Grape varieties for the Moscow region
Grapes have become not only a southern culture. Previously, it was a sullen heat-loving plant with a long ripening period. But now there are many varieties that grow successfully in the middle belt, and in the Moscow region. Moreover, their yields and taste of berries are not inferior to the southern ones. Even amateurs can grow such a culture. When choosing, you need to pay attention to the best grape varieties for the Moscow region.
Features of growth in this region
In the Moscow region, the climate is not suitable for growing traditional varieties of grapes. In May, there can be frosts, in early summer it is hot, and in August it begins to rain. Therefore, the ripening period of berries is shortened, they can crack from moisture and do not have time to overripen. Frosts as low as 30° may occur in winter.
All this creates negative conditions for the cultivation of this plant. To get plants, the gardener has to put a lot of effort. Therefore, breeders derive such varieties, which would be adapted to this climate. Their main differences from traditional – they must be early and frost-resistant.
If you choose the right variety, you can get good plants without much effort. Growing grapes in the suburbs even has its advantages – there is not such a high activity of pests and diseases.
How to choose the right variety
Now there are new varieties with better properties. That is why it is so difficult for a beginner gardener to choose the right one. It is necessary to know the reviews about the best varieties, their description, cultivation features, advantages and disadvantages, to understand the peculiarities of cultivation.
There are so many varieties that it is difficult to choose the right one.
All varieties of grapes differ in terms of ripening. If you consider that the buds blossom in the Moscow region in early May, they can be divided into several groups:
- Super-early, it takes 80-90 days before the harvest is preserved, it can be fixed at the beginning of August.
- Early 120 days, the harvest is harvested in early September;
- Berries ripen in late September with an average count of-1220-130 days;
- Medium-14-140 days, ripening in early October;
- Late – from 150 days.
It is immediately clear that the last two groups do not have time to outgrow in the middle belt. It is best to choose super-early and early varieties. If you use a greenhouse, you will get a crop of grapes with medium nutrition. In addition to ripening time, you need to consider other features and classification of varieties.
Technical or table.
First of all, the gardener must decide which grapes to grow – technical or table grapes. It seems that the table grape is better, because it gives tasty large berries, which easily tolerate storage and transportation. You get beautiful bunches of ideal shape. But there are also disadvantages: low yields and heat-loving. In the Moscow region, such varieties can be grown only in greenhouses or make serious efforts.
Technical grapes are more suited to this region. You may have an ugly brush, medium-sized berries. But such a plant is frost-resistant, unpretentious, requires almost no care. And the main advantage is that technical varieties give great yields even under adverse conditions. They are versatile, suitable for fresh consumption and for further processing. There are many well-known varieties of wine made from these grapes.
Technical varieties are often grown on garden plots, they are more unpretentious, and the taste of berries is not worse than table ones.
To cover or not to cover
Another question that an inexperienced gardener has before buying grapes is the choice of an uncovered or non-covered variety. This trait is not permanent for the plant. In southern conditions, all varieties are non-covering. But in the Moscow region, they have to be covered for the winter. For this reason, many gardeners refuse to grow grapes. You are frightened by the need to lay the vine every fall, cover it, and in the spring dig it up and tie it down.
Another disadvantage of covering grapes, which makes them impossible to pull in the middle belt, is that they are suitable for the continuation of frost. If it is well covered, it holds temperatures below minus 30˚. But in the Moscow suburbs frosts often alternate with thaws. In such conditions create favorable conditions for rotting and the development of fungal diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to choose uncovered frost-resistant varieties for this region.
Note: Such grapes also need to be covered for the winter in the first 2-3 years, until the bush gets stronger.
You should not buy seedlings at the market or from neighbors. There is no guarantee that you will be sold exactly the variety you need. It is better to go to a tree nursery or a specialized store. But first you need to decide which variety you want to buy. The advice of experienced breeders will help in this:
- Only hardy varieties of grapes that can withstand frosts of at least 25-30˚ are suitable for the Moscow region;
- It is better to choose technical varieties, they are quicker to root, more unpretentious and can harvest in adverse conditions;
- Grapes should be early, with a ripening period of up to 110-120 days;
- It is recommended to buy several varieties, in order to choose the most suitable on your own experience.
To be sure of the quality, you need to buy seedlings only in special nurseries.
The most suitable
The best grape varieties for the Moscow region should be early, unpretentious and frost-resistant. And it is very important that you get a good harvest of tasty berries. These requirements meet the 10 most popular varieties.
This is a table variety of early maturity. It withstands frosts up to 25˚, although it is better to cover the root part. The ripening time of berries is 110-118 days. This is a very productive grape, yielding up to 25 kg of berries. It has the following characteristics:
- The berries are large, amber in color, very pretty;
- Nearly half of its grapes have no cores;
- The grapes are large, sometimes up to 2 kg;
- Can be transported over long distances;
- Unpretentious, quickly takes root;
- Resistant to pests, but often develop fungal diseases.
One of the most frost-resistant varieties. It is a technical grape with dark berries of medium size, but in taste is not inferior. Cultivated in part-season, it ripens until September. It is popular for its properties:
- unpretentiousness, quickly recovers from damage;
- Withstands frosts up to 43˚;
- The berries are very tasty, sour-sweet;
- The bunches are large, give high yields;
- Resistant to diseases and pests.
Note: This grape grows quickly, can reach 10 m, so regular pruning is necessary.
This is a medium-growing table variety. Bred in the USA, it grows well in the middle belt and even in Primorye. It withstands temperature fluctuations and will bloom even in cold weather. This is a stronger growing grape, it grows quickly, reaching 9 m. The following characteristics have made it popular:
- Frost-resistant, withstanding temperatures down to minus 35º;
- Medium-sized, cylindrical, dense grapes;
- The berries are round, dark blue, sourish taste;
- The yield is high;
- The bush has a high decorative qualities, as the leaves are beautiful and large;
- Unpretentious in care;
- Resistant to most grape diseases.
Alpha is a frost-resistant yielding grape with large, dark berries
This variety belongs to the technical variety. It is grown mainly for wine production, as it has a specific musky smell. The berries are sweet, juicy, dark and large. The brush looks beautiful and stands up well to transportation. This variety has other features:
- Tolerates frosts up to minus 26 °;
- Ned early, the berries ripen in 110 days;
- Because of the thin skin grapes crack from moisture;
- Wasps often damaged by wasps, so the brush should be hidden in a spider web.
- Unpretentious, well acclimated, gives a harvest the second year after planting.
This is a universal frost-resistant variety. Usually used for making wine, but the berries can be consumed as food. Refers to early maturing, the crop ripens by the end of August. It can withstand frosts up to minus 45°. Characterized by the following features:
- Hardy, adapts to all weather conditions;
- Gives a big yield;
- The bush looks beautiful;
- Large dense brushes;
- The berries are round, small, almost black;
- The taste is unusual, with notes of strawberries.
Note ! Disadvantages of the variety include small berries with a large stone, susceptibility to diseases and the need for regular pruning.
An early technical grape variety. The bushes look very beautiful and are often used in landscape design. The berries, though small, are juicy and tasty. Used for the production of table wines, consumed fresh. Has the following features:
- It is a super-safe variety, ripening in 110 days;
- Berries can hang on the bush for a long time, well tolerate transportation;
- Not susceptible to over-wintering;
- Frost-resistant to 30º;
- Intolerant to rot and fungal diseases, so it is not afraid of moisture;
- Berries with dense skin are resistant to pests.
Crystal – unpretentious early bunches with juicy, tasty berries
Black grapes grown in the United States. It is a food variety of super full ripening period. In the middle belt, you can harvest in August. The berries are not susceptible to cracking and pests. The main advantage of this variety is its taste. The berries are juicy, sweet, with a pleasant muscat aroma. They are completely devoid of pips, so the name of the variety is incidental. This grape has other features as well:
- 3 year old easy to take root and actively fruiting;
- frost resistance up to minus 27°;
- The bush looks beautiful thanks to the bright glossy leaves and large cone-shaped eyes;
- Fruits are large, oblong, black with a white patina, stored well;
- Resistant to fungal diseases.
This is an early table variety. Productivity up to 16 kg per bush. The bunches are large, dense, berries weighing up to 10 g, light yellow, oval. This grape has the following features:
- It ripens as early as the beginning of August;
- unpretentious, resistant to various diseases;
- can withstand frosts up to 25˚;
- Berries are well tolerated in transportation and stored well;
- The taste is sweet, delicate.
A universal early variety. Ripening lasts 110 days. Withstands frosts up to 27 °. Popular due to its unpretentiousness and rich yields. Has the following properties:
- Grapes are large, dense, conical shape, well tolerates transportation;
- Berries of medium size, round, greenish;
- The taste is sweet with a slight acidity;
- resistant to many diseases.
Table variety of early maturity. Berries juicy, large, slightly sugary taste. The bushes are medium-sized, the weight of 1-2 kg bunches. These features of the variety allow to grow it in the Moscow region:
- ripening period of 110 days;
- frost-resistance to 25˚;
- berries are large, sweet, can hang on the bush for a long time, do not crack;
- Resistant to fungal diseases.
Lora – early maturing frost-resistant variety with large, tasty berries
Additional Information! If the selected variety is not suitable, does not match the yield or taste of berries, there is no need to throw it away. It can be used as a rootstock for grafting other grape varieties.
How to increase yields
Even the best early and unpretentious varieties can give a small yield, or the berries will not have time to ripen. There are a few tips from experienced winemakers to help speed up ripening and increase grape yields.
- The most important thing is to choose the right place for planting. The bushes located on the southern side of buildings or fences feel best. They are protected from draughts and well exposed to the sun.
- It is necessary to regularly feed the grapes. It is not recommended to apply mineral fertilizers after June, when the berries begin to form. But many gardeners make a solution of ash at this time.
- It is not necessary to overload the vine. It is recommended to leave 1-2 brushes on one shoot. Strong overloading leads to a deterioration in the quality of berries and can cause the plant to freeze in winter.
- It is necessary to prick the stalks, leaving two leaves each. Completely remove them is not recommended, as the next year new shoots will come from them.
- When the berries begin to ripen, you need to cut the leaves around the bunches so that they get more sun. At this point, stop watering as well.
Choosing the right variety, you can easily grow a large crop of sweet and juicy grapes in the Moscow region. You only need to understand their peculiarities, know the disadvantages and ways to overcome them.
Grapes for the Moscow suburbs: the best unmixed varieties
At the beginning of the 20th century, grapes were grown mainly in the southern regions of Russia, where summers are hot and winters are warm. Breeders have adapted modern varieties to the conditions of cold winters and moderately warm summers of the Moscow region.
In this region, grapes with a short and medium growing season are planted, which allows you to get ripe grapes and prepared for wintering vines. Thanks to our selection, you will get acquainted with the best varieties of grapes, which give a rich harvest of fragrant, tasty berries in the climate of Moscow and Moscow region.
The peculiarity is the best winter hardiness.
The American breeder R. Peterson bred them in 1967 by crossing two varieties: Fredonia and Reparia. He adapted the high-yielding variety Valiant for regions with temperate climates. The variety is suitable for growing in the Moscow region, making wine, juices, and eating fresh. The bush is powerful, tall and well branched. The developed crown is suitable for decorating summer arbors and verandas 2.5-3 meters in height.
Ripens in late August-September. If cared for, there is a stable yield – 10-12 kg of berries per bush. The grapes are cylindrical in shape, reach a length of 10 cm and are covered with dark blue, round berries 1-2 cm in diameter with a waxy coating.
The dense skin separates easily from the inside. The juicy, aromatic flesh is medium sweet and has a strawberry-like aftertaste. Inside has 2-3 large seeds. The sugar content is no more than 20%.
- Frost-resistant. Withstands winter temperatures up to 45 ° C.
- Good yield.
- Versatility of use.
- Non-thermosis in the care.
- Well propagated by cuttings.
- Sensitive to high humidity. In wet weather is affected by mildew and oidium.
A special feature is its high productivity.
The variety Blyashka of the Russian selection is adapted to the conditions of the northern regions of Russia. It was bred in 1956 by Academician P.E. Tsekhmistrenko and entered in the state register under the name of Aleshenka gift. Gertner also calls it Alyosha.
The bush is large, strong, branching well. The five-fingered glossy leaves have a rich green color. The bipartite flowers do not require additional pollinators. Ripens in the second half of August. First harvest in the 2nd year after planting. The average yield is 10-12 kg of berries per bush, the maximum is 25 kg. Large, loose cone-shaped brush weighs 0.5-1 kg.
The ripe yellow-green berries are oval in shape, 1-2.5 cm in diameter and covered with a waxy layer. Up to 40% of berries do not have a core. The skin is thick and edible. Sweet, juicy flesh contains up to 20% sugar.
- High yield.
- Non-thermosis in the care.
- Good transportability.
- Withstands winter temperatures up to 25 ° C.
- The underground part of the plant needs winter protection with agrovolok or spruce branches.
Feature – long storage.
The table variety without a medulla was released in 1998 by the American breeders James Moore and John Clark for cultivation in the northern regions of the USA. In Russia the grape became popular due to its frost resistance (up to 27°C) and long storage.
The bush of medium size branches well and begins to bear fruit 2-3 years after planting. Leaves are dark green, medium-sized, glossy, without pubescence. Flowers do not need additional pollination. By the end of August, 2-4 grapes develop a strong, powerful flavor. They are cone or cylinder shaped and of medium fragility. The weight of each bunch is 250-500 grams.
The large ovoid purple-blue berries are covered with a waxy layer. Each berry is 2-2.5 cm long and weighs 5-7 grams. They are covered with a thin, tough skin. Juicy, dense, sweet flesh has a flavor of nutmeg. The sugar content is 20-22%.
- Keeps for 3-4 months after picking and transports well without loss of integrity or flavor.
- Lack of seeds.
- Short ripening time.
- Frost resistance.
- For the winter needs to be protected with insulators.
- Overgrown berries fall off.
Characteristic – the highest grade.
It was obtained in the USA, Minnesota in the first half of the twentieth century. It was brought to us by sea in Odessa and then was popular all over the former USSR due to its simplicity and frost resistance. It belongs to the technically late varieties intended for vineyards. It is also eaten fresh.
Large, powerful bush tends to grow actively, so young stepchildren are shot 2-3 times a season. Grapes are used for landscaping arches and arbors. Large three-lobed leaves are light green. Bipartite flowers appear in June.
Fruits water in September-October. Medium-dense bunches are cylindrical in shape and weigh 150-250 grams. The bush yields 10-14 kg of berries per season. Dark blue round berries weigh 2-3 grams. They are covered with a dense thin skin with a waxy coating. The mucilage contains 2-3 pips. The taste is nutty and acidic. The sugar content – 15-18%.
- Active growth. The length of the shoot – up to 9 meters.
- Resistant to diseases and frosts up t o-30 °C.
- High yield.
- Requires stems.
- Without regular pruning the berries are shriveled.
Feature presentable appearance, juicy taste.
A versatile early maturing variety, obtained in the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev. Timiryazev Moscow Academy of Agriculture. Recommended for planting in the northern regions of Russia, Moscow region.
A sessile shrub with medium-sized, deeply dissected green leaves. The lower part of the leaf has a dense webbed down. After flowering, the bush produces dense cone-shaped bunches, each weighing 250-350 grams. Productivity is up to 5 kg of berries per bush.
The grapes ripen in August or early September. The yellow-green fruits have an oval shape. Weight of each berry is 2-3 grams. The white skin is slightly covered with a layer of wax. The flesh is juicy and sweet. The sugar content is 15-16%.
- The early maturity date.
- A good juicy grapes.
- Frost resistance to o o-25°C.
- Average resistance to diseases and pests.
Feature – resistance to disease.
Non-covering universal variety was bred by Soviet breeders by crossing the early Amursky and frost-resistant Zhemchug Sabo. The resulting early frost-resistant Moscow White for cultivation in the north of Russia.
Numerous shoots up to 2 meters long with large five-lobed, slightly tufted green leaves form a powerful bush. The bipennis flowers open in May and the crop ripens in August or September. The cone-shaped bunches weigh 250-350 grams. The yield of the bush is up to 6 kg per season.
Ripe green berries with a yellow tint have an oval shape and weigh 3-4 grams each. The skin is thick and edible. The flesh of one grape is juicy, sweet with a light acidity, and contains 2-3 seeds. The sugar content is 18%.
- Resistant to diseases (powdery mildew, Oidium, grey rot) and frosts up to 30 °C.
- High yield.
- Well stored and transported.
- Short ripening time.
- Infected with fungal diseases at high humidity and temperatures above +27 °C.
Feature – easily withstands transportation.
A mid-early table wine variety, received by Hungarian breeders by crossing Villar Blanc and Pearl Sabo. Suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region with winter temperatures up to 26 °C.
A tall shrub with reddish-brown stems and large, wavy leaves. Flowering occurs in May. The grapes mature in late summer and produce cone-shaped, medium-sized, loose bunches. The weight of the bunch is 400-500 grams. Productivity is up to 6 kg of berries per plant.
Ripe rounded grapes with amber color with tan and small brown spots on the skin. Berries are of medium size and weigh 5-6 grams. Due to the thin, tough skin, grapes are easy to transport. The juicy flesh has a sweet and nutty flavor. The sugar content is up to 22%.
- Good transportability.
- High yield.
- Resistant to damage Mildeu, Phylloxera, Graufel.
- Affected by Oidium.
Feature – very sweet berries.
The result of joint work of Russian and Bulgarian breeders. Universal yielding variety has excellent taste, frost resistance and good immunity. Recommended to cover for the winter.
The medium-long, compact shrub has red-brown, vigorous shoots with sparse, small, light green leaves. Flowering occurs between May and June, while Wraith blooms between August and September.
The bunch of grapes has a cone shape. Its grapes are rounded and do not stick together easily. Weight of the bunch 300-400 grams, 1 berry 4-5 grams. Grapes of medium size, light yellow, slightly whitish, with tan on the sides. The taste is pleasant, with a musky aroma. The sugar content is 19-21%. Because of its high sugar content, Druzhba is one of the sweetest varieties for consumption in fresh and processed form (juices, compotes, wine).
- Sweet Muscat.
- Resistant to temperatures up to 23 degrees Celsius.
- High yield.
- Ripening early.
- Affects gray rot and Miller.
Funk is an early maturing variety.
Hungarian breeders bred an early white table grape variety in 1925. The bush is affected by frosts, so it is covered with spruce and synthetic insulation for the winter. In spring the bush is opened with the introduction of a stable plus temperature. To obtain an early harvest in Moscow conditions, it is grown in greenhouses.
The medium-growing bush is characterized by an abundance of lateral shoots and leaves. Early enters the growing season. To obtain a good harvest, the bush is compacted 1-2 times per season. Leaves are dark green, small. After flowering on shoots form large conical loose bunches weighing 400-800 grams. Productivity of 1 bush-6-10 kg of grapes per season.
The round golden berry weighs 6-10 grams. The skin is thick with a waxy coating. The flesh is nice, juicy, crisp, with an aroma of Muscat. Each grape contains 1-2 small seeds. The sugar content is up to 18%.
- The early maturity date.
- Large bunch, nutmeg flavored Muscat.
- High yield.
- Weak immunity to scab, bacterial cancer, oidium.
- Poorly tolerates transportation.
- Damaged by frost.
Function is the best taste.
An early table variety in California was preserved by crossing Alphonse Lavallee and Ahmar Bomar. It was introduced to Russia in 1958. Hitzeflower variety is not resistant to frost, so it is bred in the conditions of the Moscow suburbs in greenhouses.
The strong tall bush reaches a height of up to 3 meters. The shoots are closely spaced with large light green leaves without pubescence. The rabanon bunches are cylindrical in shape. One bunch is up to 30 cm long and weighs up to 600 grams. The yield of the bush is 20 to 25 kg per season.
The large red-purple berry is covered with grooves and waxy coating. Underneath the tough skin is a greenish-juicy flesh and 3-4 pips. The weight of a grape is 5-7 grams. The taste is sweet with light acidity and an aroma of nutmeg. Its sugar content is 16-18%.