To get rid of fungi and mold in the fall, I hit the trunks and branches of the vine with lime. I dilute 1 kg of quicklime in a small amount of water and bring the volume of the solution to 10 liters.
How to treat vines against diseases
In the fight against diseases and pests of grapes, there are many new fungicides, as well as with the long used iron and copper vitriol and bordeaux liquid. For proper application, you need to know what fungicides are:
- systemic action;
- Combined .
Contact fungisides are not addictive, but their effectiveness depends very much on careful application, they act on the surface of the system and depend on weather conditions and time of application, the first rain washes them away, and yew reduces to reduce the effect. They can be compared to medicines for outdoor use. With these fungicides, treatments can be repeated regularly. They should be used for prevention or at the beginning of the disease. Contact fungicides include omal, rover, and burgundy. Systemic fungicides act on the whole plant, so to speak, the result of their application is immediately noticeable and is not washed away by rain. Their disadvantage is that they are addictive, they need to be changed regularly, they are usually used after flowering. Combination chemicals combine the properties of systemic and contact preparations. These include Shavit, Ridomil Gold, and Cabrio Top. They are effective in fighting mildew, oidium, all kinds of rots, black spot.
Table: systemic fungicides
|Captan||White rot, black rot|
|Cineb||White rot, black rot|
|Flot||White rot, black rot|
|Topaz||White rot, black rot|
|Baitan||White rot, black rot|
Grape pest control
The main pests that appear on grapes are aphids (phylloxera) and spider mite. Chemicals have been developed to combat the rot:
- Fastac, a contact effect on the parasites;
- Fozalon, characterized by long-term action;
- Actellic, acts for up to 2 hours, prevents the reappearance of aphids;
- Kinmix, which destroys both adults and larvae.
Fozalon, benzophosphate, and permethrin are used to control spider mites. All pests, including spider mites, are killed after spraying with colloidal sulfur (75%).
I try not to use chemicals and use folk methods. Against aphids I use an infusion of potato or tomato tops. Take 1.5 kg of crushed tops for 10 liters of water and infused for 3-4 hours. Spraying with wood ash (1 cup of ash per 5 liters of water, also infused for 12 hours) also helps. There is an effect from the soap solution (100 g of tea soap per bucket of water). And from the mite, I prepare an infusion of onion husks as follows: a jar (opal depends on the required amount of infusion) in half filled with onion husks, pour hot (60-70 ° C) water, insist 1-2 days. After straining, I dilute with water two times and use immediately.
Reviews on grapes
I do not work with Fundazole at all, and as a preventive measure, I treat Ridomil Gold for a year. I prefer to treat well in advance of harvest than to put out a “fire” of Milkio on display. And I don’t use nitrates either. And after flowering, I prefer something more serious than some Abiga pick. For example, a participating contactor from Kurzat. And I don’t use insecticides at all, because I have no mite or leafminer. The second half of the growing season also freely goes to the vineyard without fear and tastes berries from the bush. And from the end of flowering until the end of August I do not treat with chemicals.Vladimir Grigorovich Stary Oskol Belgorod region
I use chorea and hoodie to control bushwort.Vasily Kulakov Stary Oskol Belgorod region.
I have been working with Top VDG for several years now. I am very satisfied with the results: it works great against mildew, anthracnose, oidium and black rot. During the season, some treatments are mandatory, but I only use seedlings in school, mostly because the waiting time is 60 days. I try not to use fruit vines at all. Although in extreme situations and before flowering, sometimes I also have to treat …Fursa Irina Ivanovna Krasnodar region
The first treatment, immediately after removal of protection 500g, ZhKU, 10L, water. This is how the soil around the bushes is treated. After tying up the vines, 250 g, ammonium nitrate, 1 sq. m, water the grapes abundantly, regardless of whether the grapes are wet or dry. The first treatment of bushes, leaf size, coin five cents. Ridomil Gold-50 gr, Topsin M-25 gr, Horus-6 gr, B8 New, according to the instructions. The next treatment in two weeks after flowering. The same preparations + Coloid – sulfur, 60-80 g, 10 liters, water. This scheme can be used by all, especially deadheads, and so that there are no duds. On late varieties, I use the third treatment, Teldor, according to the instructions + potassium permanganate + soda ash. I do not use other drugs. Once every three years, in the fall, I treat the vineyard soil.Alexei Kosenko Kherson region Golopostan district.
Vineyard planting perennial (up to 100 years): the older the bush, the larger and sweeter the berries. So do not be lazy, do everything as it should be done, protect the vine from diseases and pests, and the result of your labors will be sweet juicy bunches of grapes.