Frost-resistant grape varieties

Frost-resistant grape varieties will grow in Siberia

The sweet berries of grapes are a concentrate of sun and heat. A hundred years ago, cultural fruit vines grew only in the south, and their bunches were considered exotic and in the middle belt. Technical species managed to grow in cold winters in the zones, but the sweet table varieties remained too tender and could not withstand the harsh climate. Only purposeful selection and the endurance of grape growers made it possible at the end of the last century to preserve frost-resistant grapes. There are more and more varieties and hybrids that can withstand the cold, and their taste qualities are constantly improving every year. Now the sunny berry is also grown in Siberia.

History of creation and peculiarities of breeding

Breeding of frost-resistant grape varieties began under the leadership of I. V. Michurin. At the beginning of the 20th century, the first rears appeared, which really voiced winter frosts and spring frosts. Russian Concord, Arctic, Buitur, Northern White, and Metal are the varieties that represent Michurin’s selection. The superficialist Ya. I. Potapenko laid the foundation for breeding disease-resistant and first obscure varieties: Suvorovets, Stepnyak, Medovy, Festivalny, Sekraatsiya.

Northern White.

In the 1960s, the promotion of viticulture to the north in Orenburg was continued by the famous breeder Shatilov. The most valuable frost-resistant hybrids were preserved through the selection of wild species of vines collected in the Urals and Siberia. This was reflected in the names of the varieties: Amursky early, Amursky black. Huge work of breeders and enthusiasts has led to the fact that grapes in areas with harsh winters are now grown on an industrial scale. At the same time, its productivity is not inferior to southern plantations.

Today, regional varieties of coverage have been created for the Urals, Far East, Primorye and Non-Black Earth region. Breeding work is carried out in Smolensk, Krasnoyarsk regions, Altai Krai. The ancestors of frost-resistant grapes are hybrids of European and American varieties with Amur type of dicots, which are not only adapted to frosts up to 30 °C, but also need them. Warm winters with frequent thaws are much worse than wild cold.

Amursha (Shatilov’s Amur hybrid).

Appropriate forms of culture are relevant if they grow in the open ground of the middle belt and Moscow suburbs. Here the winter temperature also falls below e-25 ° C. Climatic conditions in such a vast territory are very different. Therefore, obscure hybrids in some areas require winter protection, and cover hybrids can be grown in others without insulation.

Frost-resistant varieties differ from their southern counterparts in their ability to regenerate dead tissues. Leaf buds are in the soil and are activated when old roots die off, causing them to be replaced by new ones. With a strongly pronounced property characteristic of many hybrids, it is possible to replace dead plant parts in a single season. New varieties form many ovaries, their number must be regulated. The winter hardiness of bushes suffers from an overload of fruits.

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The sugar content in berries, which used to be 17%, has reached 24% in some new varieties in recent years. The northern fruits are somewhat inferior to the southern ones, and the weight of the bunch is usually less. But selection work continues, and there are more and more large table varieties.

The best frost-resistant grape varieties

Grapes can be table and wine grapes. Technical varieties with small berries and small bouquet can be interesting as bulbous forms for covering large areas (arbors, terraces, scales). In most large table varieties, the vines still have to be removed from their supports and protected from frost. Therefore, winter hardiness to form a tall bush is an important indicator, because it is more difficult to prepare such a form for winter.

Description of the most popular varieties in temperate zones and the Moscow region:

Lydia .

This is a table-technical variety, an American hybrid from Isabella. Endures frosts up to 30 ° C, is not susceptible to gray column. Ideal for covering arches and canopies. The grapes are small, the berries are pink, of pleasant taste, used in food.

Lydia (Rosa Isabella).

Aleshchenkin (#328).

Very early, dessert, conditionally edible grape variety. Characterized by a large bunch (more than 1 kg), high yields and excellent taste. The berries are conical, yellow-green, contain several seeds and fall from the bush only in frost.



Bred in the Far East, but mainly distributed in the Moscow region and Primorye. Characterized by rapid growth, increased productivity, good overwintering. It belongs to the technical varieties used for landscape design, reach shoots length of 9 m. Bushes are very decorative. The berries contain about 19% sugar, are black and have an easily removable shell.


One or Amur breakthrough.

The most popular of Potapenko hybrids. Does not freeze at temperatures e-40 ° c. The vine is strong, the grapes are dense, dark purple with a crimson hue. Resistant to rot, diseases and pests. Used in the production of wines and juices.

Amur breakthrough (Potapenko-7).


One of the hybrids based on the Amur grape (Hungarian selection). Heat-resistant to o-29 ° C, complexly resistant to disease. The bush is low and the grape is conical. Berries with high sugar content, juicy, stay on the bush, shredded, not cracked.


Charowes Enigma.

Bears the name of the famous winemaker breeder. Does not require protection to o-34 ° C. The berries are dark blue with a pronounced aroma of strawberries and sugar content up to 22%. The yield is average. Self-pollinating variety, pecking in whorls does not happen. Vine thin, strong, ripens quickly. With high humidity bushes are susceptible to oidium.

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Charow’s Enigma.

Skuin 675 or Moscow Resistant.

A difficult hybrid that is not susceptible to major grape diseases. A variety for growing in the north, bred in Moscow. Small grapes with amber-colored fruits, close to each other, with an aroma of pineapple and notes of nutmeg. Strong bush withstands a load of up to 120 eyes. All shoots can bear fruit, each bearing at least 2 grapes. Imported for cultivation in Minnesota, USA, where high quality wines are produced.

Muscatel white Shatilova

Muscatel white (Shatilova).

Has very large ornamental leaves, grapes pour up to 1 kg. A strong and profitable variety. It ripens in Mittelgasse in early September. The berries are oval, large, with high taste qualities. In areas north of Yekaterinburg, the hybrid should be protected from severe frosts.

Grapes that do not need winter protection in the midlands can shelter more northern regions. Study the variety carefully before planting and look for lower winter temperatures in the region.

Particularly resistant, co-developed hybrids

There are grape hybrids whose bushes can tolerate particularly low temperatures and at the same time exhibit accelerated rates of vegetation. The fruit ripens quickly and requires less heat. This makes it possible to grow such plants in high zones with harsh winters and unpredictable weather in the summer.

Recommended winter e-Hardy varieties of American selection:

  1. Riline Pink Sidlis is the most frost-resistant American hybrid (d o 27 ° C). Fruits are pink, seedless, and labroot flavored, suitable for drying, juicing, wine, and eating fresh. Maturation is super early (105 days). Allowable load – 50 eyes per bush.
  2. Taiga emerald is a hybrid from the Primorsky region, derived from the American variety Minnesota. The berries are consumed fresh, the sugar content in them reaches 19.5%. The shoots of this high-growing variety manage to grow in a short fall. It has a high frost resistance and tolerance compared to mild.
  3. Valiant is an excellent winter-hardy species, the vine can withstand temperatures up to 47 °C. Ripening early. The berries are black-blue in color with large pips and an old stout. In some samples detected the taste of strawberries. Medium density bunches can remain on the bush for a long time.
  4. Triumph is an American table-top with strong shoots, conical long tassels and oval large fruits. Ripens in the second half of August. Capable of increasing varietal performance.

Sappling varieties of American origin also include: Kay Gray, Moore Earley, and Venus. EU R-Merican hybrids gained resistance to phylloxia when bred, which positively distinguishes them when choosing a variety for planting. Frost resistance in these varieties is somewhat lower o t-30 to o-34 ° C, but tolerance to almost all diseases that annoy vineyards has been achieved.

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Key Grey grape varieties.

Some European frost-resistant varieties:

  • Lando Noir;
  • Louise Swenson;
  • Somerset Sidleys;
  • Prusri style.

In quality, they are not inferior, and in some positions even superior to foreign related grape varieties, bred from local relics in Russia by selection and breeding. The small Amur liana has evolved in the hands of breeders into many varieties with simultaneous frost resistance, excellent types of raw material and high taste qualities.

The Amur grape, for example, in Smolensk region, shows a sugar content of 21.4%. Its vines tolerate frosts of lower e-40 ° C in the open vineyard in the snow-covered time.

Recommended varieties for northern regions and the Far East:

  • Waskowski hybrids (#5 and #6);
  • Shatilo v-Hybriden (2 to 15);
  • Latvian variety Gulya;
  • Khasan arched and Khasan sweet;
  • Siberian cherry;
  • Bashkirian early.

Many other varieties for each region are zoned or maintained by amateur grape breeders and specialized institutions. However, the high properties of hybrids do not yet guarantee successful cultivation and abundant yields. In addition to unique properties, northern grapes are characterized by the principles of care, pruning and have other features.

Peculiarities of growing k o dwarf varieties

Even frost-resistant varieties do not become resistant immediately. In the first two years, the bush should be removed from its supports and placed on the ground for protection from the cold. After the third season, the ladder remains uncovered. If the test is passed and the vine successfully winters on the support, the bush can winter without insulation. Because of this trait, all resistant varieties are considered conditionally uncovered.

There are a few more peculiarities in agrotechnics:

  1. Northern grapes are highly productive. If you do not adjust the abundance of the bush, the harvest will be large, and the winter hardiness of the plant will be reduced. The vine will not have time to mature, and the bush can freeze.
  2. More difficult than frosts, such hybrids endure thaws. With a prolonged rise in temperature, the plant begins vegetative growth and loses its varietal resistance to cold. A shrub accustomed to frosts of 30°C may die at 12°C.
  3. Varieties are characterized by rapid growth. Bushes periodically require pruning, removal of stems, thinning and pruning of cilia. Otherwise, the grapes will begin to “degenerate” and lose varietal qualities. An abundance of branches in summer stifles bunches’ ripening.
  4. Pollination is an important stage of harvesting. Before buying seedlings, you should clarify whether the plant needs pollinators and what kind of pollinators it needs. Some hybrids require help during flowering – spraying, puffing, shaking the scaly caps.

The North of Russia grows unique data. Already from the Urals, pests that can affect shrubs do not breed in the soil in winter. Frost-resistant varieties through breeding have received increased resistance to major grape diseases: mildew, oidium, phylloxera, rots and fungal lesions. Therefore, chemical treatment of vineyards can be reduced to a minimum.

Experienced grape growers are advised to exclude mineral mixtures from fertilization and use organic. Thus, the adult crop will be environmentally friendly and safe, which cannot be achieved in the south with an abundance of insects and diseases.

Many gardeners have learned that in the Far East, the Urals, Siberia, Muscovites have long been used as a risky region for this crop. A collection of frost-resistant and ultra-early varieties for any climate is replenished every year. In many areas previously inaccessible to the southern plant, it is now cultivated by the hectares. A further goal of unselfish breeders is large table varieties that can survive even harsher winters without shelter and give their owners a sweet and flavorful harvest.

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10 Best Resistant Grape Varieties

Rating of the best resistant grape varieties for the middle belt – according to gardeners’ reviews.

  1. The best winter-hardy grape varieties with white and light berries
  2. Best resistant grape varieties with dark berries

Winegrowing in the Moscow region and other regions of the central zone requires patience and careful selection of varieties. Experienced winemakers assure that it is impossible to grow decent grapes without protection. But this is due to their exquisite appearance and high requirements for yields, berry size and taste – they are willing to invest time and effort to achieve a 100% good result. When minimal care comes to the fore, frost-resistant, well-ripening, fruiting varieties of grapes, which are grown in uncovered or semi-covered culture, come to the rescue. The latter means removing the trellis and covering it with branches or covering it with earth. Description, photos of some of the best uncovered grape varieties, reviews of popular varieties are presented in our evaluation. Prices are indicative – for one-year seedlings.

Cultivated grapes are represented by dozens of species of the genus vitis. All species of economic importance are divided into 3 species groups: European-Asian, East Asian, and American.

  • The Euro-Asian group includes species: Vitis Vinifera L., a cultivated grape that has produced a large number of cultivated varieties and includes lespedeza.
  • The East Asian group also includes the frost-resistant variety, Amur grape (lat. Vítis Amurénsis). Amur grape can often be used as an ornamental plant for arcades – it usually grows in the middle belt and even in the latitude of St. Petersburg. It is often used as a base for varieties with less frost-resistant root systems. The berries of the Amur grape are small and sour, but this species is often used as a rootstock and for breeding new varieties. Grape varieties obtained by crossing with Amur grapes are grown in northern wine-growing regions.
  • Vitis Rupestris, Vitis Riparia and Vitis Labrusca are the best known of the 28 American group species. They are also used as a base, and Vitis Labrusca is the ancestor of most North American grape varieties with a distinctive strawberry flavor called Isabel or Fuchs.
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Keep in mind that only super-early, early and mid-early varieties of grapes are appropriate to grow in the middle belt and in northern regions. Late varieties simply do not have time to get tired – they do not have enough sun and warm days.

Evaluation of the best uncovered grape varieties

category location family name rating
The best winter-hardy grape varieties with white and light berries 1 Supaga (Latvia. 1959) 9.8 / 10
2 Supaga (Latvia, 1959) 9.7 / 10
3 Jubilee Novgorod (Russia, 1937) 9.6 / 10
4 Moscow the Unshakable (Russia, 2000) 9.6 / 10
Best resistant grape varieties with dark berries 1 Brave (USA, 1972) 9.9 / 10
2 Alpha (USA, formerly 1948) 9.8 / 10
3 Amur Potapenko 1 (Russia, 1999) 9.8 / 10
4 Muromets (Russia, 1988) 9.8 / 10
5 Taiga (Russia, 1933) 9.8 / 10
6 The Sharov Mystery (Russia, 1972) 9.7 / 10

The best winter-hardy grape varieties with white and light berries

Supaga (Latvia. 1959)

Opened our rating of the best resistant bunches of grapes table early Latvian grape V. Labruska. It ripens within 115 – 120 days. In the Moscow suburbs Supaga ripens at the end of August – beginning of September. The vine is actively growing. The flowers are bisexual. The bunch is large, conical, medium density, weighing 350-400 g-analogous taste. If they blossom on the bushes, they do not crumble and do not lose their taste.

Grapes Sepag unpretentious in care and well multiplied. In the Moscow region for the winter, the vine is lowered from the trellis.

  • High sugar levels
  • Good vine maturation
  • Resistant to scab, oidium and grey mould
  • Cold hardiness up to 25 ºC
  • Good transportability
  • Dense skin and lots of seeds

Well adapted to heavy and cold soils. Gains sugar quickly, so goes as food fully ripe.

Sukrib (Latvia, 1959)

The table variety Urazprospel of Latvian selection represents a form of B. labrusca. It ripens in 95 to 105 days. In the conditions of the Moscow region – from 15 to 20 August The liana is more robust. Leaves are medium-sized, rounded, entire or slightly dissected. Flowers bisexual. The bunches are medium-sized, conical, with loose branches, weighing 150-200 g. The berries are round, white, weighing 3-4 g, juicy, with a dense skin, mildly aromatic, with a harmonious taste.

In the elimination region this grape variety is recommended for arbors. And according to the reviews of Moscow winegrowers, this is one of the most promising grape varieties for semi-cultivation. If not removed from a trellis or grown on an arbor, there will be a good vine and regular fruiting. Formation is recommended multi-trunk or fan-shaped. Harvesting is not required. Needs preventive treatment against fungal diseases.

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