How and when do grapes bloom?
Everyone has seen and tasted the bunches of grapes, but how grapes bloom, not everyone has been able to observe. This is an important and beautiful period in the life cycle of the grapevine. During this stage of the growing season, the flower emerges, the stamens straighten, and pollen enters the stamens – which is how the future fruits are set. The future harvest, quality and taste of fruits depend on the flowering period and the proper care of the culture at this moment of grape development. But even experienced gardeners do not always know how to regulate the formation of ovaries and prevent the dumping of flowers with bunches.
Let’s figure out how to create the right conditions for development during flowering, how exactly this culture blossoms, what are the timing and duration of flowering, what features should be considered, for what reasons grapes can not bloom and not blossom, as well as how to correct this situation, so it is not repeated from year to year.
Timing and duration of flowering
Timing and duration of flowering of the culture depends on the region in which it grows, and the specific climatic conditions of a particular year. In most cases, however, grapes will bloom in late spring when the daytime temperature is at least 25 degrees Celsius.
Of course, there are more frost-resistant varieties. However, most species are used to the mild European climate, so they will not bear fruit if the temperature is too low.
Flowering does not come when there are prolonged rains: it is important to establish a stable dry weather. The fact is that the rain can wash away most of the pollen from the inflorescences, and the fruit will not set, and you can not expect a rich harvest. For the same reason it is undesirable to move this crop at the time of flowering. And if the rain still does not stop, some gardeners take the opportunity to artificially pollinate the vine, so that the harvest is not lost in embryo.
Warning. Wind, as well as rain, is undesirable – it not only blows away pollen, but also breaks the flowers that have already appeared. Therefore, during this period, it is worth to protect the vine plantations from adverse natural influences as much as possible.
The flowering process lasts a few hours in the morning, and then the buds usually close. Although some flowers bloom during the day. The course of grape fertilization lasts about 2 weeks. Not only favorable or unfavorable weather, but also certain soils affect the number of ovaries that appear. If the soil is too poor and does not contain enough nutrients, the bunches will be small and there will be very few.
Care features before flowering
During budding, the temperature should be at least 18 degrees Celsius, the humidity should be minimal. In this case, the formation of ovaries takes place. Under unfavorable weather conditions, the culture can simply drop inflorescences. In this case, the grape needs artificial pollination.
To do this, one takes spatulas with glued fur and touches about 15 flowers on both sides with pollen from the inflorescences and transferred to other flowers, with the spatulas regularly penetrating each other. It is recommended that this procedure be done with tau after departure in the morning, but until about 9 o’clock before the bright sun arrives. If, however, the humidity lingers or it rains, artificial pollination should be repeated several times.
Artificial pollination of bisexual varieties can be done by shaking the wire on which the vine rests. It is sufficient to repeat this process during the opening of the buds. Or apply exposure to a weak stream of air from an installation at a distance of at least 0.5 m. The quality of pollination can be checked by inspecting on which flowers of the grape stigmas: they should be brown.
During the growth of new shoots, the haulm in relation to the timing. After recognizing the fixed caps, the shoots should be pruned. Experienced gardeners use one of the following effective methods.
Hard pruning. If the vine grows too fast or a certain variety is susceptible to flower damage from a downpour, you should remove part of the shoot by hard pruning and leave 5-7 leaves above the inflorescence.
The method of soft pruning is to remove only the crown with 2 leaves.
Such a procedure for a system in the inflorescence formation stage slows down the grapes in growth for 2 weeks, the productivity of the plant increases. In August-September, the number of berries will increase, their weight will also increase.
During the flowering of the culture, the further taste of the bunches can be improved, if 5 days after the appearance of flower inflorescences, carry out certain fertilizers. To do this, take complex compositions containing potassium, boron and nitrogen.
In addition, in specialized stores, you can stimulate preparations that significantly increase the opening of the buds. Such compositions are better carried out in the morning phase of the opening of inflorescences at a distance of one meter from the trellis. Dispersed sulfur is also suitable for this purpose.
In order to provide nutrition to the vine and at the same time promote its flowering, a mixture of organic and mineral fertilizers is applied in the spring and early summer. A common mistake of some farmers is to over-fertilize grapes. Then the useful elements go to the build-up of leaf mass, and the plant later does well.
The formation of inflorescences
In grape varieties with large bunches, especially in them, the most promising ones are removed. The plant is spared unnecessary stress, and the nutrients are sure to be if necessary.
When caring for the culture during the emergence of inflorescences, the following restrictions must be observed:
The crop is not watered, as excessive moisture is detrimental to the pollination process.
Chemical formulation at this stage of vine development is undesirable;
Floors should not be overpollinated and found.
Why grapes do not bloom and what to do?
It happens that bushes drop flowers, even if all the recommendations for care are followed. Let’s understand why this can happen.
Excess water in the soil layer means the appearance of peas on the ovaries, the intricate formation of bunches and crowning of the formed ovaries. The fact is that stagnant moisture in the soil simply does not let air into the soil layers, so the leaves are too chlorinated and do not get the substances necessary for growth and development of grapes. Roots in excessively waterlogged soil also die.
Increased humidity has a bad effect on the number of grape ovipositions. For example, rainy weather disrupts proper and timely pollination of the crop, as pollen simply washes moisture away from the plants.
Sudden frosts cause fruit-bearing shoots to die. Despite the fact that the culture replaces the buds, these second shoots bloom weaker, and sometimes give only leaves without flowers, which, of course, affects the amount of harvest in the future.
Improper pruning of grapes can also cause a lack of flowers. For example, if a 3-year-old vine has fertile shoots or gets rid of them, the plant only gains leaves without further flowering. For this reason, it is necessary to leave at least 8-10 buds.
How to bloom and what to do if flowering does not start in time?
The timing of flowering of grapes is very important for growth and development. The quality of the harvest and its quantity depends largely on the correct care of the plant at this time of year.
Description and duration of flowering
The flowering time of the grape varies depending on the region in which it grows. As a rule, flowers appear in the second half of May. The duration of flowering depends on the grape variety. Usually flowering lasts about 10-12 days.
The vine begins to bloom at the base. It is completely covered with flowers only after a few days. The flowers of the grapes are small. They form decent inflorescences. During the first flowering, grapes are pollinated. At this time, the flowers become moist and lighter in color.
Both young and mature grapes need special care during flowering.
Young shoots begin to grow vigorously in early summer. At this point, the gardener must do everything so that the plant gives all its energy to the formation of fruits, and not to the greenery. To do this, the shoots need to be fixed. If flowers appear on the branches of the grapes and green shoots are activated, a hard washing is needed. The gardener should remove part of the shoot and leave no more than 5-6 large leaves above the inflorescence. If there are not too many young shoots, the gardener will suffer a crown with 2-3 leaves.
Timely pruning will slow the growth of the plant for 10-14 days. At the same time, the fruits will bear much better fruit.
You can increase the productivity of the plant by paying attention to additional pollination. There are various ways to do this.
- During the flowering period, the gardener should simply walk along the vineyard and gently shake the vine. This is best done in the early morning.
- You can use special devices for pollination. They are made very simply. Rabbit fur is attached to small plywood blades. The resulting tool of sprayed flowers is properly assembled. To do this, the fur must be easily guided over the surface of the buds. In the same usual motions, the pollen is transferred to the fertilized flowers. It is also advisable to treat grapes in the early morning after the dew is delayed. It is a good idea to pollinate bushes in rainy or foggy weather.
If very few flowers have formed on the grapes, the situation can also be corrected. To do this, use preparations that can stimulate flowering. The most popular preparations that are suitable for this purpose are “Zavyaz” and “Bud”. The preparations are diluted in warm water and used to spray the plants. The use of such preparations will not only help to increase the number of flowers on the vine, but also help to protect and strengthen it from infectious diseases.
The formation of inflorescences
If the plant bears large bunches of fruit, the gardener should take care beforehand that there are not too many fruits in autumn. To do this, he must manually remove the excess inflorescences. It is necessary to leave the strongest bunches. It is best not to place them too close to each other. If everything is done correctly, the vine will not suffer from unnecessary stress in the summer.
To increase the yield of grapes during the flowering period, you can also apply fertilizer. Start fertilizing the soil only 6-7 days after the first buds appear. During flowering, it is recommended to use high-quality nitrogen fertilizers. Applying such fertilizers will help speed up the formation of ovaries. One of the best options for fertilizing is an infusion made on the basis of chicken manure. To do this, the product is mixed with water in a ratio of 2 to 3. The resulting solution should be placed in a plastic barrel and sent to a warm place for 10-12 days.
The product should be stirred regularly. Before use, the solution is diluted with water at a ratio of 1 to 10. Some gardeners recommend adding wood ash to the container. Such fertilizer is applied under the root. Complex mineral compositions are also suitable for feeding the vineyard. They can be purchased in many gardening stores.
It is recommended to apply fertilizers 4-5 days after the appearance of the first inflorescences.
In order not to harm the future fruits and the plants themselves, it is worth refusing certain procedures during the flowering of grapes.
- Watering. Excessive soil moisture negatively affects the condition of the plant, as well as the quality of pollination.
- Treatment of the vineyard with chemicals. It is worth spraying the area with them only after the end of flowering.
- Digging up the soil. In order not to damage the plot, it is not recommended to dig or loosen the soil next to the grapes.
All these procedures can be done later.
What to do if the grapes do not bloom?
Many gardeners are faced with the fact that the grapes planted on the plot do not bloom. This can have several reasons.
- Excess water. Very often grapes do not fruit because there is too much moisture in the soil. Over time, such a plant begins to weaken. To avoid this, the choice of a place for planting grapes should be approached responsibly. In addition, you should not water it too often.
- Cold winter. The most common cause of the lack of flowering is damage to the flower buds in winter. To prevent this situation, grapes should be well covered for the winter.
- varietal characteristics. There are varieties of grapes that begin to bloom later than others. Planting such a plant on your plot, it is necessary to consider all its features. If a 3-4-year-old shoot does not bloom on the plot, the owner of the plot should simply wait.
- Excessive fertilization. Gardeners know that nitrogen fertilizers promote the appearance of green leaves and flowers. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the spring. However, an excess of such fertilizers leads to the fact that the shoots of grapes become too fragile, and flowers do not appear on it at all. To avoid this, you should do without nitrogen-containing fertilizers in August. In the second half of summer, it is recommended to feed grapes with potassium and phosphorus.
- Diseases Grapes do not flower, even if it is affected by a disease such as gray column or mildew. The plant can get sick in the spring. To protect grapes, it should be treated with a suitable fungicide. This should be done no later than 6-7 days before flowering begins.
- Improper pruning. If the instar has been pruned too much, it will not flower. To avoid problems with flowering grapes, the properties of the variety must be considered when shaping.
Sometimes it happens that the plant blooms but does not bear fruit. This is usually due to the fact that the grapes on the plot are planted with female flowers. Pollination is impossible. To correct this problem, gardeners plant mostly female flowering varieties along with bisexual varieties.
If you take proper care of your vineyard and follow the advice of experienced gardeners, there are no problems with flowering and fruit formation.