How to protect your orchard from diseases in the fall
Autumn is the time to protect the garden from diseases and prepare for winter. A healthy garden is the kind of garden whose owner knows how to defeat diseases.
General rules for treatment.
The best days for autumn treatment of the garden are days with air temperatures from 0 ° C to 5 ° C, if all the plants are already “asleep” and preparing for winter. This can be the second half of October to early November in different regions, but sometimes the cold weather is delayed.
Important: At sub-zero temperatures, you should not treat the garden.
Collecting and destroying plant debris
- On all crops, diseased and weak branches are cut out and burned. It is especially important to cut out to live tissue the branches affected by pest tribes (glasswort, currant gallica, creeper, goatweed).
- Raspberry tribes are removed to ground level.
- Cut off the ends of branches damaged by rot, and burn (it is especially important to do this on ants, plum, cherry).
- Hare leaves (dry twisted leaves with a thin network of seeds and seeds in the crown) are collected and destroyed, especially on hawthorn and bird cherry.
- Destroy (burn or dig up) leaves under bushes. Healthy leaves can be left in place.
Protection against rodents should be carried out all summer. Beginning in late October, a whitewashing with repellent begins. Before the installation of snow cover, bags of poison are placed under the crowns of trees and shrubs (1-2 bags of 30-50 g under the crown; you can coat them with vegetable oil to bait rodents). All mechanical obstacles (snow stops, which are wrapped with strong materials) also help against rodents.
Iron and copper sulfate.
If there are clear signs of broom beetles, mold, aphids and other dangerous diseases, the sick garden is treated with a five percent solution of iron vitriol or a three percent solution of copper vitriol. These are very effective means, so they are not used often: once every 2-3 years. At the same time, they are not used, but alternate years.
Important! Sulfate is treated only those plants (cherry, plum, sycamore, grapes), which are affected by particularly dangerous diseases.
Urea and ammonitrate.
These substances combine fungicides and weak insecticidal action. Ammonia (urea) kills fungi and bacteria. The preparations can be used for prevention and treatment.
For preventive treatment of a “clean”, relatively healthy garden, spray raspberries, sybuk, cherries, currants and all trees with a 5-7% solution. This should be started after a full leaf has fallen on the crop.
Important: For strawberries and evergreens, the solution should not be taken.
A concentrated solution of 7-8% is required to treat a diseased garden, and 8-10% can be taken after a full leaf fall.
Important: Make sure that the shoot growth of the plants you meet has stopped and an apical bud has formed. Otherwise, the unexpected parts will get chemical burn.
Bordeaux liquid is a solution of copper sulfate in milk of lime. Like copper sulfate, it is used to control pathogenic fungi. It also has insecticidal action and is active against some other pests. A 3% solution of the drug is usually used to treat a dormant fall garden, which must be diluted and used strictly according to the instructions.
The most common diseases of an orchard
Moniliosis (fruit rot, moniliary blight)
One of the most dangerous fungal diseases.
- Apple trees;
- Rarely, pear.
- Leaves are covered and blackened with spots, can fall off only in the middle of winter; Bark tears and remains; Chewing gum is observed;
- Small light brown spots with concentric circles appear on the fruit;
- Fruits turn black and mummify;
- Preparations containing copper: Bordeaux liquid, Abiga-Pic, Topaz, Profit Gold;
- Destruction of plant residues.
This fungal disease affects the leaves and fruits of apple trees. In wet weather, the disease spreads quickly through the tree. Infestation of apple trees occurs throughout the summer. The overwintering fungus, perithecia, persists on fallen leaves. Since it is difficult to fight scab, it is better to plant varieties that are resistant to scab.
- In May, light oily spots appear on the leaves, clearly visible when looking at the plate.
- Later, a velvety plaque appears on its surface, which consists of a large number of summer fungal spores – conidia;
- The tissue in the affected areas turns black and dies off;
- Leaves in summer turn yellow and fall off because of the large amount of toxins released by the fungus.
- The same spots form on fruit eggs, resulting in deformed fruit with tasty areas that often crack.
- Spraying with copper chloroxide;
- 1% Bordeaux liquid.
- If infestation percentage is low, treatment with 5% urea solution on trees and regular circles before leaf cover;
- Early incorporation of leaves into the ground.
Disease quickly spreads to individual branches from a shoot and then the entire plant may die.
- Stone and seed trees;
- Ornamental shrubs.
- Sudden turning black and desiccation of shoot tips;
- Leaves turn black, curl into tubes and hang from the tree;
- Petals turn brown and wither prematurely.
- Points of dark vessels are visible on the shoot;
When the first affected plants appear, the focus of infection must be removed immediately so as not to cause disease in neighboring trees. Chemical protection against bacterial blight is ineffective.
The fungus affects the discs, leaves, buds and fruits.
- The stone fruit plants are peach;
- Bright red-brown spots form on leaf surface in late May-early June, first pitting, then larger 1-3 mm in diameter, rounded, rounded, with light-colored center;
- Affected tissues are quickly destroyed by healthy ones;
- Rounded holes form on the leaves, for this reason clusterosporiosis is sometimes called perforated spots, back pain.
- Pruning affected areas;
- Treating areas with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate;
- Isolation of areas with a stand in the garden;
- Fall treatment with 3% Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate.
Aphid colonies suck sap from the underside of leaves, causing them to become spiral or transverse, turn black and wither. The pests lay almost no eggs in the dry autumn and die en masse in the spring from frost and cold rains.
The most important aphid species that harm orchards are:
- green apple aphid;
- raspberry; raspberry;
- All fruit trees.
- Leaves curl;
- Discs are deformed;
- Black colonies are visible to the naked eye.
- With small numbers, aphids are successfully handled by predators: ladybugs, lacewings larvae, and parasitic ichneumonflies;
- Spraying with Aktara, Koragen, Decis Profi, Aktofit, Fufanon, Fitoverm (at temperatures above 14°C) is effective;
- You can also sprinkle ash on the plants.
Kirsch – slimy leaf wasp.
Characteristic, as if burnt appearance of leaves indicates massive infestation of the tree by the pest. Caterpillars hibernate in the ground at a depth of 10-15 cm, while larvae penetrate into the ground at the end of July or beginning of August.
- Apple Tree Moth;
- Apple trees;
- Small insect up to 4-5 mm long, wingspan 7-9 mm;
- Larvae are covered with black mucus and look like small leeches;
- Larvae gnaw out leaf pulp in small islets when young;
- In older age, skeletonize the entire leaf lamina, leaving the venous network and subcutaneous tissue intact.
- In autumn – thorough digging of the floor in a nearby regular circle to a depth of about 10-15 cm (the depth of pest hibernation);
- Combined biological method – double release of Trichograma: first at the beginning of egg laying (second half of July), second a week later.
Damage buds and leaves in spring and early summer. In years of mass reproduction they eat away the leaf surface of eberosk, bird cherry, and hawthorn, after which the butterflies fly to gardens in droves and lay eggs (second half of June-July).
- Apple trees;
- Apple Tree Moth;
- Pest beetle up to 4.5 cm long, gray, with two golden yellow and three black back stripes.
- Collect and burn a small number of hawthorn beetle nests;
- In dry weather, spraying with a 0.5% suspension of Entobacterin is effective.
It will not be superfluous to remind that timely diagnosis allows you to prevent the development of diseases in time, save the garden and get a good harvest. If you lack your own qualifications and experience, it is better to contact specialists, who for a modest fee will inspect your garden and offer measures to prevent and treat diseases. If you miss an auspicious moment and diseases spread beyond your plot and to your neighbors, you may have additional problems and expenses. It is the owner’s responsibility to monitor the health of their garden.
The last treatment of the garden this year: gardeners told when and how to spray fruit trees
The last treatment of fruit crops in the garden occurs in autumn, and it can be called mandatory. Some will argue that the spring treatment is much more useful, but where is the guarantee that healthy fruit trees will not fall ill at this time?
In order to be able to enjoy fruits and berries again next year, it is necessary to properly treat trees and the floor under them against diseases and pests.
As the seasons change, some plants in our gardens are more susceptible to health problems than we are. Proper treatment of fruit trees and ornamental shrubs greatly increases their resistance to various diseases and pests.
Why should you spray your garden in the fall?
Fungi and bacteria in the air increase when temperatures drop in the fall, and they often infect our leafy plants by penetrating the little scars left by the leaves.
When spraying the entire garden, pay attention to fruit trees, ornamental shrubs and roses.
All stone fruit trees should be treated especially carefully because they are weakened after the growing season and fruiting and are more susceptible to various bacterial diseases.
Pests and diseases infest all cuts or scars of fallen leaves, get into the stems of the plants and cause serious damage and diseases such as bark cancer and others.
If it is necessary to spray fruit trees and shrubs in the fall
There are no clear conditions for this procedure. It all depends on the region you are in, on the climatic conditions of your region.
In northern latitudes, fall spraying of the garden is carried out earlier than in the southern regions. One of the conditions for choosing the right time for the last spraying of the garden with preparations is the end of the sap movement in the trunk and the shedding of all leaves.
As a rule, this period is at the end of November, sometimes even in early December.
What preparations to make for a fall garden inspection before pests and diseases
Garden centers now offer many different products for treating fruit, ornamental garden crops in the fall before diseases and pests.
Many of them are not always effective, as manufacturers claim. We will describe those preparations, which experienced gardeners have been using for a long time and which have repeatedly proved their effectiveness.
Using iron sulfate for spraying fruit trees
One of the most important means for the treatment of fruit and ornamental plants in the garden or in the country house is iron sulfate.
This product is a great tool in the fight against bark diseases on trees. It kills slash in winter, fights bark cancer and kills insects on the trunk.
Autumn spraying of fruit trees with iron vitriol is done after the leaves have fallen, when all the leaves have fallen.
The dosage of iron(II) sulfate is calculated based on the health of your trees and shrubs:
- In a healthy garden, for prevention, the concentration of iron sulfate should be 200-300 grams per 10 liters of water.
- In a diseased garden, the dosage should be increased – up to 500 grams per 10 liters of water.
Autumn garden treatment with urea
The second necessary preparation for the last autumn spraying is urea or urea.
A weak solution of urea acts as an ordinary nitrogen fertilizer. For fall orchard destruction from diseases and pests, the urea solution should be more concentrated.
For the treatment of fruit trees in the orchard, doses of urea drug are calculated in the following ratio:
- If there are no obvious diseases of orchard crops in a clean garden, then 200-300 g per 10 liters of water is enough for autumn preventive spraying.
- In the so-called “diseased” garden, after the penetration of aphids, scab and powdery mildew disease, the concentration of the solution should be increased from 500 to 700 grams per 10 liters of water.
This solution of urea acts as a powerful fungicide and insecticide. This preparation “burns” disease spores on trunks and fallen leaves, kills insect larvae and the pests themselves, hiding in the bark for the winter.