At what distance to plant excavators?
To get a hig h-quality grape harvest, you must create certain conditions for a fruit plant. Gardeners adhere to a prefabricated schedule for irrigation, temperature and other factors. It is also important to observe the correct distance between shrubs. A suitable land scheme enables the system to develop with comfort, and care will be as comfortable as possible.
It is necessary to determine the corresponding circle of land before the vineyard is determined because the transplantation of fruit plants will be problematic and undesirable. The selection of the distance is influenced by many factors, since fertility can be achieved regularly.
Despite the fact that grapes are regarded as sustainable and unpretentious culture, it needs optimal growth conditions.
When choosing a suitable cultivation program, gardeners take a number of criteria into account.
- Type of growth of the variety and structure of the plant. Large, mediu m-sized and stunted varieties are differentiated. The structure of the bush can spread or be compact.
- Climate in the region of growth.
- The composition and structure of the soil.
- The pollination method is given in the description for each variety. Women, male or sel f-set flowers can grow on vine. Between independent varieties leave more space than between varieties with intersection.
- Variant of support (with use).
- The number of seedlings.
- Growth time.
The distance between plants is due to the following factors:
- the needs of a specific variety in the lighting, the volume of nutrient components and space;
- The possibility of a maximum thickening of landing without loss of productivity.
Experienced summer residents consider the properties mentioned above to be exclusive and when creating a national scheme you have to look for a compromise. The main thing is to take into account the basic requirements of the variety of cultivation conditions. The distance between bushes influences the yield of the fruit culture. Many gardeners without experience make the landing too thick and want to get the maximum of berries from a square meter of a square meter, but as a result, the fruit ban only deteriorated.
If the plants have been planted too close to each other, they have to dilute the vine regularly to free the maximum free space. An too thick plant mass disturbs the sun rays to heat the berries and the oxygen metabolism is disturbed.
There is a standard option for landing.
- The diameter of the landing trove is 0.5 meters, the depth varies between 30 and 40 centimeters.
- A pipe is placed in each hole for irrigation.
- The thickness of the drainage layer is 10 to 15 centimeters. You can use broken brick, crushed stone or small stones.
- A layer of fertile soil is poured over it that was dug out of the landing pit. When the country is heavy on the site, it is mixed with a small amount of sand. The pens are driven here.
- Between shrubs, they leave a gap of 1.5 to 3 meters, depending on the splendor of the bush.
- The plant hole is filled with the rest of the earth. A young plant is poured with a lot of water. To maintain moisture and protection against weeds, a mulch layer of organic raw materials (sawdust, needles, wood shavings and other options) is placed on it.
Note: Depending on the climate, the grapes are planted in the region in autumn or spring.
The grapes should be planted from one another at such a distance that each plant feels comfortable during the entire growing season.
Between the bushes
In the size of the freedom between the bushes, the growth rate, the time of the ripening, the vegetation volume and the splendor of the crown must be taken into account. Lo w-growing grapes are planted at a distance of 1.5 to 2 meters, with mediu m-sized varieties they leave a distance of 2 to 3 meters and when types of sprinkles leave three or more meters. Such a distance between the vines not only ensures a stable yield, but also prevents fungal infections and other diseases. Obst cultures often begin to pain due to too thick planting.
Early varieties are cut regularly to save space on the site. In such varieties, the shoots continue to grow after the harvest. This property lacks late grapes. Experienced gardeners recommend paying attention to every variety of natural light.
For example, white grapes need a metered amount of light, and in the event of an excess of it, the berries get angry. But red varieties love a lot of light. It is necessary for the maturation of a juicy and tasty harvest.
The choice of a suitable row distance is influenced by:
- The use of mechanization tools that are used when maintaining the grapes is necessary for their passage to leave enough space so as not to damage the vine;
- Distance between plants in neighboring rows;
- Vineyard configuration;
The main criterion is the distance between the plants. If it has 3 to 3.5 meters in a row, the division in the corridor should be the same. Otherwise there is an excessive arrangement in the transverse direction between the bushes. There is an opinion that the rows can be arranged more closely when installing a tw o-row trellis. In many cases, this plant pattern takes place and is suitable for most grape varieties.
The next important point is the direction of the rows for every variety. For white grapes, the vertical arrangement of the sun rays is ideal, while red wine bushes are planted in parallel with the lighting direction. This can create optimal conditions for the achievement of high taste qualities and the formation of clusters.
For wall carpets
Spelles are often used in the cultivation of most horticultural cultures. With the help of supports you can conveniently position a long vine. When calculating the row distance, the grid is taken into account. When using a on e-level chemical, there is space up to 2 meters, while the fruit harvest is processed manually. Two-level options are also widespread. The rows distance is calculated from the upper edge of the support. In manual processing of shrubs, the distance is 2 meters and when using garden mechanized devices is 3 to 4 meters.
In order to achieve better illumination, gardeners make sure that the branches attached to the trellis have a distance of 10-20 centimeters. You should also take into account the width and height of the crown. Refined grapes require an increased amount of nutrients compared to native varieties. The structure of the root plant is also not neglected: in some varieties they root deep and reach far into the ground, with others they sit in the upper layers of the earth. The arrangement of the wall carpets used affects the lighting. It can be adjusted by changing the distance between the sockets.
Tables were put together that indicate the distance between the plants, whereby the root system of the plant and the type of installed trellis were taken into account.
On e-way wall carpets:
- Roo t-based grapes – a distance of 2.5 to 3 meters;
- the same types of shrubs, but with a drip irrigation system – a distance of 3 to 3.5 meters;
- Branded grapes – the gap between the bushes remains the same (3-3.5 meters);
- Planted plants with a drip irrigation system – from 3.5 to 4 meters.
Scheme for wall carpets with two levels;
- Shrubs with their own root system – from one and a half to 2 meters;
- Roo t-based grapes that are irrigated with a drip system – from 1.8 to 2.5 meters;
- Branded fruit cultures – from 1.8 to 2.5 meters;
- Refined grapes with irrigation through a drip system – from 2.5 to 3 meters.
When creating this table, the gardeners used the standard distance between the vines, which varies between 10 and 15 centimeters and 20 to 25 centimeters.
You can achieve the maximum yield by calculating the optimal number of shoots. Shrubs should have enough strength to not only form green mass, but also large tufts.
For industrial varieties
Large plantings should be arranged when growing fruit cultures on an industrial scale. In order to maintain a large vineyard, special droplets are installed. They regularly moisten the shrubs and keep the desired moisture upright in the ground. And also install trellis with one level. When cultivation, it is not complete without the use of special fertilizers. The required amount of nutrients ensures the formation of a juicy, tasty and fragrant harvest.
To save space on the site, you can leave a distance of one and a half meters between the plants, and at least three meters should be left between the rows so that all agricultural machinery can pass freely.
Plant distance in the greenhouse
Within the boundaries of the northern regions, grapes are often planted in greenhouses, especially when growing hea t-loving varieties. Some species do not tolerate low temperatures and can even die. Grow houses contribute to creating pleasant conditions for shrubs and protecting them from the moods of the weather. You can install additional light sources and heaters to maintain a pleasant temperature.
The dimensions of modern greenhouses do not always enable us to comply with the recommended landing schemes, but special greenhouse conditions enable the distance to reduce the distance, while damage to plants without damage. Food, lighting and irrigation occur artificially and are controlled, so insignificant thickening is quite acceptable. Lights and ultraviolet lights are most frequently used here. With greenhouse construction between the rows, up to 2 meters are left, while the shrubs are planted at a distance of one and a half meters. This landing program is selected by many gardeners across Russia.
How to plant grapes correctly: distances, secrets of successful grapes
Plants of plants are carried out, taking into account an increase in autonomous mass, the distribution of nutrients from the ground, optimal lighting conditions. These requirements are particularly important for grapes, otherwise it is not possible to receive an abundant harvest.
Grapes are a certain plant that requires certain conditions. It is important to provide temperature, lighting and normal irrigation plan.
In addition, it is important for grapes to ensure the correct distance between the vines, which results in the optimal distribution of sunlight and the moisture from the ground.
How to choose distances when planting grapes
Grapes are attributed to unpretentious and viable plant species. In order to maintain the harvest, however, it needs optimal conditions, which makes the plants very demanding in all aspects of content.
Factors that influence the distance between the grapes:
- Variety – there are stunned, mediu m-sized or extensive species that require different landing schemes.
- Sentence on the spot;
- The pollination method are male, female and sel f-fertile plants. If the pollination is cros s-way, you should not increase the distance, but this requirement is not relevant for independent varieties.
- Characteristics of climate and weather in the region;
- the tire time, through which the necessary degree of light lighting is determined;
- The volume of the planter;
- Type of grids.
The choice of the distance between the bushes is due to two criteria:
- the need for the most effective filling of the website;
- The needs of this variety in free space, lighting, the number of nutrients from the ground.
These are mutually exclusive criteria that require a compromise solution. At the same time, the priority of choice is given the needs of plants. With the dense filling of the vineyard, you can use the area effectively, but do not deliver the expected results – it is impossible to obtain an abundant harvest under such conditions.
We determine the distance in the series
The main criterion in this matter will be the special features of the plant grapes. The standard size of the crown, the speed and volume of the vegetation period, the maturation period is taken into account. The distances between the bushes (in the row):
- Low-growing varieties –1.5-2 m;
- Medium-sized 2-3 m;
- Sparting – 3 m or more.
Be sure to take into account the period of ripening the berries and a variety of grapes. Early varieties can be trimmed by saving the area of the area, since their shoots develop after harvesting, which is not observed in later varieties.
In addition, it is necessary to take the need for lighting into account – the varieties of white grapes require a dosed light supply, otherwise the berries are acidic. On the contrary, red varieties require maximum lighting – this makes the berries the sweetest and the big one.
It is also necessary to take into account the landing conditions and the type of root system of bushes. The type of grid influences the degree of lighting, which is adjusted by changing the distance between the bushes.
The type of root system is also important – vaccinated bushes require increased supply of nutrients than rows. The dependence of the distance from these factors can be clearly seen in the table:
|Type of grids and type of root system||The distance between the bushes|
|Singl e-decided grille, root bushes||2.5-3 m|
|Single Clockwork grille, hesitation – -free bushes with drip irrigation||3-3.5 m|
|Singl e-designed lattice bushes, vaccinated bushes||3-3.5 m|
|Singl e-accused grille, vaccinated bushes with drip irrigation||3.5-4 m|
|Double aircraf t-grille, root bushes||1.5-2 m|
|Double leve l-lock, rows – -free bushes with drip irrigation||1.8-2.5 m|
|Double system, vaccinated bushes||1.8-2.5 m|
|Double system, vaccinated bushes with drip irrigation||2.5-3 m|
The distances specified in the table are calculated based on the optimal distance between the shots of 10 to 15 cm (minimal) and 20-25 cm (optimal). You also have to calculate the number of shoots so that the bush has enough green mass to feed the clusters.
Most vineyards, taking into account all factors, are the optimal distance of 3 to 3.5 m.
Selection of a distance between rows
The width of the corridors is determined by various factors:
- the distance between the bushes of the neighboring rows;
- the availability of mechanization tools, for which a certain width of the series is required;
- Lighting conditions, features of the configuration of the vineyard.
The main factor is seen as a distance between the bushes. If it is accepted 3-3.5 m in the line, the step of the lines of the lines should be the same. Otherwise, close the location of the bushes in the transverse direction of the location, which deprives the importance of the state scheme in the series.
Some grapes believe that the ranks can be close together if a 2-rush grid is used.
They argue this through the fact that the area of the location for a bush is still sufficient for its development.
In most cases, however, this applies if the plants belong to propagation varieties, the distances in the area must be calculated for each incline.
In addition, varieties that have to darken clusters (white grapes) are. For them it is necessary to reduce the distance between the rows to reduce the sun’s rays.
An important point – the direction of the rows for white grapes is better perpendicular to the fall of the sun’s rays and for red – parallel to them. This results in optimal conditions for the development of clusters and offer the ideal taste of the berries.
Advantages and disadvantages of the competent placement of bushes
- The ability to offer plants the optimal regime of the vegetation period, development and formation of fruit bodies.
- The ability to get up to 2 cultures per year (if there are favorable conditions).
- The maximum size of the berries, the best taste.
- Lack of diseases, optimal conditions for plant supply, protection against pests or external factors.
- The need to compare many exposure factors when determining distances is necessary to examine the special features of the existing variety of plants and the general agricultural technology.
- The area of the location is not consumed economically.
It must be understood that the term “cons” even in this case is conditional, since here we mean specific requirements for planting crops in a particular area. Attempts to eliminate the deficiencies do not bring improvement, but on the contrary worsen the condition of the facilities.
When planting grapes in a greenhouse
Residents of many regions prefer to plant grapes in greenhouses, not hoping for good weather and climatic conditions.
A summer that is too cold can destroy a vine that has been carefully tended for several years.
The dimensions of the greenhouses are not too suitable for full compliance with the landing patterns. However, the conditions of plant growth in the greenhouse make it possible to reduce the distance.
A certain crowding in this case will not cause any noticeable harm, since most often both the diet and the lighting of the bushes are created artificially, using drip irrigation and ultraviolet lighting.
The recommended distance between rows is 2 m, between bushes (in one row) – 1.5 m. Such planting patterns are used everywhere.
It is noteworthy that the greenhouse cultivation method is used not only in the northern countries. In China, it is common for large greenhouses to be installed even in the Arabian Peninsula.
Therefore, this method of growing grapes should not be considered as a kind of substitute for full-fledged cultivation of plants, it is an absolutely effective method, highly appreciated by professionals.
There are many schemes for planting grapes. There is no point in considering them until there is comprehensive information about the needs of the selected variety. First you need to study the plant and learn everything about the conditions and features of its vegetation.
Only after that it is possible to draw conclusions about which landing pattern is preferable in this case, and what distances between the bushes are considered best.
If climatic conditions allow growing plants in open ground, then it is necessary to take into account the location of the rows relative to the sun. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the characteristics of the varieties – white grapes should be shaded a little during the formation and ripening of grapes, and red grapes need the maximum amount of sunlight.
When choosing the distance, the composition of the soil should be taken into account. The poorer it is, the greater the distance between the bushes should be so that the amount of nutrients is sufficient.
At the same time, it is necessary to actively feed the plants, and during planting it makes sense to fill the hole with a special mixture for grapes.
A single tier trellis does not always provide a sufficient length of supports to accommodate shoots. Usually only 2-3 ten centimeters are missing. For this reason, it is not advisable to change the layout of the plants. It is easier to make a visor and use it to increase the length of the support.
This allows you to maintain the distance between plants and improve the conditions of care – the height of the trellis does not increase, there is no need to use stairs and other devices.
For bushes with actively developing green mass, it is recommended to use an arched trellis. The length of the shoots in such varieties exceeds 3 meters, so it is not advisable to use a conventional support with a height of 2-2.5 m.
The bases of the arches should be set at a distance that corresponds to the chosen planting pattern and the shoots should be placed on the upper tiers.