The combine harvester Don 1500b
The Don 1500b grain harvester is a popular Soviet combine currently in use in the fields. Production of this family began in the Soviet Union in 1986. The model quickly became very popular, after which it became known as the most successful project in the country. In terms of productivity and reliability, the harvester was not inferior to Western analogues and surpassed most domestic models.
Don 1500b is a development of the famous company Rostselmash. For 30 years, the technical characteristics of the machine have not changed much. The main feature of the series is a scraper conveyor, which provides cleaning and processing of grain crops without human involvement. The debut rehearsals of the family were held in accordance with the classic standard. Previously, the large drive wheels were in the back – small wheels with low tires. This allowed the machinery to move freely in difficult conditions.
The first global changes in the family the brand made in the Don 1500b version. It is considered the highest and most productive. The combine has received a powerful AK YAMZ-238 with a turbocharger. The unit was specially designed for this series. Of the design changes should be noted the change in the size of the chopping drum, increasing the number of cutting knives and optimizing the placement of internal nodes. Don 1500b was also equipped with a collector, which could be used to separate yeast and improve the quality of the harvested grain. The modernization increased the productivity of the units by 20%. The properties of the harvester are still relevant today.
Production of the Don 1500b ended in 2006. In the Rostselmash lineup, the family was replaced by more modern combinations of vector and acros.
The Don 1500b is designed in such a way that they clean the ear and grain by direct and separate combining. Additional attachments allow the collection of fine seeded grains, germplasm, corn on grain, sunflower, grain control mix, allis and grass tribes.
For unthreshed harvesting, the equipment is equipped with a universal cutterbar, mower, topper, and cleaver (optional). The combine is also available with a universal cutterbar and crowd collector. Optional add-ons allow straw and chaff to be bunched or spread evenly across the field.
The harvesting of small seeds, grains, cereals and cereal tops is carried out with maximum quality. Don 1500b can work at a maximum angle of lift up to 8 degrees on uneven ground. The technique can be used in all climatic zones.
- Length – 12,000 mm;
- Width – 8500 mm;
- Height – 3980 mm.
Weight of the complete combine harvester is 13440 kg. Weight and dimensions may vary significantly depending on the modification and installed devices.
- Total capacity – 11,5 t/h;
- Productivity of main threshing unit – 8 kg/h;
- Grain volume – 6 cubic meters;
- detection width – 6000-8000 mm;
- drum rotation speed – 512-918 rpm;
- threshing width – 1500 mm;
- Blade speed – 946 strokes/min.
The Don 1500B harvester can be combined with tractors, trailers and trucks for harvesting.
- straw walker area – 6.15 sq.m;
- Length of shaking wedges – 4100 mm;
- Pick-up width – 2750 or 3400 mm;
- area of cleaning screen – 4.75 sq.m.
The maximum transport speed of the unit is 22 km/h, the maximum operating speed is 5 km/h.
The Don 1500B is equipped with a 4-stroke diesel engine JAMZ 238 AK (made by the Yaroslavl Motor Plant). Compared to its predecessor, it has more power and consumes less fuel. The power unit has a V-shaped cylinder arrangement, liquid cooling and turbocharging. The air is cleaned through 2 cleaning stages.
The engine itself is located next to the cab on the threshing mechanism. Power is taken from both sides of the crankshaft rotating clockwise. Working mechanisms are driven at the rear, hydraulic drive pump is at the front.
Characteristics of the engine YAMZ 238 AK:
- displacement – 14.9 liters;
- Rated power – 173 (235) kW (hp);
- Number of cylinders – 8.
Specific fuel consumption – 162 g/hour (about 38-40 l/hour). Fuel tank capacity – 540 (300) liters.
Design and service functions
Drive and driving axles of “Don 1500B” combine are controlled hydraulically. Smooth running is provided by separate aggregate control of the leading axle. The function is available at any speed. The hydraulic motor has 5 operating modes (4 options for forward movement, 1 for reverse movement).
The brake system includes a special handle and lever. To release the brake, pull the lever up and press the button. Adjust the brake by pulling the lever toward you to the fourth click. In addition to the parking brake, the unit is equipped with a pedal-operated hydraulic brake. This system is designed to cushion cornering and driving on soft and wet surfaces. These brakes do not have to be used on hard surfaces.
Don 1500B has a sophisticated hydraulic system with 3 subsystems: implement control, chassis control and steering control. Such a scheme allows to control working mechanisms: reel, stacker, harvester, threshing system, chopper, auger movement, air duct cleaning and others.
The main working body of the harvester is the reaper, which is responsible for mowing the crop. The Don 1500B is equipped with an oversized header, attached to the thresher with a hanging chamber. It has a mechanism of copying the ground surface in front, which allows you to cut at the same height, regardless of the terrain. One of the features of this model is a second stone trapdoor.
Don 1500B is suited to work in areas with high humidity. In this case grain hopper vibrators provide the speed of unloading and the grain does not stick.
For Don 1500B harvester it is possible to install additional equipment:
- a device for making the mow (hood);
- Pick-up platforms.
The additional devices considerably expand the functional possibilities of the machine.
The machine has an all-metal cab with a large glazing area. In terms of comfort, it is inferior to most modern combinations, but offers all conditions for normal operation. The Champion has several adjustments. The cab also has a heater.
Advantages of the Don 1500b:
- Low fuel consumption when grounded and mowed;
- large threshing drum providing considerable recording;
- Reliable design.
Disadvantages of Don 1500b:
- Large size (experience with a suitable machine is required);
- Time-consuming work planning and field preparation;
- Losses of grains at harvesting on fields with a big slope;
- Poor stability.
The simplicity of design ensures reliability and longer operation of the devices. The cost of spare parts for the combine remains affordable, since Don 1500b is a domestic model. To replace most of the nodes, there is no need to call a special crew or drive the machine into the garage. Basic repair work can be done in the field, which greatly reduces the duration of downtime and reduces maintenance costs.
No special equipment is required for machine maintenance. The most important consumables are chewing gum, lights, hydraulic fluids, tires, helicopter and drum leaves, seals, engine oil and conveyor drive. They are all freely available and always available in technical stores.
During Don 1500b operations, routine inspections must be followed. Activities take place at the park or in the garage prior to operation. Scheduled inspections include:
- Inspection of fuel equipment;
- Inspection of engine and other systems;
- Checking fasteners;
- Checking the hull and gearbox.
In addition, the financing, gross and hammer system may be checked. The equipment is allowed to operate only if the inspection results are positive.
It is also recommended to change the oil after 24 hours of engine operation, because the coolant loses its properties, which can provoke overheating and breakdown.
The Don 1500b is a time-tested harvester that will be an excellent option for small and large farms. The purchase and maintenance costs will pay off in the shortest time.
The Don 1500b series is currently discontinued. There are many harvesters on the secondary market, but they need a thorough technical inspection. The cost of machines 2005-2006 years of production is 1.2-1.5 million rubles, 2000-2001 years of production-630000-710000 rubles.
Don 1500b: technical characteristics
Quite recently, the overwhelming number of combine harvesters and their modifications have entered the fields of our vast homeland. One of the largest manufacturers of agricultural machinery in the CIS, Rostselmash, has been producing this famous harvester for 20 years.
The first machine came off the assembly line in 1986, and in 2006 this veteran of fields went to a well-deserved rest, where modern models Acros and Vector were produced.
In its time the Don-1500 was advanced, modern and met all the requirements for a grain harvester. Such features as large hopper, high reliability and engine power, five splines, reinforced driving axle, accelerated unloading of the hoppers and units of different length 6; 7; 8,6 m ensured high productivity and great popularity of the machine.
History of the Don-1500B harvester
“Rostselmash” – this brand is known to all CIS farmers without exception. The company specializes in the production of forage and grain harvesters, which have become the hallmark of the plant.
In addition to combine harvesters, the plant currently produces a number of energy-saturated tractor models and a wide range of various mounted and trailed agricultural machines.
All in all, 24 types and more than 150 models and modifications of various devices are produced. In Russia, the company’s market share exceeded 65%, and its global market share in 2016 was 21%. At present, Rostselmash includes 13 enterprises in different countries around the world, employing more than 11,000 people!
The figures are impressive, and it becomes even more interesting to learn what path the company has taken, what trials it has endured to take its place under the sun!
Construction began in 1926, the technical design of the plant had not yet been completed, but near Rostov, in the middle of the vast steppe, has already begun construction of access roads and infrastructure for the future giant. The construction was designed for five years, but already in 1929 the first five workshops were put into operation and the production of the first agricultural equipment began.
In 1930 the first collective farm combine, designed and built within the walls of Rostselmash, was sent for testing. In the same year it was decided to create grain harvesters. In connection with this decision in 1931 an additional workshop with the area of 4 hectares was created, here it was planned to produce up to 10 000 harvesters per year.
In 1932 the first batch of modified “Stalinets-1” harvesting combines was sent to collective farms. These harvesters were recognized worldwide at the agricultural exhibition in Paris in 1937. The USSR was turning from an importer-country of agricultural machinery into an exporter-country. In 1940 50 thousands of “Stalinists” were produced already, and in 1941 the war began. Stalinets-6 trailed harvester
In 1941 all the equipment of the plant was evacuated to Tashkent before the occupation of Rostov by German troops. In February 1943 the city was liberated, but only ruins of the plant remained. As it turned out later, before the surrender of the city the Germans, with their customary meticulousness, mined and exploded shop by shop. It took them eight days.
Although the plant was completely destroyed, by the tenth day after liberation 33 machine tools were already working in the open air on the debris. By 1947 the plant was almost rebuilt, and Rostselmash designers presented the modernized combine “Stalinets-6” to the country.
The next significant step in the development of the plant was mastering of SK-3 self-propelled harvesters production in late 50-s. The year 1962 was significant for the transition to the SK-4. This model visited more than one international exhibition and was recognized the most decorated one.
In the 1970s, the plant was modernized and re-equipped. Also a number of fundamentally new machines from SK NIVA were mastered.
In 1984, in February the number of combines that came off the assembly lines of Rostselmash reached 2 million! Two years later the serial assembly of the famous Don-1500 began, these harvesters have found the most widespread, to this day the representatives of this model are widely spread in the fields of our country.
Technical characteristics of the combine Don-1500B
- Harvester with working width of 6, 7, 8,6 m.
- Harvester’s working width – 3,4 m.
- Productivity grain with a cowl/copper – 13,3/11,5 (T/h).
- Speed of workers I/II – 0 to 5/0 to 10 (km/h)
- Transport speed – up to 20 km/h
- Drum length/width/diameter – 1485/1500/800 mm.
- Rotary unloading, capacity – up to 2,5 t/min.
- Grain hopper, volume – 6 m/cubic meters.
- Agricultural approval – 390 mm.
- Drive/steer bikes track – 2800/2900 mm.
- Weight with 6-meter harvester and opener – 13440 kg.
Engine of combine Don-1500B
The combine harvesters ДОН-1500Б were equipped with engines of the well-known Yaroslavl power plant. YAMZ products have long been synonymous with quality and reliability. The engine of this plant is often used in all fields of household appliances.
A V-shaped 8-cylinder diesel engine YAMZ-238AK was installed on the Don-1500B. This is a four-stage diesel engine with direct fuel injection and compression ignition without thrust. It is liquid cooled. RPM is mechanical. Operated by a selector mechanism.
- Power – 173 (235) kW (hp).
- Speed – 2000 rpm.
- Torque – 932 N.M.
- Fuel consumption – 162 g/lhp.
- Weight – 1250 kg.
This modification of the engine was specially created for the hero of our story, but in spite of the fact that the combine is no longer in production, the engine is still in demand. If necessary, you can easily order a brand new 238th.
Gears of the Don-1500b combine harvester
On the combine Don-1500b was installed not the usual control point, but a box with a range of speeds with three movements:
- For harvesting in fields with 4 to 8 degrees of elevation.
- For harvesting in fields with 0 to 4 degrees of elevation.
- Transport movement with empty hopper.
With plots area can go from 0 to 10 km/h when harvesting, and the speed in transport mode is up to 20 km/h.
In contrast to the previous model, all machines DON-1500B were equipped only with hydraulic drive with polygon box. The box was placed on the beam of the driving axle and was supposed to change the driving modes and speed of the combine.
The main elements: camber; sitting waves, main and middle. One of the three gears is engaged by means of movable gears, which are on the waves.
Transmission and running gear of the combine Don-1500B
The undercarriage of the combine consists of two axles, an axle with driving and steering wheels. The driving wheels include: a beam, boxes with pads and a side gear.
Torque from the box to the side gear is transmitted by means of half-waves, which are connected by spigots to the leading waves of the gear.
There is a flange attached to the side gear on the axle beam. Your job is not only to transfer the torque from the box to the wheels of the combine, but also to increase the torque.
It is possible to assemble on the drive axle board in two positions relative to the drive axle beam. This design allows the use of wheels of different diameters, which means that the combine height is maintained in the previous position.
Also on disc brakes is an on-board gearbox with a separate hydraulic actuator. Your task is to transfer the braking force to the drive waves of the pinion.
The steerable wheel axle is based on a support beam with a variable tubular axle. A Tresen frame is attached to this beam via plain bearings.
A stamped disc welded to the rim and a tire mounted on it form the wheel of the drive axle. The wheels are bolted to the hub flange. The tire has a special self-cleaning profile to improve cross-country ability and provide the necessary cross-country ability and steerability on various soils.
Control of the Don-1500B combine harvester
The Don-1500B combine is controlled via the rear axle, which is called a steerable wheel axle. On the ends of the axle beam there are brackets, in which the steering knuckles are fixed.
Two tapered roller bearings connect the wheel hub and the knuckle. These bearings are protected by an oil seal and housing.
The steering wheels have a common connection in the form of steering rods consisting of links. The spherical plain bearings with oil seals and lip seals act as joints in the links and the hydraulic cylinders are used to turn the wheels.
The hydraulic system does not differ from most domestic and foreign devices. It includes hydraulic line, hydraulic pump and hydraulic valve. Actuators are hydraulic cylinders.
The cabin of Don-1500B combine
The combine is equipped with a spacious soundproofed cabin, large glass area and excellent visibility. There is forced ventilation and as an option an air conditioner can be installed.
The steering column is located in the center of the cab, directly in front of the operator. The column is height-adjustable within 10 cm as well as tilt-adjustable within 5 to 30 degrees.
The seat is spring loaded. Adjustments are made depending on the operator’s weight and in vertical and horizontal planes.
To the right of the driver are two levers:
- A lever to select one of three gearbox operating modes.
- A second lever is for selecting the direction of travel, forward or reverse. Also on the handle of the lever are buttons to operate the header and reel.
Also to the right of the driver is a control panel with various controls and controls of all working organs of the combine. Its main element is the ASC (Automatic Control System). ASC controls all important parameters of work of the engine, hydraulic system, threshing equipment, unloading auger, mechanisms of grain cleaning and filling the bunker. The system warns the operator about malfunctions by means of light and sound signals.
Hydraulic system of the Don-1500B combine
There are three independent hydraulic systems on the Don-1500bB combine:
- Chassis drive.
The last two systems of this list have already been briefly mentioned above, but we will consider the main system in more detail.
This system uses sectional distributors with electro-hydraulic and muscular control of the coils of the working organs. The system controls various mechanisms and assemblies of the combine: rotation and drive of the unloader, control of the header and drum, opening of the stacker, vibration control of the hopper and drum.
When the relay of a certain hydraulic valve is energized, it blocks the flow, creating pressure in the system. At the same time it acts on the reel and temporarily opens the line of the selected consumer.
Harvester harvester Don-1500B
The receiving body, mounted on the threshing mechanism, serves as the basis for the combine harvester’s attachment with springs and hinges. The structure of the combine harvester includes: drive mechanism, cutting and balancing mechanism, auger, dividers and reel, attached to the combine by four bipods.
The front of the headstock is equipped with terrain repetition shoes. Depending on use, the shoes can be set to one of four working positions. The cutting mechanism is operated with either open or double tines.
The reel is controlled by two synchronized hydraulic cylinders located on the sides. Adjustment of the reel tilt to the right is automatic. The reel on the reaper of the combine Don-1500B has dimensions of 590 mm.
Modifications of the combine harvester DON-1500B
The model range of the Don-1500 harvester is not large. The main production models were the basic Don-1500A and the improved Don-1500B.
Think about how the hero of our story differs from its predecessor:
- First, a new, more modern and powerful V-shaped YAMZ-238AK with eight cylinders and 235 hp was installed. Against the range of six-cylinder compressor SMD-31A with 225 hp.
- Discharge capacity is increased.
- Cutting mechanism with open fingers has been improved.
- The technological drive is reversible.
- The number of stone catchers is increased up to two.
- The area of the upper sieve is enlarged.
In general, the productivity of combine harvester was increased by about 20% in comparison with the original model.
The Don-1500B combine harvester performance
If you haven’t made these devices before, the right decision is to take someone with your experience. If there is no such possibility, you will have to rely on yourself and the seller’s decency.” width=”717″ height=”413″ />
Soviet agricultural and industrial machines developed in the 1970-80s have a lot in common, if we analyze their shortcomings and advantages. In short, it is a good productivity and maintainability, bordering on Spartan operating conditions. The Don-1500b harvester was not an exception.
- Good buoyancy on soft, wet floor due to wide wheels with high tread.
- Yamz engine.
- Powerful large-diameter tedder allows you to work with long and wet ears.
- Three different cutters with a good mechanism to eliminate the effects of uneven terrain.
- Grain hopper with large volume.
- Wide “Rostselmash” dealer network, availability of spare parts and easy maintenance.
- The cabin is very hot, not all harvesters were equipped with air conditioning, and frankly, only a few. In addition, the power plant, which is practically next to the cab, significantly increased the noise level and additionally heated, making the heat was hellish.
- In many ways not inferior to its imported counterparts in terms of performance, it is still inferior in terms of reliability and service life.
- In the middle of the harvest I bought a Don-1500B for 850,000 rubles. It was built in 2006, its condition was mediocre, but stable, so to speak. I had to harvest 260 hectares of grains and 100 hectares of sunflowers. I was pleasantly surprised with the areas dealt with no problems and no failure, I do not take the breakage of the belts in the calculation – these are consumables.
- In general, I am satisfied with the machine, the factory version is still a pain in the neck and a gas chamber, but if you shimmy up yourself, you can work. The main thing is excellent performance at an affordable price. It is enough to make an air-conditioning system and many drawbacks will disappear into the background! But in general, no matter what is done with it, the tuning possibilities are very wide. They put an extended sieve frame, modified manifold and much more. In general, as with any Soviet equipment, you need to put your hands on it.
Buying a used Don-1500b harvester. Features of choice
If you decide to buy a Don-1500B, you need to be especially careful. Combine – this is not a tractor, it combines many production processes. Therefore, it is equipped with many systems, nodes and mechanisms.
If you haven’t done this kind of machinery before, it’s a good idea to bring someone with your experience. Otherwise, you will have to rely on yourself and the seller’s integrity.
What do you need to pay attention to? Start with the subway framework and the attachment points of the tilt chamber, pay attention to the presence of cracks. In sliced mixtures such breakages are not uncommon. Also inspect the elevators, drums, lung wear and wear waves. It is mandatory to describe and inspect the grinding mill. The hydraulics on the mills are generally reliable, but it is still worth paying attention to the soda in the joints and hydraulic cylinders.
Prices for these combinations in good condition, depending on the year from 700 thousand to 1.5 million rubles. It is possible to find cheaper, but already with significant subsequent investments.