Backhoe-loader: history, classification, properties
Backhoe-loader (EP) is a universal combined machine, which is equipped with backhoe and bucket loading devices. EA can perform excavation (ditching, leveling) and loading/unloading works, clean territories from snow, garbage, different contaminations, etc. Backhoe loaders are used in the construction, housing and utilities sector, mining and other areas where there is a need for compact, maneuverable and productive machines.
History of backhoe loaders
For the first time the idea of installing two implements on the machine was suggested by Joseph Cyril Bamford, the founder of the British company JCB. The first machine under the name JCB Mk. I rolled off the assembly line in 1954. This type of equipment quickly gained popularity, the production of the EP was established by many European and American companies, similar machines were produced in our country. Today EP is one of the most common types of devices in procurement companies and on construction sites.
The general structure of the backhoe-loader
In general, the EP consists of three components:
A chamfered backhoe – mounted on the back of the base;
Curved front corolla – mounted in front of the base.
Series tractors, specially designed chassis or mini loaders can be used as the base. They can have a rigid or articulated frame, necessarily equipped with hydraulic devices and the system of working equipment (lever or joystick).
Excavator equipment is a single core with the possibility of changing the working body (griefer, hydrohammer and others). The loading device is single-axis, a standard bucket, bucket with teeth, jaw shovel, moldboard, forks, catcher, gripper and others can be installed as a working body. The equipment drive is hydraulic.
Backhoe loaders classification
Backhoe loaders are divided into two groups depending on the type of chassis:
They are also divided by carrying capacity:
Medium – from 2 to 4 tons;
Heavy – from 4 to 10 tons;
Heavy – more than 10 tons.
The most common are light and medium EP. Heavy loaders are used in construction and on large sites, which are used in the construction and mining industries.
Properties of backhoe loaders
The main characteristics of EPs include:
Engine power typically ranges from 70 to 100 hp. С;
Operating weight – not more than 12 tons;
Backhoe volume – not more than 0.5 cubic meters;
Loading shovel volume – up to 1.0 – 1.3 cubic meters;;
Loading capacity – specified above;
Height of loading – no more than 4 – 5 m;
Depth of thickets usually not more than 2 – 3 m.
The smallest and the largest FPS can have other properties. However, the parameters of most machines are within the specified limits.
The main manufacturers of backhoe loaders
In Russia, backhoe loaders are produced by Tver Tractor Plant (American Terex), Lipetsk Tractor Plant and Kovrov Electromechanical Plant (anti-2321 series based on John Deere tractors). Several EP models are produced by the Belarusian plants MTZ, AMKODORS, BZGT and others. Of foreign brands JCB (series 3CX, 4CX, 5CX), Caterpillar (F2), Terex, Case, Hidromek, Komatsu, Volvo, Bell, Fiori and others, as well as the Chinese ex-leaders XCMG, SDLG and SDLG and others are most common. Other.
Interesting facts about backhoe loaders
The best EP in the world is the JCB 3CX. True, this machine was developed in the 1980s, but since then it has been one of the most popular due to its design features and constant modifications. Since 1980, more than 150,000 JCB 3CX units of all generations and modifications have been created.
Backhoe loader: characteristics, classification, scope of application
Excavator-loaders, which exist in a variety of modifications, are used to perform extensive landscape work. Modern multifunctional models of backhoe-loaders are versatile in their work.
They can carry soil, dig trenches, transport construction materials, clean up the territory and perform landscaping. Each backhoe-loader model has its own skills. Different features are considered when choosing a model.
Backhoe Loader Classification
There are different classifications of backhoe loaders, based on certain features of the equipment:
- By carrying capacity distinguish excavators of light (up to 2 tons), medium (up to 4 tons), heavier (up to 10 tons) class and heavy modifications (more than 10 tons);
- By the type of chassis technique is divided into models with wheels and crawlers.
- By the volume of the working bodies, multi-bucket and single-bucket models are distinguished.
- Depending on the place of unloading, machines with front, rear and side loading can be distinguished.
- By frame type, machines with a standard frame, rigid frame and modifications of the mini loaders are distinguished.
When choosing a model to work at a particular site, consider the working conditions, materials, site size, scope of work and their composition.
Properties of backhoe-loaders
Backhoe-loaders functionally combine two devices: they can dig the bottom and take away vehicles, unload and load materials. Various types of attachments and a backhoe can be located at the front of the equipment.
The process of controlling the machine is quite simple: most models are equipped with servo drives, which minimize the efforts of the operators. In excavator mode, the equipment excavates, lifts, transports and unloads the soil. In loader mode the equipment backs up, lifts, transports and unloads soil while moving forward.
Applications for backhoe loaders
The need to use backhoe-loader occurs at every construction site. The technology is notable for its maneuverability, small size, high productivity and versatility. The most widespread technique of this class is:
- on construction sites with narrow access roads;
- at sites of residential and municipal sector (cleaning of territories, repair works on heating radiators);
- in personal business and in landscaping of flower beds, gardens, lawns.
By using modern attachment options, you can expand the scope of application of the equipment, increase the efficiency of the work performed, increase labor productivity and at the same time reduce costs.
Most construction equipment manufacturers produce backhoe loaders based on classic bicycle tractors. Domestic samples are lower than European, but they retain all the disadvantages of wheeled tractors.
As for the appropriateness of the cost of regular performance of simple construction tasks, it is recommended to use the services of backhoe-loaders for rent. Rental price of companies offering these services is low and includes fuel and lubricants, work of operator-engineer-shooter (optional). It is reasonable to buy backhoe-loader only if there is an opportunity to constantly provide and fix it properly during downtime.
|Trench Depth||5.46 m.|
|Bucket capacity||1.0 m 3|
|Rental price||11000 p.|
|Trench Depth||4.87 m.|
|Bucket capacity||1.03 m 3|
|Rental price (7+1)||11000 p.|
|Trench Depth||5.35 m.|
|Bucket capacity||1.0 m 3|
|Rental price (7+1)||11000 p.|
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