Everything about spraying grapes in spring
The first grape processing after opening in early spring is carried out before the kidneys are opened by spraying the vine. In addition to this necessary protective measure, there are other procedures with which you can protect plants from diseases and pests, which stimulates the growth and development of recordings. A detailed review with ste p-b y-step action plans helps to understand how and when grapes should be treated with iron sulfate or other chemicals.
The need for the procedure
Spraying grapes in spring is a necessary level with which you can take care of plants and prepare you for the new fruit season. Many garden pests and pathogens in winter in the ground or kidneys arouse the start of the warm days. The timely preventive processing helps to reduce the risks of infection and give the plants an immunological load. Neglect of the spring protection measures leaves the wine vines to defeat grapes:
- Powdery dew, which covers the leaves with a characteristic white coating;
- Mildu yellow spots;
- White, gray or black rot;
And aphids, a spider mite, phylloxer, can also be convinced on the bushes. In spring, when awakening, the vines are actively on young shoots, leaflets, tripas and snails. Signs of infection of the bushes look quite obviously. Leaves and cuttings have damage or stained color changes. There is a deformation that dries out of shoots.
All of these symptoms require an immediate reaction before plants enter the flower level. Otherwise it is difficult to wait for the harvest.
What are used?
In spring, the vineyard must be treated out of diseases – Mildu, Oidium and pests. Complex medicines and individual biological or chemical products are used for these purposes.
Some modern manufacturers produce combined insectoaricides and fungicide connections to spray. However, grapes must also need local processing to combat certain sources of problems.
Among the medication used in the processing of the vineyard in spring, the means of this group are better than others. Spray plants that occur during the vegetation period can vary.
- Ink. Usually it is used in autumn, but in spring it also brings such sprays results. Spray the solution to a naked vine.
- Copper sulfate. In viticulture, it is used in the form of a 3% solution. Sulfur copper has a comprehensive effect and kills the disputes of mushrooms that frighten insects, additional top dressing. The product is presented in the form of a crystalline blue powder, has a contact with superficial effect. It is used in the fight against false mildew, gray, white and black rot, anthracnosis.
- Usarian (urea). A means of nitrogen. In the additional introduction, the properties of the fungicide also have.
- Bordeaux liquid. It contains copper sulfate and bleaching agent, which reduces the acid. The composition has been used as fungicides in vineyards in Bordeaux for many years.
- “Horus”. This fungicide medicine belongs to the category of systemic, which are presented in the form of water dispersers granulate with a content of 75% cyprodinil. The tool is effective against the most common fungal diseases – mildew, stains, putrefaction, mildu and oidium. The use of chemical pesticide is recommended on a mere vine in front of the buds of the kidneys.
- Colloid sulfur. This chemical medicine is highly effective against both mushrooms and insect pests. The sulfur is destructive for the causal means of the oidium and mildu.
- “Quadris.” The drug based on Azoxistobin is well combined with other types of fungicides. It is suitable for processing before and after flowering. Fight successfully with false and real powdery rope.
- “Bi-58”. Accessible contact. Effective with an increase in atmospheric temperature to +10 degrees or more. The ampoule is loosened in a bucket of water. The tool destroys a spider mite, aphids and other types of insects.
- “Ridomil Gold.” A combined drug system that can penetrate into plant tissue. It has a preventive effect against most mushroom diseases. The spray is repeatedly carried out from the time of opening the kidneys with an interval of 14 days.
The main features of chemicals are their limited effects. Some are only effective with contact use. As soon as the leaves form actively in the plant, it is worth continuing to accumulative means and systemic fungicides.
This group of medicines contains substances that are natural enemies of pathogenic microflora. Here are the most famous of them.
- “Mikosan.” The active substance in this tool is called like the medication itself. The spraying takes place in a part of 250 ml per 10 liters of water according to the first leaves. A characteristic of the biological product is the ban on shared use with other compositions. Mikosan effectively suppresses the mushroom and bacterial microflora, destroys viruses.
- “Fitosporin-M”. Another medication with a biological basis from a mixture of gumin and hay skirts. Spring processing is carried out during the flowering of the kidneys and then repeated at the end of the flower. The solution is produced in 2 levels with a change in concentration.
- “Aktophite.” A biological product for spraying based on Agravertin – a product of the lifespan of the floor fungus. The tool helps to fight against a spider mite and a cluster leaf on grapes.
- “TRIKHODERMAT.” It is based on a saprophyte that can destroy organic substance. The drug is effective against more than 50 types of infectious diseases. The form of release is granulate or liquid. The lo w-toxic agent is well suited for combination with other medication. The treatment is carried out twice, on the first leaves and then 3 weeks after its appearance.
People’s funds can be used for the spring processing of vineyards. Most of the time they are prepared on the basis of available ingredients.
- Garlic . A decoction is made from the heads of last year’s harvest of 100 g per 1 liter of water. The resulting funds exists for 2-3 hours, filtered and diluted to 1.6 liters. Mildu is processed 2-3 times with an interval of 5 days.
- Milk . A liter of serum or a slightly acidic product is mixed from 10 liters of water. Such spray prevents the spread of mildew.
- potassium permanganate. A mixture of 10 liters of water and 3 g of powder is sufficient. A weak solution disinfects the soil and eliminates spores of fungal diseases. Such a tool can also be safely used during flowering and fruiting.
The standard scheme for spring processing of grapes includes at least 3 procedures. The first – iron vitriol – is considered optional, but is used by most experienced winemakers. It is necessary to spray the bushes in early spring, immediately after opening in March, before the buds open, when young shoots appear. Treatments for preventive purposes, but with other dosages of funds, are stored until the fall. It is worth studying the spraying schedule in more detail.
The main steps are as follows.
- After I take cover. Plants are tied and sprayed with compounds of complex action. Spraying can be repeated after 10-14 days.
- By opening the buds, with the appearance of the first leaves.
- At the bud stage. During this period, professional treatments without pesticides are carried out with a minimum concentration of active ingredients.
The characteristics of each spray also play a role. It is worth considering them in more detail.
In early spring
With a bare vine, processing begins when the air in the vineyard warms up to +4 degrees Celsius and more. During this period, contact agents that form a protective film on the surface of the vines are considered to be most effective. They work best with preventive spraying against the fungus. It is important to spray funds not only on the shoots, but also on the surface of the earth, where pests can hide.
If copper sulfate is used for feather processing, then the solution is made exclusively in non-metallic containers. For young bushes, a mixture of 50 g of powder and 10 liters of water is sufficient. For a mature vine, the amount of copper sulfate is doubled.
Bordeaux vineyard liquid is used on both bare branches and leaves. You can make your own blend by combining the following ingredients:
- 300 grams of quicklime;
- 300 grams of copper sulfate;
- 10 liters of water.
All components are connected in a specific order. First, the water is heated to +60 degrees, otherwise the ingredients will not dissolve. Then the lime is poured at the bottom of an empty bucket filled with 1/5 of the total volume of liquid. This will activate the process of its deletion. Separately, in another container, combine the remaining water with copper sulfate. The resulting base is poured into a lime bucket. All ingredients are mixed with a wooden stick. Then the composition is cooled and filtered. After that, you can immediately proceed to spraying, since the solution is not stored for a long time. After 5 hours the consistency changes.
Colloidal sulfur is not only effective when processing bare vines. But in early spring, a solution of 40 g of powder in 10 liters of water will help increase the protection of young plants. Spraying is usually combined with treatment with preparations containing copper. It is important to consider that the insecticidal properties of colloidal sulfur are better expressed at an ambient temperature of at least +18 degrees, and spraying can be repeated during the flowering period.
Insecticidal treatments on bare branches, swelling buds are carried out with Vermitek or 30B preparations. The products are not suitable for use in other periods of the growing season.
By emerging leaves
During this time, the spraying of systemic fungicides or biological products is carried out 2-4 times with a repetition of the procedure. The main problem is fungal diseases, the pathogens of which are actively spreading with increasing atmospheric temperatures. You have to protect plants from Mildu, Oidium, anthracnosis and black spots. The compatible chemicals “Quadris” “Ridomil Gold” are used for processing in this phase before flowering.
It is important to change them regularly in order to avoid the production of tolerance towards fungicides in pathogenic mushrooms.
In the stadium of the bud
During this time, mainly systemic drugs are used. The processing is carried out twice when signs of the disease are increased to 4 times. At this stage, it is better to give up the pesticides in favor of “trowel dates”, “Mikosan” and other biological products.
Grape processing in spring of pests and diseases
The processing of spring speeches is very important. At this point, not only plants themselves, but also various fungal diseases as well as pests that can cause serious damage to the vine and future harvest. Careful preventive treatment in early spring is the basis of strong plants and a rich harvest at the end of the season.
Important! Knowing the processing of the bush in spring and when it can spray correctly helps to maintain the vine and protect against pests and diseases.
The task of preventive processing in spring is plant protection and the guarantee of optimal growth conditions. In order to increase the grape yield in spring, it is also necessary to get rid of all weeds, to offer good moisture of the floor and to solve the soil for the best air exchange.
The spring work also includes pruning the vine, in which old and damaged shoots are removed, in which harmful microorganisms can hide.
To choose the right drug for spraying, you need to know which diseases and pests often attack vineyards.
The main complaints of the plant
The most dangerous for grape landings and the most common:
- Mildeu or false mildew (yellow spots).
- Oidium or real powdery rope (dirty white spots).
Less often, but also found:
- Anthracnosis (brown spots).
- Fomopsis (black spots).
- Gray rot (gray spots, then covered with a gray fluff).
- Black rot (pressed black and blue elongated spots).
- White rot (spots on the fruits have dirty white color).
- Rids (leaves acquire an unnatural color of the autumn colors).
Important! All fungal diseases are characterized by an unusual change in parts of the grape bush, the appearance of stains and growth.
The main damage to vineyards, which are often faced with grapes:
- Filloxer (grape blade lice). (Web, red fruits, etc.).
- Listeners (grape, grozdev etc.).
- Excursions (small knotted growth on the leaves).
- Cikades (mostly grapes affect the white zikade).
- Wasp (damage to a large number of berries).
- Snails and snails (rush leaves and berries with large quantities can cause considerable damage).
Multiply insect religions very quickly, so it is better to find them as early as possible. With a slight distribution, it is easier to destroy it.
Prevention helps to prevent infections and serious damage to plants.
The choice of a method
Before you carry out the preventive spring processing of the vineyard, you need to select the most suitable method that you can organize and select than spray in the pen.
Important! Learn carefully and follow the instructions for the medication. And do not protect the airway, skin and clothing, drink or eat during sprays.
Protection of the bushes
The primary spray is carried out in the first half of April in spring when the kidneys began to bloom. A dry quiet day is selected for processing.
The order of the spray:
- Lift the vine to the grille.
- Carefully process the vine, barrel and sleeves.
- Make sure to process the floor under the bushes.
- Pay particular attention to the forks and irregularities of the stems, to all places where insects and their larvae can hide.
Loosen the ground
Soil processing near grapes is an important agricultural technology. It should be carried out in front of the kidney buds, but after the trimming of all unnecessary and sick shoots. After melting snow and ground, you have to loosen up to a depth of 15 cm.
The loosening of the soil helps to improve the air and water exchange of the root system of the grape bush and also destroys the larvae of insects that are winter in the ground. After processing, it is also recommended to mlate the floor under the vine with peat or compost.
Important! The number of processing per season depends on the climate of the region of growing grapes and the speed of weed growth in your location.
The repeated processing should be carried out at the end of May, as weeds began to grow.
Before spraying and processing the soil, it is important to remove the sanitary cutting of the bushes, remove dry, painful and damaged shoots.
The vine must be set to support and grid. After that, it is necessary to make a Katury – the equipment of the surface roots of the bush.
The calendar of the procedure
After all the necessary preparatory measures, you can start spraying:
The processing takes place in the first week of April as soon as the winter home was removed from the grapes. In this warm and damp time, the mushrooms begin to develop actively. Therefore, the first spray is aimed at the fight against mushroom diseases.
For processing, you can use a solution of copper or iron sulfate as well as one of the new medication, for example quadris, vector, etc.
Relation! The iron sulfate is not only with the fungus, but also protects the kidneys from spring frosts.
Carried out at the end of April until the kidneys are open. At that time, various pests wake up and their larvae also hatch in front of the eggs. Do not miss this important processing point that contributes to the protection of the vine and the future grape harvest from insect attacks.
You can apply for spraying at this point: BI-58, Calipso etc. If the vineyard suffered from a fungal infection last season, fungicide like Topaz can also be worked out.
The last phase of spring processing. In the last week of May when at least 5 leaves have already formed the bushes with grape bushes of gray rot and mild. The preparations will be completed with the first infection: chorus, sweatshirt. The second mushroom helps to win: Delain and Ridomil.
You can use Sanmait or Aktellik from insect pest during this time.
How do you spray?
How do you spray vineyards in spring? Most winemakers discover through experience what works best in a given situation. For spring processing of grapes, folk decoctions or chemical compounds are used. Thanks to a wide variety, every grape owner can choose the right remedy.
Important! In order to effectively protect the vineyard from diseases and pests, it is necessary to know the individual characteristics of the variety and its resistance to various diseases.
Thanks to preventive spraying of grape bushes with insecticides, you can forever forget about pests that cause a lot of trouble for many vineyard owners. And if the disease has already affected your plantings, they will cope with it and help preserve the harvest.
|a drug||What parasites does it fight?||The volume of the drug for 10 liters of water||toxicity||expiry date|
|Apollo||Ticks, in all stages of development||4.5ml||Safe for bees||2 years|
|Actellik||Leaf rollers, phylloxera, various types of mites||10ml||2nd hazard class||During the day|
|Mitak||Ticks, leafworms and many other insects. Not addictive to ticks||20-25ml||moderately toxic||2 years|
|neon||Effective against gall-forming mites||20ml||Not dangerous for bees||3 years|
|Aktara||Leafworm, aphids, phylloxera||8 g||Dangerous for bees. Do not spray during flowering||4 years|
Important! Treatment with a freshly prepared solution has the maximum effect. After diluting the substance in water, it must be used on the day of preparation.
Modern chemicals can protect the vineyard from various fungal infections.
|a drug||What fungus does it work against?||The volume of the drug for 10 liters of water||expiry date|
|Bordeaux liquid||mildew||300 g of copper sulfate, 500 g of slaked lime||Someday|
|azure water||mildew||100 g of copper sulfate, 300 g of aqueous ammonia||Someday|
|home||mildew||40 g||Not limited|
|Tsineb||mildew||40 g||3 years|
|polycarbacin||mildew||40 g||Up to 3 years|
|Colloidal Sulfur||oidium||100 g||2 years|
|nitrafen||Phytopathogenic Microorganisms||0.25 g||2 years|
|Rovral||Oidium, gray rot||17 g||3 years|
|saprole||oidium and gray mold||10 g||More than 2 years|
|Sumilex||gray rot||10 g||2 years|
|Euparen||Powdery mildew, oidium, various types of rot||25 g||2 years|
|Efal||mildew||30 g||2 years|
These drugs reduce the risk of damage to the vineyard and destroy existing fungi.
The use of folk methods is not so effective compared to chemical preparations. However, due to the safety of their use, many growers prefer to do spring processing using recipes they can make themselves.
The infusion will help in the fight against powdery mildew and oidium:
- 1 cup crushed fresh garlic.
- potassium permanganate.
- 40 grams of salt.
- 40 grams of soap.
Mix all ingredients and dilute in 10 liters of water. Treatment with this solution is carried out twice a season.
To combat oidium, you can use ash: pour half a bucket of ash with half a bucket of water and stir well.
In the fight against oidium, winegrowers noted the good effectiveness of the infusion:
- Pour it into a bucket of old hay.
- Pour in cold water to cover the hay.
- Insist 4 days.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, you can use a decoction of onion peel:
- Pour half a bucket of bowls with water.
- Boil 20 minutes.
- Insist on it for a day.
- You can add a couple of tablespoons of honey.
- Treat the vine before and after flowering.
According to a similar recipe, the decoctions of Celandine and tissue are produced.
Important! People’s recipes are good as preventive and additional measures. If the development of diseases or the spread of malicious insects there is a real danger, it is worth using strong chemicals.
This substance has great popularity in gardeners and has long been used as a means that exterminates different diseases of the vineyards. Its complex effect helps protect grapes from pests and diseases. In addition to iron sulfate, it is used as a fertilizer as an iron source that is required for the plant during growth for the formation of new shoots and the active production of chlorophyll.
The processing is carried out in early spring after frost slept, but the kidneys have not yet been blossomed. A solution of iron sulfate on green leaves can cause chemical burns. Burns can also occur in the solution due to too much concentration of the substance.
A 0.5% solution is required for spring processing:
- 50 g of dry matter.
- Dilute water in 10 liters.
- Process the entire abov e-ground part of the shrubs.
Important! Iron sulfate has no toxic effect for humans. Therefore, all work with this substance can be carried out without additional protection of the airway, skin and clothing.
Incorrect processing due to a lack of knowledge or hurry can damage the plant or worse its already poor condition.
Here are the main errors:
- No n-compliance with the processing conditions.
- Inattentive investigation of the instructions for medicines, which is why the concentration is not respected.
- The reaction after recognizing the disease or pests if the disease develops actively and is increasingly concerned with the plants.
Grapes are quite complicated for cultivating with culture. But if there is part of the patience and knowledge about how to spray in spring, you can grow a healthy vineyard that brings a rich harvest for many years.
The basis for the good development and health of the vine is your preventive processing in early spring. It will help to prevent diseases and attacks by pests and to destroy pathogenic microorganisms if they are already entered in their website.
In this video you will learn how and how to process grapes from diseases and pests.