Natural “green” fertilizer. Secrets of technology
The article will be useful for those who adhere to the principles of organic agriculture, expand environmentally friendly (organic, organic) products on an industrial scale or on a small farm. From the material that you learn: how to prepare green fertilizers, for which plants are suitable or they are, and how to manufacture natural fertilizers, get a quality harvest without chemicals and how humus depends on plants that are planted for organic fertilizers.
Green, natural, healthy
From the middle of the last century, a passion for a “mineral water” began, and green fertilizers were almost not used.
With the revival of organic agriculture, which avoids the use of mineral fertilizers and believes that this worsens the nutritional value of products, the resistance of plants against diseases and pests reduces the use of green fertilizers. Legumes and not legumes and their mixtures are used as such.
What are natural green fertilizers
Natural fertilizers are designed in such a way that they enrich the soil with nitrogen and organic substance. This is your main purpose.
Under the influence of microorganisms, plant remains decompose and transform into humus. It is the humus of the soil that is the basis of its fertility. The content in the ground determines the food, water and air floor modes.
When growing cultivated plants, the content of humus in the soil is reduced due to its mineralization, so a person must replace the reserves of this organic component.
Green tunnies improve the water and air floor modes due to the root system, especially the muesli rye.
Gründünger not only enrich, but also improve the soil for 5-6 years. They also enable them to fight weeds because weeds are suppressed.
Green fertilizer like mulch
A mass of green fertilizer can be used as mulch. This is an organic material that covers the surface of the floor.
The purpose of mulch is moisture maintenance, the suppression of weeds, the enrichment of the soil with nutrients. The minimum layer of mulch is 5-8 cm, the maximum is 15 cm.
Mulch materials are divided into two categories: coarse straw, hay, chips, fallen leaves, peat and less rude – freshly selected plants and grass, weeds, which are also a good top dressing.
Many farmers and gardeners in Russia harvest natural fertilizers from grass and weeds from year to year
Mulch, a layer of 7 to 8 cm made of alfalfa plants, delayed the rainwater, inhibits weed growth, keeps the floor loose, wet, cools it with nitrogen.
Compost, similar to humus
The beveled mass of surprises is used for composting.
Composting is a microbiological process of decomposing plant residues and the synthesis of new organic compounds that are similar to the floor humus.
Green manure has always been used in practice. The Roman scientist Pliny the Elder, who lived AD 23-79, wrote: “Everyone agrees that there is nothing more useful than the lupine when planted in the ground with a plow or a two-pronged hoe before beans that form, or clumps of lupins cut off at the surface of the soil are buried near the roots of fruit trees and vines. It’s just as good a fertilizer as manure.”
Compost is made from plants and fallen leaves. Plants decompose much faster than leaves.
It takes about two years for the leaf matter to decompose and turn into compost, three years for chestnut leaves.
The humus obtained through composting improves the soil structure.
Characteristics of green manure plants
Plants such as white lupine, seradella, mustard, buckwheat, thanks to their deep penetrating root system that releases organic acids, convert phosphorus into a soluble state and lift it from the deep layers of the soil.
Phosphorus accumulates in the aerial part and in the root system. And what is important, this element is available to plants with a shallow root system.
The effect of green manure, characteristics, expiration
The effect of green manure depends on the age of the plants, so young grasses contain a lot of nitrogen, but enrich the soil less with humus. The organic matter of young grasses decomposes quickly. Mature plants with rigid stems contain poorly degradable organic material. And it is they who go to the construction of humus.
It is recommended to embed green manure in the soil during the budding period before flowering to a depth of 12-15 cm on light soils, 6-8 cm deep on heavy soils.
You can not place green manure in a row – mustard, rape, radish and the main crop, all types of cabbage, plants of the same family.
Plants are used to make liquid, fast-acting and quickly digestible fertilizers for feeding crops under the root and along the leaf. For irrigation under the root, 9 parts of water + 1 part of the infusion are diluted. To spray the leaf, the infusion is filtered and diluted: 19 parts water + 1 part infusion. Such top dressing can be done every 2-3 weeks. Most vegetable, fruit and berry crops and flowers respond well to this fertilizer. Exceptions are peas, beans, onions, garlic.
Characteristics of cover crops
Fodder beans – a source of nitrogen, grow on heavy soils. Used in a mixture with vetch and field pea. Sowing depth 4-6 cm, sowing rate 22-30 g/m2, suitable for winter sowing in areas with mild winters.
Winter vetch is rich in nitrogen. Sow in autumn together with winter rye or winter wheat. Sowing rate 7-9 g/m2. Embedding depth 1cm.
Spring vetch is a good precursor to winter cabbage when sown in early spring and is excellent fodder for goats and rabbits.
Field pea, pelyushka is a cold-resistant plant. Sow in a mixture with vetch and oats at a rate of 15 g/m2.
Mustard enriches the soil with organic matter, phosphorus and sulfur. The optimal growing time is 8-10 weeks. A good remedy for wireworms. Sowing rate 4-6 g/m2.
Buckwheat – enriches the soil with organic matter, phosphorus and potassium. It is sown in spring (7 g/m2) and buried in the ground in autumn. Buckwheat is used in the aisles of fruit crops.
Clover white, red – rich in nitrogen and potassium, does not tolerate acidic soil, grows in one place for 2-3 years, sowing rate 2.8 g / m2, sowing depth 1-2 cm
Annual lupine (blue, yellow, white) is the best predecessor for strawberries. Lupine plants are rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. Green manure from it is close to the nutritional value of manure. Sowing depth – 2.5 cm, distance between plants 5-15 cm, between rows 15-30 cm.
Alfalfa is a perennial legume native to the South. Supplies the soil with organic matter, nitrogen, potassium. Sowing rate 2.5-3 g/m2.
Canola is a cruciferous plant that is rich in organic matter, phosphorus and sulfur. Very picky about soils, which should be acid-neutral and rich in humus. Sowing rate 2.8 g/m2. Rapeseed is spring and winter.
Oil radish is an unpretentious culture. Any soil and climate is suitable. The fodder radish has a deep root system that serves as a good baking powder for the soil, which is important. Plants of this culture suppress the nematode. Oil radish is sown in its pure form at 2-3 g / m2 and mixed with spring vetch at the rate of 1 g of radish + 6 g of vetch per 1 m2. When plants are planted in the soil, it becomes enriched with organic matter and nitrogen.
Winter rye – sown in the fall, the norm is 9 g / m2. In the spring of the next year, when the stalk of the plant reaches a height of 60 cm, the green mass is mowed and planted in the ground, saturating it with organic matter, nitrogen and potassium. Winter rye has one downside. Your plants are drying out the soil. In dry years it has to be watered.
Seradella – light soils with a pH response ranging from very acidic to alkaline are optimal for growing. The plants are fast-growing, have roots 80-150 cm deep and enrich the soil with nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. Seradella is also used as cattle feed.
Rape is undemanding to soil, it grows quickly. Summer oilseed rape is sown in spring, summer or after the main crop has been harvested. In the flowering phase they are mown, composted or plowed into the ground. Winter oilseed rape is sown before winter at a rate of 1-2 g/m2 and used as green manure in spring.
Phacelia is a fast-growing unpretentious plant. After sowing /seed rate 8-10 g/m2/ flowers in 6 weeks. An excellent honey plant and an ideal predecessor for any vegetable crop. Plants are rich in nitrogen and decompose very quickly in the soil.
Practical examples of the use of green manure
1. Strawberry field of the 4th year of use. After the last harvest of berries: • remove the plants, • prepare the soil, • sow a mixture of vetch and winter rye before winter. • In early spring, the green mass should be embedded in the ground. • Plant cabbage after 4-6 weeks, and if the next harvest is root crops, then mow the green mass and put it on the compost.
Vetch roots enrich the soil with nitrogen and rye roots restore soil structure and heal the soil.
2. Sow mustard immediately after harvesting the new potatoes. At the end of October, close the green mass into the ground. Plant onion sets or bulbs through seedlings in spring.
3. Sow oil radish in spring before planting potatoes. Then its green mass is embedded in the ground. This use of oilseed radish is not only a good natural fertilizer, but also helps curb the spread of nematodes, namely nematodes that transmit viral diseases of potatoes, such as tuber blight.
It is also worth noting that the use of green fertilizers affects not only natural top dressing. It has a longer positive result. The positive effect of green fertilizers lasts up to 5 years. At maximum strength, this action will manifest itself in 2-3 years.
Tatyana Mikhailovna Devaterikova, Ph.D., scientis t-agronomist.
This material is adapted for placement on the Internet. Content may differ slightly from the printed source. Scientific and other data, methods and methods contained in the material are not modified.
Fertilizer table for a summer resident and the timing of their introduction
In order not to miss the deadlines for fertilizers, many summer residents make tables together, where they also indicate the type and number of tops.
For your convenience, we have collected the main fertilizers in one table. We also bring up your attention reference information about the feeding schedules of different plants.
Types of fertilizers and their uses
Now the market offers many options for feeding fertilizers.
There are several classifications of top dressing.
The first is by the method of their production. Fertilizers can be divided into organic and mineral.
Organic (dung, mullein, feces, ash) is a product of the life of living organisms. Mineral (urea, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, etc.) – were obtained thanks to the agrochemical industry.
According to the content of active substances, top dressing can be divided into nitrogenous degradation, potassium, phosphorus and complex (which approximately correspond to all the main trace elements necessary for plants).
After using the use of all funds can be divided into 3 large groups:
- The main complex fertilizer. Application in autumn or spring before landing.
- Add to landing hole. Provides culture with food first after being planted in a permanent location.
- Correction. Fertilizers are applied to adjust the diet and remove the lack of trace elements.
The use of nutrients is also aimed at normalizing the balance of the main trace elements and adjusting the vegetation of the plant.
What fertilizers for what to use?
Azo t-containing agents (urea, nitrate, mullein, feces) are used by a summer resident to increase green mass and growth of shoots. Their introduction falls in the first weeks after planting in open ground or greenhouse.
Potassium (ash, potassium sulfate) and phosphorus (superphosphate) are used to improve flowering, the formation of ovaries and fruits. They are fed 2-3 times per season.
Complex products (azophosa, nitrofosk) are used by summer residents for complex soil saturation or plants with nutrients. They are usually used before planting, but can be used by a summer resident and with a lack of trace elements in a plant.
How many times can you do top dressing?
An important question is the frequency of feeding.
It is necessary to regularly feed cultivated plants in the garden and in the garden, but it is impossible to allow excess nutrients.
When preparing minerals, the summer resident should focus on the manufacturer’s recommendations. It’s harder to say about organic funds. It is necessary to look at the condition of plants and soil.
On average, the frequency of contribution of organic and folk remedies can be determined in 2-3 weeks. In this case, the amount of top dressing is usually limited to 2 or 3.
In addition, the deadline for the delivery of the top dressing depends on the ripening of the fruit.
A time fertilizer can be used for early crops. For example, in the fall on the place where the landing will be carried out.
Mid-season crops cost fertilizer in the hole and an extra top dressing or two.
Vegetables that ripen the longest (carrots, cabbage, beets) require at least 3 additions of nutrient compounds.
Table of fertilizers and timing of their application
In the table we have compiled all the important fertilizers and when to use them.
|urea||early spring. Beginning of the growing season. Nitrogen deficiency in plant tissue.|
|ammonium nitrate||early spring. Beginning of the growing season. Nitrogen deficiency in plant tissue.|
|superphosphate||Add it to the nutrition of plants during the period of budding, flowering and fruiting.|
|potassium sulfate||Add it to the nutrition of plants during the period of budding, flowering and fruiting.|
|Nitrophoska||Use at intervals of at least 3 weeks during the entire cultivation period of the crops.|
|azofoska||Use at intervals of at least 3 weeks during the entire cultivation period of the crops.|
|Nitroammophoska||Use at intervals of at least 3 weeks during the entire cultivation period of the crops.|
|mullein||When preparing planting beds. In summer as a complex remedy. Distribute in the garden in spring.|
|bird droppings||When preparing planting beds. In summer as a complex remedy. Distribute in the garden in spring.|
|ash (dry)||Use at intervals of at least 3 weeks during the entire cultivation period of the crops.|
|ash infusion||Use at intervals of at least 3 weeks during the entire cultivation period of the crops.|
|yeast solution||Application after transplanting seedlings in open ground or in a greenhouse. The optimal time is 4-5 days after the introduction of organic material.|
|banana peel||Use at intervals of at least 3 weeks during the entire cultivation period of the crops.|
|onion peel||Use at intervals of at least 3 weeks during the entire cultivation period of the crops.|
IMPORTANT! If the summer resident uses analogues of the above means, they will have to be paid for on similar terms.
Feeding schemes for vegetable crops
Now let’s look at the introduction of nutrient compositions for the main vegetable crops in terms of timing, volume and quantity.
tomatoes and peppers
Tomatoes and peppers, as related crops, need 3 basic top dressings.
The first time, after landing in a permanent place, the summer resident needs to feed at the stage of 3 pairs of deciduous leaves. A solution of mullein or nitrophoska is suitable.
The second time comes at the time of flowering. Essential trace elements: potassium and phosphorus. You can get by with ash infusion.
The third term comes at the time of fruiting. Use all the same potassium-phosphorus mixes.
IMPORTANT! In all cases, the fertilizer consumption rate: half a liter for small bushes, 1 liter for large ones.
Two good top dressings are enough:
- The first is in the formation phase 4 of this leaf (use Azofoska or Nitrophoska).
- The second after 20 – 25 days (watering with nutrient compounds under the root and processing along the leaf).
Consumption – 1 liter per 1 cucumber bush.
onion and garlic
Onion plants are fed twice. Use a special blend for onions and garlic both times. The interval is 20 days. For each plant – up to 200 grams of fertilizer.
beets and carrots
Fertilization and timing are the same for both crops. The first top dressing is carried out a few weeks after planting (Nitrophoska). The second after another half a month (Nitrophoska), the last – after another 3 weeks. This time the summer resident should use potassium sulfate.
Fertilizing schemes for fruit trees
Trees are fed according to the following scheme:
April (May for the northern regions) – the introduction of urea (40 g per square meter). An alternative is bird droppings (5-7 liters per tree).
May (June for the northern regions) – summer residents should make a mixture of 50 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium sulfate). Application of fertilizers in the form of liquid solutions.
June – after the end of flowering introduction of nitroammofoska and wood ash (50 g + 150 g) for each tree.
ON A NOTE. During fruiting, the summer resident can also do 1-2 tree feedings.
Top dressing schemes for berry crops
Now we will discuss when summer residents should fertilize berry bushes (raspberries, gooseberries, currants, strawberries).
- gooseberry. 300 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate – use when planting. 30 g urea – application before sprouting. 5 kg of humus, 40 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate, half a glass of ash – use in the fall.
- Raspberry. When planting, add 8 kg of compost, 200 g of superphosphate and 2.5 cups of ash. Before flowering, feed with a solution of chicken manure. At the time of fruit set – a urea solution. In the fall, dry ash is needed.
- Currant. When planting, 8 kg of humus and 250 g of nitrophoska will be required. Before bud break, add 4 tablespoons of urea. In the fall, a complex fertilizer is needed: 4 kg of compost, 3 tablespoons of superphosphate and 1 spoon of potassium sulfate.
- Strawberry. One of the strawberry feeding schemes looks like this. In early spring – nitrophoska, during budding – potassium sulfate or ash, during fruiting – ash infusion, in the fall – 5 tablespoons of superphosphate, 7 tablespoons of ammonium nitrate, 5 tablespoons of potassium sulfate per square meter.
How and when to fertilize flowers, schemes
Garden flower gardeners need to be fed according to the following scheme.
- Fertilizing after planting seedlings. To stimulate the growth of the green part, nitrogen fertilizers are taken (mullein, litter, urea, ammonium nitrate).
- Application of fertilizers in the budding phase. In time, before the start of flowering, the summer resident must have time to feed themselves with fertilizers containing phosphorus (superphosphate).
- You can support flowering with an ash solution, yeast or onion mixture.
What to do if the plants are overfed?
Helps flush nutrients from the soil. The flooded culture should be watered abundantly (up to one and a half buckets per square meter). And don’t forget to loosen the soil. Next, the soil is mulched.
When using fertilizers, it is important to take care of your own safety.
- use protective equipment. Respiratory organs, eyes and hands must be protected from chemicals. If feeding leaves, wear long sleeves and a hat.
- Prepare the use solution outdoors to avoid being poisoned by fumes.
- Most premixes have a limited shelf life, so only mix up as much fertilizer as you will use. “Acid” fertilizer can be harmful to plants.
- Do not work on a windy or sunny day. Foliar feeding should be done on a windless day in the morning or evening with no sun.
It is also necessary to remember to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for dosage, timing and methods of fertilizing.
IMPORTANT! Do not spray toxic fertilizers during the flowering period, as such mixtures can be harmful to bees. And if pollination does not occur, then the fruits will not be tied.
It’s easy to make mistakes when working with fertilizers. We have collected the most common ones.
- The summer resident uses cold water to make a working solution. In cold water, granular fertilizers almost do not dissolve. As a result, the solution is very weak and ineffective.
- The summer resident carries out a leaf fertilization in front of the rain. As a result, all fertilizers are washed off and it makes no sense to make them out.
- The summer resident carries out leaf fertilization in windy weather. First, it is hazardous to health, secondly, the wind blows the liquid off the leaves and drives.
- The summer resident chooses the wrong concentration. In the event of lack of active substances, the fertilizer is weak and ineffective, at high concentration the fertilizer can burn the roots or drives.
- The summer resident chooses the wrong time for fertilization. Every feeding has its own time. For example, nitroge n-containing preparations should be used at the beginning of the vegetation period (in spring and in the first half of June) and potash and phosphorus at the time of flowering and forming ovaries.
- The summer resident makes too much fertilizer of a certain variety. This error “overfeeded” the plants. In the best case, you simply start to “meave” (ie gather green mass), in the worst case you get sick.
- The summer resident produces fertilizers according to the same principle of action. For example, urea and ammonium nitrate or urea and royal candle solution.
- The summer resident does not pay attention to crop rotation. Timely fertilization by the summer resident is leveled by growing the same plants in the same places. In the ground, pathogens accumulate, the soil itself becomes poorer and loses its fertility.
Is it possible to combine organic and mineral fertilizers?
Yes, but it is important to choose them so that they complement each other.
When we speak of the time of day, then in the morning. Therefore, fertilization should be carried out strictly according to the fertilizer plan.
So that the fertilizer can develop the maximum effect, it is necessary to understand exactly which top dressing and what is needed, when and in which dosage it is used.
At the same time, it is important to be flexible and not only to follow instructions and instructions clumsy, but also to check the weather and above all the condition of the plants.