Diseases of garden plants

What to complain about? Diseases of garden plants and how to protect against them

Like all living things, the beautiful flowers which adorn the garden, the lush shrubs and the hardy toilers sometimes get sick. What diseases can be waiting for green pets and how to protect them from diseases?

What to complain about?

What’s to complain about?

Sometimes we wait for the same abundance of fruit after a tree has bloomed so lushly, but… The fruit, not ripe, begins to somehow advance and be dry. Or ugly, rusty spots appear on the leaves of our favorite roses, and all of the rootstock discs are covered in white plaque in no time.

All of these grim signs – early wilting, yellowing of leaves, falling buds and fruit, spreading spots, plaque or rust – tell us that trouble has happened to the plant and it urgently needs to be rescued. But how do you know what exactly? After all, the methods of treatment and their success depend on the diagnosis. And there are many types of diseases that threaten garden plants, and not always only an expert can cope with them, because the symptoms of different diseases are often very similar. Let’s break it down.

What are plant diseases

Black spotted rose is a dangerous fungal disease. It can only be cured if recognized in time.

Plant diseases can be divided into two large groups: non-infectious and infectious. Non-infectious or physiological diseases result from negative environmental influences or improper care. If a plant suddenly stops growing or is too stunted, its leaves turn yellow and dry out, turn pale or woody, its buds droop, barely bud or not bud at all, these are real symptoms of a defect or excessive nutrients or base acid does not meet the requirements of the plant… Black rose spots are a dangerous fungal disease. It can only be cured if recognized in time.

Or maybe your location is characterized by proximity to groundwater or high soil density. Perhaps the plant has been damaged by winter frosts, or the source of long standing meltwater or a return frost. Problems can also arise from a lack of sunlight or an excess of sunlight (for shade-loving plants).

Mechanical damage is dangerous – the collapse of branches caused by an abundance of fruit, wind, snowfall or freezing rain. There are also so-called anthropogenic factors: soil contamination with heavy metals, air contamination, mistakes of gardeners – for example, improper or not modern protection during protection and improper use.

What to do? If the disease occurred in the soil due to a lack or excess of certain nutrients and improper water regime, it can be stopped by analyzing the situation and creating conditions appropriate to this system. Well, if the disease has gone too far and is difficult to affect the whole organism (root and vascular system), then, unfortunately, you will have to part with this specimen.

The most common in physiological diseases are sun scald and chlorosis.

Sunburn plant systems.

Plant burns most often persist during the second half of winter, when bright sunny days are combined with frosty nights, oddly enough.

Left: Washing white trunks protects fruit trees from sunburn in the spring, when the surface tissues are most susceptible. Right

Left: A whitewashing of the trunks protects fruit trees from sunburn in the spring, when the surface tissues are most susceptible. Right

By “waking up” beforehand, the tree or shrub “triggers” its vital processes and becomes susceptible. When a burning sensation occurs, the surface tissues die off first, and then the lesion spreads deeper.

  • Choose weakly weeded varieties,
  • Do not overfeed plants with nitrogen, nitrogen, suitcase and do not tie up plants for the winter.
  • Clean off dead bark,
  • Trim off damaged branches.
  • Cronyize “wounds” of garden varieties.
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Chlorosis .

When chlorosis occurs in a plant, chlorophyll formation in the leaves is impaired and photosynthetic activity is reduced. Leaves first turn yellow along the veins and then the whole leaf. Causes are many: lack of iron, magnesium, zinc, high pH values, poor floor ventilation, high concentration of sodium and calcium salts.

After determining the cause, treat the plant with appropriate fertilizer: salts of iron, magnesium, zinc, norm and improve soil ventilation. Read more about this disease and the possibilities through which you can get chlorosis plants in the article: with what and how to treat.

Physiological diseases are not only dangerous in and of themselves, but also because they open the way to all kinds of infections. Bacteria and fungal spores slowly penetrate weakened plants through damaged tissues, and water, high humidity and summer heat are extremely favorable environment for their rapid development.

Infectious plant diseases

Infectious diseases got their names “thanks to” the causative agents: bacteria and fungi. They manifest as unsympathetic spots on the leaves and knees of the plant (all kinds of spots), mold-like plaques (powdery mildew and false powdery mildew), overgrowth (bacterial cancer), rotting of roots, stems and leaves (decay) and the production of smolder.

Left: American Mildew, the creeper, black and red currants. Right: irregular mildew. Almost all plants are affected. It occurs more often on acidic floors and in cool, wet weather.

Left: American mildew – ants, black and red currants. Right: irregular mildew. Almost all plants are affected. It occurs more often on acidic floors and in cool, inclement weather The first class for such symptoms is surgery only! Remove the damaged parts immediately, before all the spots and growths cover the whole system and the infection penetrates the vascular system and sprays all parts of the plant organism.

For prevention and treatment of fungal diseases, use preparations containing copper – for example, Bordeaux liquid (you can learn about it in the article and-Bordeaux mixture and preparation rules for preparation). And other fungicides – substances that protect plants from pathogenic fungi and those already developing.

Use preparations containing copper to prevent and treat fungal diseases

Using preparations containing copper for the prevention and treatment of fungal diseases

A wide variety of such preparations are now available, including contact or topical preparations that protect the plant surface, and systemic (complex) preparations that penetrate plant cells and inhibit the spread of disease throughout the body. In addition, fungicides are divided into chemical and biological (the active ingredients in them are bacteria that cause the death of pathogenic fungi). The latter are less toxic, non-addictive and do not accumulate in the ground, so they are increasingly preferred.

You can choose fungicides with our marketing catalog of products from various online stores.

But all fungicides must be used strictly according to the instructions and with caution. If you immediately start treating fungal diseases before the whole plant is affected, most of them can be defeated. If the disease is systemic in nature, the roots or trunk are affected, it is more difficult to save the “patient”. It is better to get rid of it, so that the disease does not spread to “neighbors” – other plants, and did not take the nature of the epidemic.

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What diseases can provoke fungi?

Moniliosis and cochium

Moniliosis and coccomycosis are dangerous diseases of stone fruit trees, which in their time destroyed many cherry orchards.

Cocanthikomycosis - a fungal disease that most often affects the leaves and fruits of stone plants

Kokonitsimik is a fungal disease that most often affects the leaves and fruits of stone fruit plants

Preventive measures – and spraying with medicines and other fungicides before budding, during budding and after flowering will help protect against them. If individual branches are damaged, trim them as quickly as possible with the capture of healthy tissues.

Much more resistant to moniliosis and coccidiosis are cherry and ducas (cherry and cherry hybrids)

Much more resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis are cherry and dukes (cherry and cherry hybrids)


Rust is a fungal disease that can affect virtually all trees and shrubs. Their symptoms vary, but in general it is the presence of pustules (globules), from which fungus spores resembling rusty powder are released after maturation. Rust pathogens need an intermediate host. For example, for apple trees it can be juniper. Therefore, it is better to isolate them spatially from intermediate hosts and give preference to rust-resistant varieties. Spraying with fungicides also helps prevent the disease.

Use fungicide preparations in strict accordance with the instructions and safety precautions

Use antifungal preparations in strict accordance with the instructions and observing safety precautions


Rot is a disease that causes crusting and decomposition of tissues. Fruit rot (e.g., apple rot), white rot and gray rot, and fruit rot (black stem) are the most common.

Fruit rot is a fungal disease that affects the fruit of almost all fruit crops, but more so on apples and pears

Fruit rot is a fungal disease that affects the fruit of almost all fruit crops, but to a greater extent – apples and pears.

You can get rid of this scourge only by destroying (burning) the rotten fruits, destroying the sores, and spraying with ferrous sulfate or Bordeaux liquid (before flowering, during ovary and twenty days after the second spraying).

Infections can also be viral: insects (aphids, thrips, cicadas) or fungal spores become their carriers. Sometimes viruses are introduced into plants by pruning, pruning, or dividing.

Left: Red panicle bloom on currants is not a disease, but an infestation on leafy ridges of berries gallica. Right: Plants weakened by pests are most vulnerable

Left: Red bloat on currants is not a disease but a leaf infestation – currant midge. Right: Plants weakened by pests are most vulnerable, but to recognize a viral disease is not so easy. After all, with good care and regular feeding, symptoms may not appear or appear very weakly. Sometimes the virus infection is expressed in deformation and stunted growth of leaves or the whole plant (dwarfism). But more often it appears in the form of spots, stripes, dashes or rings of varying intensity on the leaves, stems and flowers. The cause of this variegated coloration is usually a mosaic virus or a virus that causes ringworm. Often this does not look entirely reasonable and repeatedly leads to the death of the plant.

But remember: the virus poses a potential threat to other plants that may not be as resistant. And, unfortunately, no cure for viruses has yet been invented, so it is advisable to get rid of the sick plant.

Text: O. Uvarova. Photo: Legion Media, R. Koenig/Bliquinkel/Russian Eye.

All about plant diseases

Plant diseases are understood as processes occurring in plants under the influence of various kinds of causes, which may include pathogenic microorganisms and unfavorable conditions of the external world, as well as functional disorders of the plant organism. To date, a large number of diseases that can not only negatively affect the life of the plant, but also cause premature death, have been differentiated.

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Overview of non-infectious diseases

Due to negative effects of the environment or certain microorganisms, non-infectious diseases can also cause a disruption of normal metabolism. It is with non-infectious diseases that photosynthesis, protein metabolism and other processes essential to plants are very often disrupted.

A characteristic feature of non-infectious diseases is that they appear as a result of undesirable external conditions, which leads to significant changes in the life of the plant.

Among the characteristic features of infectious diseases we can distinguish the following.

  • The absence of pathogens that cause problems with the life of the plant.
  • Such diseases cannot be transmitted from one system to another.
  • The system can only be cured by eliminating the external factor that causes the disease.
  • Non-infectious diseases usually arise from a lack or excess of nutrients, exposure to high or low temperatures.

In addition, one of the causes of non-communicable diseases in today’s world is severe environmental pollution, which plays quite a big role for plants. For this reason, it is recommended to give priority to watering and providing plants with nutrients, which is the main cause of diseases.

In addition, this also includes the negative effects of ionizing radiation and toxins that are released into the ground with certain types of fungal plants.

Infectious diseases

Plants such as parsley, Manchurian walnut, garden fern, chestnuts, blueberries, Chinese lemongrass and others can be susceptible to infectious diseases, which makes them vulnerable and can cause them to become vital. Today, a large number of infectious diseases are distinguished, each with its own origin, properties and treatment.


Fungal diseases of plants are among the most common. The main cause of their appearance are phytopathogenic fungi, which are also called parasites. This type of disease is extremely harmful, as it can in a short time significantly reduce the yield and worsen the quality of production.

It is thanks to special pathogens that pathological processes have a negative impact on the structure and physiological functions of the plant, and can also lead to a complete disruption of their vital functions. The peculiarity of fungal diseases is that they can be transmitted with both seeds and roots, which greatly complicates the process of protection and prevention. The infection is so strong that they can persist both in the residues that formed after harvesting, and in the soil itself.

In addition, pathogens are often carried by wind or rain, negatively affecting the entire crop.


Bacterial plant diseases, also known as bacteriophages, are a major problem in many agricultural plants, including tobacco, cabbage, cucumbers and others. It should be noted that the problems can be general, causing the death of an entire plant species, affecting only certain organs. As for pathogens, there are a large number of bacterial families, both more and more specialized.

Multiple variants are more destructive because they can destroy entire plantings of potatoes, onions, tomatoes and other plants. As for specialized bacteria, they usually cause disease in beans, cucumbers and other plants, including citrus. Bacterial diseases require an infectious principle, which can arise from failure to maintain temperature, humidity or other nuances.

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This type of plant disease is caused by viruses, which can affect almost all of the floral, conifer and fungal families. It is viral diseases that very often cause death of agricultural plants and deterioration of their quality. This type of disease can be divided into mosaic and jaundice. The main symptom of mosaic is the uneven coloration of the leaves, caused by problems in the apparatus of their leaf cells. The maximum harmfulness of this disease extends to tobacco, tomatoes and potatoes.

In general, it can be a major problem for damage to potatoes, citrus and fungi. The only way to control such diseases is to use immune strains that can resist the viruses.

Special pesticides can also be used to keep agricultural plants safe.


Such diseases are caused by special herbivorous organisms that can be seen not only on agricultural plants, but also on wild plants. Very often these diseases can be found in basil, seagrass, chamomile, melon and even hops. They are also dangerous to canned lettuce, vesicles of cranberry and other similar plants.

One of the most effective methods of combating such diseases is the recovery of plants and seed material, as well as the application of potassium fertilizers to the soil, which help to resist mycoplasma pests with the help of special micronutrients.

Classification of symptoms

The study of symptoms is extremely important in determining the type of disease and the choice of subsequent treatment.

By far, the most common symptoms of plant disease are distinguished.

  • Rot. Almost every serious plant disease causes rot. In this case, not only certain parts of the plant can rot, but all of it. And in rare cases, even plant organs that are rich in water and nutrients are attacked.
  • Necrosis. This is tissue death that can occur due to the pathogen and the plant’s defensive response to the pathogen.
  • Ulcers. These occur when there are problems with the parts of the plant that are supplied with water. In addition, ulcers sometimes result from softening of tissues, which is caused by an external pathogen.
  • Mosaic. They are the cause of the integrity of the leaves, their yellowing or complete obliteration. The main cause is the presence of viruses.
  • Deformation of the plant, which can be caused by any kind of disease. If this symptom is observed, it is necessary to conduct further tests on the plant to identify the causative agent of the problem.
  • Tumors and growths. They can be caused by a bacterial infection, and can also appear due to improper care of the plants with a lack of temperature or humidity, leading to viral pathogens.

The best treatment

After identifying the disease, it is necessary to immediately begin its treatment, so that it does not affect other plants and can not destroy entire plantings. When choosing the most effective remedy, it is necessary to be guided not only by its safety for the plant, but also for human health, which is especially important if the crop will be used by him.

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Today, to combat plant pathogens and diseases, several remedies are prescribed, differing in composition.

  • Inorganic, which are distinguished by the presence of fluoride, calcium or arsenic. Such a compound is quite safe if you clearly follow the instructions and use it in the approved norms.
  • Organic, which are approved for use in the presence of certain bacterial diseases. They are absolutely safe for people and the environment.
  • Biogenic, which use bacteria and fungi in the production process, so they should be used only in special cases and with extreme caution.

Until now, when searching for and choosing the best means of plant protection from many diseases, it is customary to use the classification of pesticides, which is as follows.

  • Insecticides, necessary to control insects, as well as to destroy their larvae.
  • Acarcides. They are designed to protect plants from the negative effects of mites.
  • Antibiotics. As in the case of the human body, antibiotics are designed for bacteria.
  • Fungicides, which are excellent for fighting fungal spores.
  • Herbicides, which refer to the means to get rid of weeds.
  • Nematicides, which allow you to treat plants against nematodes.

It should be noted that chemical means of protection are more effective than organic ones, because they act specifically and are able to destroy any harmful bacteria, viruses and microorganisms in a short time. The peculiarity of these preparations is that they can be made in different consistencies, which allows you to choose the best option for each specific case.

Depending on which tool was chosen, it is necessary to prepare the right mechanism or device for pollination, spraying, etc. It should be noted that each manufacturer offers clear instructions and recommendations for the use of the drug, which must be adhered to to ensure the safety of the system and the effectiveness of the use of the product. The domestic market offers a large number of preparations that are in no way inferior to foreign counterparts. Among them are Benomil, Agro, Different, Carboxyl and others. These are quite strong fungicides and antibacterial preparations that can ensure the safety of plants and protect agricultural and other plants from many pests.

It should be noted that in high quality domestic products are practically as good as their foreign counterparts, and in some cases they are even superior. And when choosing pesticides, preference should be given to the products of a company that uses only high-quality raw materials in the production process. Only such products are able to affect an active fight against pathogenic infections. Today there are a large number of plant diseases, which differ in their origin, course and peculiarities of treatment. In order to make the fight against the diseases effective, it is necessary to closely follow the definition of the type, and then choose a method of treatment. The use of special preventive active ingredients will increase yields by protecting plants from fungal diseases.

In addition, the safety of a particular drug for human and animal health must be respected in the selection process. Only the use of the right sprouts, biofungicide and a whole list of proven antibiotics will have an effect at home.

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